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Full text of "C. Hart Merriam papers relating to work with California Indians, 1850-1974. (bulk 1898-1938)"

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The Indians in San Diego county 
are having some trouble about water ' 
that is claimed by them and which 
they say is being taken by the white 
men. The agent is investigating the 
matter. Apropos of the affair, Daniel 
Sexton, the old pioneer, lias sent the 
following letter to the Times : 

Colton, May 12, 1888. 
Editor Times— Dear Sir; Com- 
modore Stockton of the United States 
•'N^vy sent me, Daniel Sexton, to say 
>*"tbe Indians of San Diego county 
to remain at their homes and they 
should be protected in their rights. 
Hence they would not take up arms 
against the Americans. But the In- 
dian^ of San Berhardino county did 
take up arms and about a thousand 
of them with 200 Mexicans went to 
punish the S;>.ii Diego Indians for not 
falhng into the raiiks against the 
common invader. They had a battle 
and I saw il jiiid saw an old servant 
of mine kill ^evdi Indians with a war 
club that T made myself and if I had 
been woil mounled I would have 
charged down among them, but I was 
on foot. 

That night I went into their war 
camp and that made a change in 
things, for I held council with the old 
chief that gave my children the tin 
mmes and he changed things a little. 
The courts at Washington can rob me, 
but in the name of God I liope they 
will quit robbing the poor Indians. 

I remain yours, with respect, 

Daniel Sexton, j^ 



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San Diego Couut:^ to Oast 

500 Indian Vote 
This Fail. 



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Receut Deoisiojis by the United States 

Attorney General and tlie Genaml 

Land Office All go to Show That 

tlie Mission Indians arc 

Citizonji of tLa United 



M^/ 



States. 




Frank D. Lewis, an attorney-at-law, 
representing legal defence committee for 
Mission Indians, Lake Mohonk confer- 
ence, with headquarters at Pomona, 
visited Elsinore recently. Mr. Lewis is 
an enthusiast on the Indian question and 
is evidently the right man in the right 
place. 

In the course of a most pleasant and 
interesting interview Mr. Lewis famished 
3 a News representative with some decid- 
5 edly novel and stiirthng inf<3rraation con- 
. cerning the rights to citizenship of the 
, Mission and Pueblo tril>es. 
I Tliis question had its origin in the fol- 
, lowing incident: One Fedez Calac, a 
Mission Indian, of Pala, had been living 
on a section of a school land belonging 
to the KState, understanding that a white 
man intended purchasing it he was ad- 
vised to apply to purchase under the 
State law regarding the purchase of State 
land, which requh-es that the purchaser 
shall be a citizen of the United States, 
; and if the lands are suitable for cultiva- 
tion, that the purchaser shall reside upon 
the land applied for (see Section 3496 
Political Code of California.) The sur- 
veyor general refused his application on 
the ground that he was an Indian and 
not a citizen. Calac filed with the attor- 
ney general his protest against this refu- 
sal of the surveyor general who instructed 
the latter to allow his application. Other 
complicationb arose and the case was 
cai nod into court, which was decided in 
favor of the Indian—that he is a citizen 
and as such he has a right to purchase 
school land. 



Later on two Indians by the names of 
James Castello and Victor .M. Charey, 
I in the San Jacinto reservation were de- 
sirous of taking up their land in several. 
j ty, but as they were living on the reserv- 
i ation this was impossible. They applied 
to the Secretary of the Interior to restore 
the same to the public domain so as it 
icould be enterered under the homestead 
I aw. The application was rejected on 
I the ground of citizenship. The case 
j was appealed to the general land office 
and it was decided that the opinion ex-' 
pressed in report of April 14, '87 '^That 
the Mission Indians of California! as well 
as the Pueblos of New Mexico are, and - 
have been since the acquisition from 
Mexico of the territory upon which they 
are now locacted, citheas of the United ' 
Staks under the treaty of Guadalupe 
Hidaigo(9stat., 922). 

"Now- said Mr. Lewis, -If, as these 
decisions would seem to infer, these In-' 
dians especially referred to are citizens 
of the United^tates ontitlecl to ail the 
privileges and immunities' accruing there- 
from, why are they not entitled to a vote ?- 
Continuing, Mr. Lewis stated that there 
some twenty.five hundred in this county ' 
I five hundred of which are legal voters, 
oasod on these decisions. 

If this be true they will piny no small 
part in the coming presidential campaign 
Ihe respective pariies will doubtless see 
that they vote if they are entitled to it. 
Should It be found that they are legal vo- 
ters these ^,w, abused, down- trodden 
wretches will for . >/, time in ihe his- 
tory of the -paleface oa this continent 
receive anything like the attention and 
consideration that by virtue of heritage 

they have always merited.^Ehinore 
News, 



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!^^ An Inhaman Act. 

Yesterday as the dumb Indian woman 
well-known to many San Diegans, was 
going to her daily work as servant in a 
residence on Ninth street, a vicious boy, 
wishing tb tease her, threw a stone which 
struck her arm with such force that it 
broke the bone. She was taken into the 
Winona House, medical aid was sum- 
moned, and the injured member band- 
aged. The Doctor pronounced the frac- 
ture an ugly one and said that she would 
have to go to the county hospital for some 
! weeks. This information caused the poor 



creature much distress, and she asked in 

P^L f ?^''''^^, ''t,^^^ '^^^^^ "W^o will take 
^11 \ ^^ babies?" For.it seems that 

!n^^^ /i^""^ ^°^ s^ eccentric in her 
mode of dress as to make her an object 
of ridicule to the thoughtless, she has a 

Wh"* i^l*^^ ^^^^ °^*^^y ^^ ^ose who 
oK^^?:^ ^®^' ^^^ ^^r humble home is 
shared by two little Indian orphans whom 
she supports from her scanty earnings, 
and keeps neatly clothed by sitting 5 p 
late nights to make their clothes. Veril>?^ 

«nil ?/\^ P.?^"" ^^® ^"«^ ^o to learn lea- 
LpI TttI ?^^'^^- ^ gentleman has author- 
ized The Lnion to offer $25 reward for 
the arrest and conviction of the ner- 
Tietrator of this dastardly act. » 

HE PLEAD GUIJLTY 

Ana was «e.te.-^ ^,,,^ ^^ 

80D this mornii^ inrf ^^'""^ ^""^^^ ^^• 
forty days iD iaif ' T? ^"^ sentenced to 

ne8swa8^an Indian womn'""Pl"*'''''S ^i'- 
him with hav°nrthro^^ „' ^^"^ *'*""-««d 



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A VENSKABLE SQUAWS WEAKKBSB. 



She is Allowed the Freedom of the Jail Yard 
in SerTinc; her Sentenoe. /§<^^ 

A venerable squaw, wearing a small 
flag for a head cloth, has been sunning 
herself in the county jail yard since July 
1st. Pio Pico, her buck,* is confined 
within the jail, but Juana Surro, as she 
is entered on the records, spends her 
nights in the iron cage in the yard. This 
cage was formerly the city jail and stood 
at Fourth and G for the accommodation 
of drunks, as high as eight at a time hav- 
ing been locked in it at once. It now does 
duty for women, for ''crazies'* and for 
separating the men. 

Juana and Pio have a rancheria in 
• the Julian mountains, and earn 
a subiistence by gathering Oregon 
root, which is required in the 
manufacture of certain medicine, 
and selling it at Julian. It is their prac- 
tice to celebrate on those trips to town, 
but on this last one they were arrested 
for disturbing the peace and given twenty 
days each. The squaw speaks but a few 
words of Enfi;liBh, and in reply to the 
question if she had any children, spid : 
**No papooses.'* Jailor Tom Merrill had 
her play the part of the Goddess of Lib- 
erty on the Fourth, by getting up from 
the corner of the lot, where she sits all 
day, and having the flag twisted around 
the short, gray hair of her head. 
She has a powerful frame and is tall and 
erect. Her feet are bare. 8he wearsa 
skirt and sack of black and white striped 

calico, a dirty, black and white spotted 
apron, and a plaid shawl of red, green 
and white. Her only diversion is the 
rolling and making of cigarettes, as the 
good-natured jailor keeps her supplied 
with tobacco. 



/ri'f. 



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FUN IK JULIIK 




^wboy and an Indifcnaat llndfan— 
Telephone to Heaven. ^^^^^^^ ^ . 

They have fun up in JuliadP^w^ two 

weeks past a cowboy has had a written 

notice posted in a saloon inviting another 

cowboy, who had taken the first one's girl 

to a dance, to show up and be licked. 

But the Indians furnish the most 
amusement. When a telephone line was 
run from the valley to one of the mmes 
the redskins were beside themselves 
with curiosity. One of them was 
told that the line ran to 
the kingdom of heaven. He 
came to Julian to investigate, and the 
boys at the other instrument were in- 
structed what to say. When the Indian 
got the receiver over his ear he heard a 
sepulcheral voice saying, "Jose, Jose, 
you stole a horse from Tom Stratton last 
month." Smash went the Indian's fist 
against the 'phone and as he strode out 
with an ugly look in his eye he was heard 
to mutter: **Kingdom o/ Heaven tell 
d-d lies i"^y^ j^^tc^a^ I 



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4hV 







THBIFTY INDIANS. 



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hey Drlye Cattle on Their Reservation 
and Tlien Demand a Toll, 

This morning Deputy District Attorney \ 
Lawrence Middlecoff will proceed to 
Mesa Grande, near Warner's ranch. For 
some time past complaints have been 
'made that the Mission Indians, who have 
a reservation there, have been guilty of 
various acts which are not only very an- 
noying to the,*ranchers in that vicinity but ^ 
also unlawful. It is alleged that they ^ 
will go out into a herd and pick out 
several cattle and then drive them on the 
reservation. 

As soon as they are missed by their 
owners a search is instituted, and, as a 
matter of course, the cattle are found on 
the reservation. The Indians then de- 
mand a toll for having kept them, and 
refuse to give them \.y until the toll is 
paid. 

These Mission Indians are old inhab- 
itants, being relics of the olden time of 
Mexican rule. They are now wards of 
the .Nation. They are always peaceable, 
and no lawless acts on their part have 
ever before been reported. Most of 
them are engaged in farming on their 
own account, and quite a number are em- 
ployed by ranchers in the vicinity of the 
reservation. 

^ Mr. Middlecoff will make an investiga- 
tion of the full facts in relation to the 
case, and if necessary some prosecutions 
will be commenced to put an end to these 
misdeeds* 






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1 Bpecial Dispatches to tho Chronicle. 
f MUROUli WILI. OUT. 

Indians tn a State of Terror lo 6«n 
DIegro County. 

San Diego, Septomber 27.— About 
two years ago an Indian named Juan 
I^ablo, well known around Julian, in 
the eastern part of this countv, mys^ 
teriously disappeared, and uiitif two or 
three days ago no one knew what had 
become of him. An officer went to 
^anta Isabel on Tuesday to arrest an 

toitted at Julian, and the arrested man 
•ras so terrihed that ho voluntecreil the 
nat^nient that if he were allowed to 
denart he would tell x^mt became of 

wSir'"^*'''^!^^^ *'*'*"'«"»« could be 
In ?K ,^^® conducted the otlicors to 

BkU^n'SoZr ^ '''^' ^^-« '"^^ 1 
-pm}^^ ""liiost it was dcveJopcd that \ 
knoln*^ f,'"H \^ "■'O't'er' India,. ' 
Known as Big John, who aftorwaid 

«/rf-^''^''*'^>; i" "'« shaft whe7e it 
TinoH^*'"^^- ^*« Joli" was himself 
killed a Short time afterward by some 

^as 1.Jl«'/'^u'""'** ""T '" W«»'^«. but it 
was never known by the whites for 
What cause untU the fnqueat on Tues- 

». -"f ?t ^^^ peculiar features of the 
case w the fact that another Indian 
who was called as a witness at the in- 

wa«' rnn,„Vi^*'?' ''* rcoovered one side 
iead ?o hfs Ib'e't!' '"''^'''■"' ''""^ »"' 



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A QUEER sort o€ revolution in labor 
circles is reported from Sonthern Califor- 
nia. In times past great dependence bas 
been placed during the fruit-drying season 
upon the help of the Indians. Whole 
famUles, including parents and children, 
have been accustomed to aid in preparing 
the fruit lor drying. This season the 
growers in one of the prominent fruit 
centers determined to employ none but 
"white help, but the apricots ripened so 
rapidly that they could not be handled, 
and the Indians^ who had asked for work 
and been refused, were applied to for as- 
sistance. They were backward in com- 
^plying, and better wages were tendered. 
Even this did not satisfy them, and now 
they have refused point blank to go to 
worK. In other words they have boy- 
cotted the white employers and seem to 
enjoy the situation thoroughly. 



About fifteen miles from Agua Cali- 
ente, over the Warner ranch, up a long, 
steep mountain grade into the Cuya- 
maca range, is the home of 160 Dio Ganio 
Indians. Their reservation embraces 
chiefly pastoral lands, although there 
Is a sufficient area adapted to cultiva- 
tion for the production of all needed 
cereals and vegetables. Twenty-acre 
allotments have been made to several 
families, who have built adobe houses' 
aiid manifested so much interest in in- 
dividual ownership that an Indian, ab- 
sisted by his wife, was seen working in 
the pouring rain, fencing their posses-l 
sions. Nearly the full enrollment of' 
twenty-six children had come through 
a heavy storm which" then prevailed to 
the Government school. Their teacher, 
Miss Mary C. Watkins, was enthusias- 
tic in their praise, describing them as 
"gentle, good and industrious," and the 
most eager pupils to learn she had ever 
known. 

NEWTON H. CHITTENDEN. 






^n.'iU^ Chu^--^"'-*// 





IGHT VULTURES 
FOR THEIR FOOD 

Campo Indians Starving on tlie 
Desert While Waiting Pa- 
tiently for Governnnent Aid, 



WORK LAND WHERE 

LITTLE RAIN FALLS 



Driven by Hunger, They Have 
Subsisted Upon Acorns, Rats 
and Mice — Death Said to Be 
Near Unless Succor Comes. 



Sp€cial Dispatches to the "Ohroniclo." 

SAN DIEGO, November 16.— A piti- 
ful story of hunger and destitution 
and of patience and faith in the ulti- 
mate consideration of a kind govern- 
ment are brought from the eastern 
mountains of this county by men 
who have been investigating the con- 
dition of the Indians on the Govern- 
ment reservations near Campo. 

Indian Agent Charles E. Schell of 
Pala and Charles F. Lummis, the 
author and editor of Out West, have 
spent six days among the red men. 
The gist of what they found is har- 
rowing enough to send a shudder 
through the country. 

On the five reservations near Cam- 
po, on the edge of the desert, there 
are at the present time nearly 200 
Indians— not the dirty, vicious, un- 
tutored, begging creatures who Infest 
the transcontinental railroad stations, 
but hard-working, intelligent farming 
people, who cultivate every possible 
square Inch of the practically worth- 
less land reserved for them by the 
Nation. 

No rain has fallen to start the 
seed planted and there is no water 
at hand for irrigating. No large re- 
serve food supply is ever possible and 
the unfortunates are now subsisting 
chiefly upon acorns. 

"Unless relief comes," said Lummis, 
"all the Indians will be dead before 
New Year's Day. Such emaciation, 
such patient suffering among old and 
young alike, I have never seen before 
and never want to see again. These 
Indians loathe putrid flesh, yet such 
Is their extremity that when they see 
vultures devouring any animal that 
ha^ been killed, they scare the birds 
away and eke out their larder with 
the flesh. They also go out and catch 
rats and mice and oat them " 







,^.x-l,m 



FOR 
CAiVlPO INDIAN: 



eixhants and Others Appeal 
to tiie President to Send Re- 
let to the Starving Tribe. 



LO'S ANGELES. November 28.— A tele- 
gram Signed by forty-pix prominent men 
of Los Angeles, including bankers, law- 
yers, merchants, journalists and other 
officials, has been sent President Roose- 
velt, asking him to cause some action 
to be taken in behalf of the ?itarving 
Campo Indians in San Diego county. The 
telegram is as follows: 

"We know that the reports about fam- 
ine-stricken conditions of the Campo In- 
dians In San Diego county are welj 



founded. Humanity demands that 
mediate relief be given them. We urge 
and ask you to act in this matter." 

Charles F. Lummis, the ^ell-known 
author and authority on Indians, lec- 
tured last night before a large audience 
upon the conditions of the Campo In- 
dians, and made an appeal for $500 to 
relieve the immediate and pressing 
wahts of these people. The money was 
contributed at once. * 

SAN DIEGO. November 26— The des- 
titution of nearly all of the remaining 
Indians on the five reservations near 
Campo, in the southeastern part of this 
county. 18 well autnenticated. The In- 
dians have been starving and suffering 
greatly because of lack of clothing. Ef- 
forts have been made in this city for 
their relief, and food and clothing for 
their immediate necessities have been 
forwarded. 

rart of the money realized here will 
be spent in the purchase of grain for 
seed for next year's crops. Action by 
the Government Is needed to place the 
Indians beyond want in the future^ and 
the urgency of action is apparent from 
the reports of death and privation that 
have come to this city. 

The Oakland El 
is "noi 



>4tS-:^i'~ 



THE SAN DIEGO WEEKLY UNION: THURSDAY. SEPTEMSEH fS, 1607 



CHIEF'S DEATH MARKED 

BY LAST EAGLE DANCE 

Mesa Grande Indians Held Ifnpressi*Oe Ceremony 

DESClDANT 





♦ .t.,K— :TiJr 



Adolph Beresford, Half-Breed 

Is Elected to Position 
"" . . of Judge 



MOUNTED COWBOYS JOIN 
CITY PEOPLE AT DANCE 



Red Men Tramp on Live Cook 
Chanting Wierd Memor- 
ial to Leader 



"Nosome! Hoomow-no-some!" 

"It is finished, the tribe is finished/' 

These were the words of old Cinon 

Dura, the last chief of the Mesa 

Grande tribe of Indians, spoken just 
before he died one year ago. Those 
witnessing: the famous Eagle dance, 
which was performed for the last 
time in the history of the tribe on 
Monday night, well understand the 
import and pathos of the venerable 
chief's final words. 

This wierd dance is perhaps one of 
the most interesting remnants of the 
customs of an ancient people, a peo- 
|)le whose last flicker of existence lies 
within the breasts of some eight or 
ten old men and as many women; a 
handful of centenarians whose lives 
are in the past, and who embody the 
traditions marking the tribe as an in- 
dividual entity. There are, in fact, 
Lfeput_ orie hundred and fifty mem- 
bers of the Mesa Grande reserva- 
tion, but the younger people are 
about as alien to the real life of the 
tribe which was, as are the white 
ranchers and cattlemen with whom 
they associate. It has become al- 
most a matter of pride with them that 
they cannot speak the Indian dialect, 
their native tongue, and have no i 
knowledge of the traditions and leg- 
ends of their people. They speak 
the Spanish of the Mexican, and f 
Imitate the dress, the manners and ) 
the habits of the whites, as closely as 
possible, so that it is not loo much to 
say that the days of an ancient peo- 
ple are numbered, and its life breath 
is held in the enfeebled bodies of a 
handful of centenarians. 

Last Chief Dies and 
Title Becomes Extinct 

The loss which the tribe suffered 
in the death of their last hereditary 
chief, old Cinon Duro, or to use his 
Indian name, Mata Whur, *'hard 
rock," will be readily understood, as 
he was, apart from his dignity as 
bearer of the hereditary title, the 
custodian of the sacred legends which 
were handed down from chief to 
chief, and leader in the ceremonials 
and rites of the primeval religion. 
There being none to succeed him, at 
his death the title lapsed, and with 
him w^as also buried the wealth of 
the history of his people, apart from 
fragmentary records which had been 
gathered by a few enthusiastic 
ethnologists. Old Cinon was over a 
hundred years old, and had practical- 
ly outlived his own descendants, as 
he was a great, great grandfather, 
and in 18^0 had four sons. In this 
bit of family history is shown too 
' result of the white man's 

Influence, a condition even more 
vividly brought forth at the spectacle 
of the dances, when the gap betwen 
the group of wiry, athletic old danc- 
ers, 'each one over ninety years of 
age. and the lounging young fellows 
among the spectators, hardly any 
being above forty, is a silent »nd 
eloquent tribute to the effects of the 
process of civilization. 

The governinent of the tribe is now 
wholly political ,and consists of a 
••capitan" and a Judge, each office be- 
ing filled once a year by election. The 
two offices are sometimes merged in 
one. as is the case this year, Adolf 
Beresford, a half-breed of unusual 
intelligence, holding the office. As 
his name indicates, he is descended 
from the English family of Beres- 
fords. of whom Admiral Beresford is 
at present a conspicuous representa- 
tive. 

The tribe is composed of four clans, 
the Duro (hard). La Chappa (short). 
La Chusa (the owl), and Pena (cliff). 



Indian mind, is well expressed in its 
quaint wording, with Its swinging 
rhythm and endless repetitions. 

"At first" — in the beginning, all the 
world was covered with water, and 
the sky was very close to the earth. 
These two, the sky father, **Sing you 
how," and the earth mother were the 
two great gods of all things. And 
the earth mother said to the sky 
father, "Why do you take th- waters 
from my bosom?" And the sky fath- 
er said to the earth mother, *'I have 
it wfthln my thoughts to create man. 
and I must make him by the rhythmic 
beat of the waters against the rocks." 
And from the union of the earth 
mother and sky father, two sons were 
born; the eldest, *Pu-chi-pa," was the 
creator of all things on earth, and 
the second, *'Yo-co-ma-tis," was his 
helper. And the two brothers sat 
upon a tule patch, and the first broth- 
er said to the second: "little brother, 
what am I going to do?" and the sec- 
ond said, ♦•I do not know.**- W^nd the 
first said, "I am going to send the 
waters into the great deep." And he 
plucked a pipe from the tules, and 
smoking, wafted the smoke three 
times in the air, saying each time, 
"Ha-wa. ha-wa, ha-wa!" and the wa- 
ters went into the great deep. Then 
he said again: "Little brother, what 
are you going to do?" and the sec- 
ond said, "I do not know." And the 
first said, "You are going to send the 
sky to its place above." So he lifted 
the tobacco pipe three times in the 
air again, saying, "Ha-wa, ha-wa, ha- 
wa!" with great organ tones of In- 
cantation, and the sky went to its 
place above. 

So the legend goes on, "Pu-chl-pa" 
the "creator," making "the paths 
from east to west of all the stars," 
and the great "path from north to 
south, the back-bone of the sky," our 
milky way, which Is to be "the path- 
way of departing spirits." Then he 
announces that he Is going to make 
man; but first he will make trees, for 
men will need wood to warm them- 
selves, and grasses and seeds, for they 
will need food, and fountains of wa- 
ter, and lastly animals, which were 
also people. He l3 now ready to 
make man, and he takes clay from 
the fountain and forms a man» and 
sets him up to dry. There is then not 
enough clay left to make another, so 
he makes a woman. He then breathes 
tobacco smoke upon them, saying. 
"Sup-la," and they become living 
creatures. After this the "Story of 
Creation" relates the life of man in 
that far primitive time, when the 
frog and the rabbit, the house-fly and 
the coyote mingle In their develop- 
ment in fable and myth, and the 
great Moon god comes down and 
lives among them. Instructing them in 
fiestas, in basketriea and potteries. 

Eagle is Killed After 
Death of Each Chief 

The story of the eagle is of a dif- 
ferent character, more In the nature 
of a historical legend of the tribe. 
The tale runs that in the far past the 
tribe traveled many long moons, com- 
ing always from the south, far over 
the mountains and the deserts. In 
that long migration the guardian 
spirit of the people in the form of an 
eagle watched over them, and guid- 
ed them to the Mesa Grande coun- 
try, the land of plenty and promise. 
So the eagle has always been regard- 
ed as the sacred bird, and has borne 
a prominent part in fiestas and cere- 
monials. When a chief or great man 
dies, a young eagle Is captured f^d 
kept in captivity for several months. 
Then on the anniversary of the chiers 
death a great fiesta Is held, lasting 
three days. For this preparation is 
made long In advance. On the night 
of the third day, the day on which 
the chief died, the Eagle dance is 
held, the dancing continuing during 
theentire night, and as the grey 
dawn begins to tinge the darkness of 
the starlit sky. amid the mourning 
and chanting of the people, the eagie 
is killed by "charm," dying a ^^"1^^' 
lous, painless death. "without vlo- 
lence." This sacred eagle ^f ^"^^ 
medium through which the relatives 
and friends send final messages lo 
the departed chleftan. and ^^^'^.^^^ 
freed spirit of the bird Anally^ wings 
its burdened flight down the Patn 
way of the spirits." the waUing is 
turned to loud rejoicings. This ^ance 
has occurred at rare intervals in tne 
history of tht people, the last on- nav 
inp been held over twenty V^^*,/,^^: 

and tho fatal words. ""^-^/'T^!' " .. 
erallv interpreted, "the last-forever 
was written to it.s annals, as to tnai 
of the chieftanship, last Monday 
night. 

Last Fiesta is Most 

Elaborate Ever Held 

This fiesta of the past week was 
perhaps one of the most elaborate 
that has been held In recent times, 
and a concourse of at least five hun- 
dred people gathered to ^^Itness It. 
The direct guests of the I>uro clan. 
of which the dead chief was a mem- 
ber, represented nearly all the South- 
ern California tribes .including the 
Pala, San Ysidro, Inaja Rlncon 
Santa Ysabel, Mission a^^d Agua 
Caliento tribes, gathered from the 
seashore to the desert edge, from the 
mountains in the south, and the fer- 
tile valleys to the north. The white 
people were also welcome, ^nd form- 



ried on thus openly adds not a little • er sound, — the merest under-breath 



to the picturesqueness of the scene. 

Saturday. Sunday and Monday danc- 
ing and feasting had continued, each 
afternoon the Tata Huila, or whirling 
dance, being given, and through the 
long nights the fierce war dance be- 
ing held, and on the third evening. 
Monday night, as the fading rosy glow 
of the twilight settled into the clear 
star-gemmed dusk, those not alrea'dy 
at the rancherle, gathered from all 
directions to witness the wonderful 
Eagle dance. 

Autos Appear Strange 
During Fantastic Dance 

Groups of mounted cowboys gal- 
loped down the steep, winding roads 
with jingling spurs and ' loud laugh- 
ter, all manners of vehicles made the 
desceni: more cautiously, to the level 
stretch of ground where lay the low 
black blur of the rancherie, sur- 
rounded on all sides by towering oak 
studded hills. Automobiles chugged 
and chirred, and brought up outside 
the enclosure, in curious juxtaposition 
to the flimsy, primitive structures. 
Descending, through the cool sweet- 
ness of the night, with the fresh scent 
of Spanish v/illow and vegetation of 
the bottomland rising in grateful 
fragrance, under tl-e serene expanse 
of the sky, palely lit by the young 
moon, and the brooding silence of the 
dim towering hills, one was oppressed 
with the contrast, of the hopelessness 
of the tiny struggle for existence of 
the people clustered below about the 
dull glow of their man-made bon- 
fire; a people whose boast it had been 
that "when the hills were young they 
had danced upon them." Nature- 
mates they had been, indeed, but at 
this critical moment, how did that 
very Nature overwhelm and crush 
them! 

Entering the enclosure, however, 
the life of thf people loomed large. 
The row of ramadas were each lit by 
swinging lanterns or candles, and 
were the scene of much interior activ- 
ity. Squaws and babies mingled 
within, clustering about the snvolder- 
ing supper fires, and lounging out- 
side groups of dark-skinned, good 
natured men smoked and talked In 
the soft Mexican patois. Curious 
.sightseers peered and commented, 
whispered and giggled, and at on^ 
end of the square, about a huge bias- 
ing log fire, a group of some five or 
six old men sat, smoking in con- 
templative silence. ) 

Then, as the darkness thickened, 
one of the old men stirred the fire 
until the sparks flev.^ high into the 
blackness above, and others threw on 
more logs. This huge mass of flar- 
ing embers furnished the sole illumin- 
ation for the ceremonies. but its 
lurid glow sufficed. It was built up- 
on the edge of a leveled circle of 
earth beaten hard by the tramp of 
many bare feet, and at one side of 
this space an old Indian now stood, 
a small, tensely held figure, with an 
ever smlUng-face, — the master of 
ceremonies, "Queresanto." He raised 
his voice in a long calling cry, thrice 
repeated, — the summoning of the 
people. 

Brown Indians Mix 

/ With Pale-Face Youths 

Scattering groups emerged from all 
directions into the circle of light, their 
long black shadows wavering uncer- 
tainly behind them. Without amy ap- 
pearance of haste, from here afid 
there an old woman would, detafch 
herself, and join a group of sisters 
seated upon the ground near the fire. 
— the singers, the chanting chorus 
which furnished the music for the 
dancing. In the curiously mingled as- 
semblage white and dark faces blend- 
ed. Young Indians with cerise and 
emerald hued silk kerchiefs about 
their necks, and flapping sombreros 
covering their mats of black hair, 
stood elbow to elbow with khaki clad 
youths whose pale faces showed the 
months of their indoor .employment 
in the cities. Society girls, dainty 
and impeccable in white shirtwaist 
suits, tip-toed eagerly beside dark 
skinned damsels, whose bright rib- 
bon bows and neatly braided hair 
marked a soul as truly ambitious for 
the reflnements of life. Seated upon 
the ground next to Isabella, leader of 
the cantadoras, was an earnest 
woman, an artist, whose study of In- 
dian music had made her of note in 
the musical world, and near by was 
the adjusted phonograph of an 
ethnologist, sent down for the purpose 
of securing records of these almost 
extinct Jndlan songs. Newspaper 
men. painters, collectors and stu- 
dents, ranchers and cowboys In leath- 
er 'chaps," added to the motley, and 
babies and dogs ranged the outer 
circle. 

And now the dancers filed Into the 
circle, some eight or ten ancient men, 
hardly one of whom was less than 
ninety years of age; Antonio, brother 
of the dead chief, and leader in his 
place of the ceremonials, a thin, bent 
figure whose toothless mouth and 
drawn parchment-like countenance 
bore an expression of dignified pathos 
eminently fitting to the occasion; 
Narciso, of a wonderful and powerful- 
ly muscled physique: Queresanto, 
whose indomitable spirits have en- 
deared him to the tribe; Rafel Char- 
ley, Cinon Peno, Basllio. Ramone, each 
of strongly marked Individuality, the 



of tone, musical and droning as the 

song of bees on a quiet summer af- 
ternoon. Slowly this tone resolves 
itself into audible sound with a mono- 
tone of minor inflections, "hm-hm- 
hy-a-a" with a falling intonation at 
the end. Steadily the chanting in- 
creases in volume and climbs with 
each accession of sound to a higher 
pitch, a steady chest tone of bari- 
tone quality, resonant and piercing. 
This singing is all in the ancient In- 
/dian language, and vocal and 
I elemental in sound as the voice of a 
forest animal or the audible pres- 
ence of wind-bowed trees and falling 
waters. As the chant rises so the 
dancing develops in fierceness and 
energy, the swaying, stamping figures 
joining into the refrain with strange 
growling bursts of song, indescribably 
wierd in effect. llKe nothing so much 
as the pandemonium of forest cries 
and groans In /a great storm, when 
trees and living creature?? are alike 
driven to expression of their stress. 
The whole thing is distinctly a re- 
versal to the aboriginal, and the wild 
gestures of the circling figures as they 
work themselves Into a frenzy of 
bowing, swaying, stamping motion, 
the abandonment of the shrieking 
voices, passionate in rhythm, with 
alternating beat of two and three in 
tl:\e accent, and shaded dissonances of 
thirds and fifths our modern system 
of notation knows nothing of, is a 
glimpse straight down into that time 
of our beginnings, when the gap was 
small that separated us from the 
elemental, conscienceless nature 
mother. 

Red Men Parade in 
Coals of Burning Fire 

One crested figure now leaps from 
the circle and with a stick scatters 
living coals about the circle. BacK 
and forth, marching about this mas- 
ter of the flr4 the bare-footed danc- 
ers tread, stamping' through glowing 
embers, and now and a^;ain crouch- 
ing to gather them in their bare 
hands and putting them to their lips 
as though eating them. The spectacle 
has become a veritable fire dance, 
and when at the pinnacle of emotion- 
al frenzy, without a signal, all ceases 
— the silence cuts Into it as a knife 
severing a tautly drawn cable. The 
dancers walk quietly about, each ut- 
tering a tremulous indrawn breathing 
scund not unlike the neighing of a 
horse, and the Var dance is finished. 

After a brief period for participants 
and spectators alike to relax, during 
which ^me a boh-fire is built direct- 
ly in tlie center of the circle, old 
Antonio appears with a rattle, an 
instrument formerly made of deer's 
toes enclosed in dried deer skin, but 
now oonslstipg of a baking powder 
can with pebbles inside. Shaking 
this in solemn rhythm, he marches 
about the fire with a curious twisting 
step which throws the body far to 
one side aiid then the other. Qradu- 
ally he is joined by the relatives and 
friends of the dead chief, Cinon, in 
a constantly augmenting procession, 
all following with the same twisting 
motion. 

Suddenly, from one side of the 
circle comes a piercing wail. It is 
Trinidad, only daughter of Cinon, and 
chief mourner. Her mourning be- 
comes an abandonment of grief, com- 
pletely dominating the droning song 
of the chanters, whibh has been re- 
sumed. Other women join in the 
mourning ,and the tears course un- 
restrained down their faces. The 
marchers, fully forty in number, old 
ahd young, in shawls and calicoes or 
white gowns and red ribbons, overalls 
and feather head dresses or blue and 
crimson kerchiefs and best clothes, 
take up the low intoned mourner's 
chant. On a signal all ceases, and 
an announcement is made thM the 
sacred eagle will be killed as the 
morning star rises, without pain, and 
by magic, and thus the Indian medi- 
cine men will show their superiority 
to the American medicine men. 

Medicine Men Begin 
Task of Charming Bird 

The four "hechiceros," or medicine 
men, appear within the circle, in full 
regalia of feather headdress and 
plumed skirts, thoir faces hideously 
painted. These four, Narciso Chappa, 
Querosanto Peno. Rafcl Charley and 
Cinon Peno bear the eagle. Narciso 
carries it about in the inner circle, 
close to the smoking blaze of the 
fire, and the procession resumes its 
swaying march and mournful chant- 
ing. The bird stares about with 
gaping beak and lolling tongue, and 
occasionally as the medicine man 
passes the weeping Trinidad she 
throws over its head yards of calicoes, 
red, white or black. As the dance 
progresses, interminably circling and 
chanting, the four medicine men be- 
come active in their efforts to 
"charm" the bird. With many gro- 
tesque gestures they in turn stand be- 
fore the helpless creature, which is 
held before them, and mutter or 
shriek Incantations over it. Breath- 
ing heavily as though spent with 
running, they point their wizard 
wands at It, and grinning and shak- 
ing their heads, with glaring eyes, 
touch lightly the eagle's gaping beak. 
They blow tobacco smoke upon it, 
and with contorted countenances 
seemingly expend great energy in the 



the enclosure, and the deserted fire 
at the dancing floor smouldered and 
grew grey in the brightening east. 

The broad light of the morning sun 
flooded the brown earth of the ran- 
cherie. dispelling effectually all mys- 
tery. Its searching light reflected 
from the ramadas and surrounding 
brown hills with a warmth which 
made the shade of the leaf enclos- 
ures grateful. At 10 o'clock the 
Tata-Huila. or whirling dance, was 
called. This Is a dance of most joy- 
ous character. After the sombre 
tragedy of the Eagle dance, and the 
fierce barbarism of the War dance, 
the Tata Huila seems to typify the 
comedy of dances. There is but one 
dancer, and an attendant. Old Antonio 
beats the time with his rattle, and 
tho dancer, a wiry athlete of about 
flfty years of age. leaps and whirls 
about the circle with an agility and 
sureness of direction that is little 
short of marvelous. He carries two 
short sticks in his hands, which he 
beats together at Intervals, and the 
energy and dexterity of his move- 
ments Is a source of continual aston- 
ishment. Leaping into the air he 
whirls about three or four times 
until his feather skirt stands out like 
a dervish dress. During this dance 
the members of the family of Ciron 
threw handfuls of coin into the ring, 
and yards of bright colored calicoes, 
gifts which their guests were free to 
stei) forth and gather in. 

Eagle Buried With 

Impressive Ceremony 

Following this dance the final rlt^, 
of the fiesta took place, the burial 
of the eagle. This was perhaps the 
most dignified and impressive of all 
the ceremonies. It was of extreme 
slpiplicity. One of the old men dug 
a tiny grave in the center of the 
circle, directly under the place where 
the fire had burned the previous even- 
ing. Then the bird, pluckfd of Its 
longest feathers, which will be made 
into dancing skirts, and wrapped in 
red cloth, was brought to Antonio. 
The old men knelt In a circle about 
the grave, with bowed heads, and 
solemnly lifting and lowering all that 
was earthly of their Tnessenger. to the 
north and the south, the east and the 
west, while- the women chanted, the 
body was placed In the ground and 
fsovered with earth. Then with re- 
verent voice a low toned service in 
the Indian dialect was mutteore^ by 
the kneeling men. with lifted hands, 
as though speeding the sacred mess- 
enger on his flnal flight, and the last 
Fiesta of the Eagle Dance was ended. 
DAISY EDITH KESSLER. 




WMTimiHOIIN 

Bark Lucipara Arrives From 
Antwerp With Big Cargo 
- After Stormy Voyage 



After a voyage of 127 days, fhe 
Scottish bark Lucipara, W. Henk 
master, from Antwerp, May 16 an- 
chored off the heads at 10 o'clock 
Friday night, and was to^ed to her 
anchorage in the stream by the tug 
Bahada at 11:30 o'clock yesterday 
morning. The bark encountered rough 
weather in rounding the horn, dur- 
ing which heavy seas smashed some 
of her deck flttlngs, but did no dam- 
age to her stout steel hull. One of the 
crew was also slightly injured by 
these seas. 

The vessel reports seeing no ice dur- 
ing the voyage. 

When off the horn, the Luclpar** 
passed a bark with her mainmast gone 
at the deck, and the mUzen topmast 
missing . The crippled craft did not 
exchange signals with the Lucipara, 
and was evidently bound to some 
northern port for repairs. 

The cargo of the Lucipara consists 
of 108,023 barrels of cement, 50 bar- 
rels of ginger ale, 2 50 barrels of mus- 
tard. 110 drums of bleaching powder. 
50 casks of alum and 5 of arsenic con- 
signed to the Spreckels Brothers Com- 
mercial company. She also has 5000 
barrels of cement for Tacoma. whlthet- 
she goes from here as aoon as her 
cargo Is unloaded. 

It will be a week before the work 
of discharging her cargo (which will 
require 8 or 10 days to complete) is 
commenced, as the stevedores will be 
busy for several days with steamers 
now in port, and due to arrive. Th© 
Lucipara was built at Greenock, and 
is of about 1800 tons register. 

First Mate James Buchan of thu 
Lucipara a typical sailorman for 2S 
years ,once visited San Diego under 
more tragic circumstances, having 
landed here in December, 1894 from 
the ship Scottish Hills with 19 others 
of the crow of the Lord Lyndhurst, 
Captain Kels. which foundered dur- 
ing a gale off Cape Horn in October of 
that year. The vessel was a total loss, 
but fortunately no lives were lost. 

In the saloon of the Lucipara, 
which is as snug and cozy as any a 
drawing room ashore, a canary bird 
sings in Its cage swinging among 
plants and flowers ,as cheerily as if in 
a garde^k. A pet parrot, the mascot of 
the ship, which has not yet learned to 
swear, shares honors among the crew 
of 28 men with Leo, a handsome dog 
picked up at Port Los Angeles last 
year. 

AN AWKWARD DODGE 



Milton D. Purdy, of tho United 
States department of justice, said iir 
Washington of a rumor brought to 



. ^ 



THE SAN DIEGO WEEKLY UNION: THURSDAY. SEPTEMBER TB, 1607 



CHIEF'S DEATH MARKED 

BY L AST EAGLE DANCE 

Me^a Grande Indian4: Hold Impre^^iH)e Ceremony 






Adolph Beresford, Half-Breed 

Is Elected to Position 

of Judge 



w 



MOUNTED COWBOYS JOIN 
CITY PEOPLE AT DANCE 



Red Men Tramp on Live Cook 

Clianting Wierd IVlemor- 

ial to Leader 



"Nosome! Hoomow-no-some!" 

"It is finished, the tribe is finished/' 

These were the words of old Cinon 

r>uro, the last chief of the Mesa 

Grande tribe of Indians, spoken just 
before he died one year ago. Those \ 
witnessing the famous Eagle dance, j 
which was performed for the last 
time in the history of the tribe on 
Monday night, well understand the 
import and pathos of the venerable 
chief's final words. 

This wierd dance is perhaps one of 
the most interesting remnants of the 
customs of an ancient people, a peo- 
ple whose last flicker of existence lies 
within the breasts of some eight or 
ten old men and as many women; a 
handful of centenarians whose lives 
are in the past, and who embody the 
traditions marking the tribe as an in- 
dividual entity. There are, in fact. 
Lbout one hundred and fifty mem- 
bers of the Mesa Grande reserva- 
tion, but the younger people are 
about as alien to the real life of the 
tribe which was, as are the white 
ranchers and cattlemen with whom 
they associate. It has become al- 
most a matter of pride with them that 
they cannot speak the Indian dialect, 
their native tongue, and have no 
knowledge of the traditions and leg- 
ends of their people. They speak 
the Spanish of the Mexican, and 
imitate the dress, the manners and 
the habits of the whites, as closely as 
possible, so that it is not too much to 
say that the days of an ancient peo- 
ple are numbered, and its life breath 
is held in the enfeebled bodies of a 
handfui of centenarians. 

Last Chief Dies and 
Title Becomes Extinct 

The loss which the tribe suffered 
In the death of their last hereditary 
chief, old Cinon Duro, or to use his 
Indian name, Mata ^Whur, "hard 
rock," will be readily understood, as 
he was, apart from his dignity as 
bearer of the hereditary title, the 
custodian of the sacred legends which 
were handed down from chief to 
chief, and leader in the ceremonials 
and rites of the primeval religion. 
There being none to succeed him, at 
his death the title lapsed, and with 
him was also buried the wealth of 
the history of his people, apart from 
fragmentary records which had been 
gathered by a few enthusiastic 
ethnologists. Old Cinon was over a 
hundred years old, and had practical- 
ly outlived his own descendants, as 
he was a great, great grandfather, 
and in 1860 had four sons. In this 
bit of family history is shown too 
T519illiy IKvj result of the white man's 
influence, a condition even nmn' 
vividly brought forth at the spectacle 
of the dances, when the gap betwen 
the group of wiry, athletic old danc- 
ers, each one over ninety years of 
age. and the lounging young fellows 
among the spectators, hardly any 
being above forty, is a silent t»nd 
eloquent tribute to the effects of the 
process of civilization. 

The government of the tribe is now 
wholly political .and consists of a 
•'capitan" and a judge, each office be- 
ing filled once a year by election. The 
two offices are sometimes merged In 
one, as is the case this year, Adolf 
Beresford, a half-breed of unusual 
intelligence, holding the office. As 
his name Indicates, ho is descended 
from the English family of Beres- 
fords. of whom Admiral Beresford is 
at present a conspicuous representa- 
tive. 

The tribe is composed of four clans, 

the Duro (hard), La Chappa (short). 
La Chusa (the owl), and Pena (cliff). 



I 



Indian mind, is well expressed in its 
quaint wording, with its swinging 
rhythm and endless repetitions. 

"At first" — In the beginning, all the 
world wag covered with water, and 
the sky was very close to the earth. 
These two, the sky father, "Sing you 
how." and the earth mother were the 
two great gods of all things. And 
the earth mother said to the sky 
father, "Why do you take th- waters 
from my bosom?" And the sky fath- 
er said to the earth mother, *'I have 
It within my thoughts to create man. 
and 1 must make him by the rhythmic 
beat of the waters against the rocks." 
And from the union of the earth 
mother and sky father, two sons were 
born; the eldest, 'Pu-chl-pa," was the 
creator of all things on earth, and 
the second, "Yo-co-ma-tls," was his 
helper. And the two brothers sat 
upon a tule patch, and the first broth- 
er said to the second: "Little brother, 
what am I going to do?" and the sec- 
ond said, **I do not know/' And the 
first said, "I am going to send the 
waters into the great deep." And he 
plucked a pipe from the tules, and 
smoking, wafted the smoke three 
times In the air, saying each time, 
"Ha-wa, ha-wa, ha-wa!" and the wa- 
ters went into the great deep. Then 
he said again: "Little brother, what 
are you going to do?" and the sec- 
ond said, *'I do not know." And the 
first said, "You are going to send the 
sky to its place above." So he lifted 
the tobacco pipe three times in the 
air again, saying, "Ha-wa. ha-wa. ha- 
wa!" with great organ tones of in- 
cantation, and the sky went to its 

place above. 

So the legend goes on, "Pu-chi-pa" 
the "creator," making "the paths 
from east to west of all the stars," 
and the great "path from north to 
south, the back-bone of the sky," our 
milky way, which is to be "the path- 
way of departing spirits." Then he 
announces that he la going to make 
man; but first he will make trees, for 
men will need wood to warm them- 
selves, and grasses and seeds, for they 
w^ill need food, and fountains of wa- 
ter, and lastly animals, which were 
also people. He Is now ready to 
make man, and he takes clay from 
the fountain and forms a man, and 
sets him up to dry. There Is then not 
enough clay left to make another, so 
he makes a woman. He then breathes 
tobacco smoke upon them. saying. 
"Sup-la," and they become living 
creatures. After this the "Story of 
Creation" relates the Hfe of man in 
that far primitive time, when the 
frog and the rabbit, the house-fly and 
the coyote mingle in their develop- 
ment in fable and myth, and the 
great Moon god comes down and 
lives among them, instructing them in 
fiestas, in basketries and potteries. 

Eagle is Killed After 
Death of Each Chief 

The story of the eagle is of a dif- 
ferent character, more in the nature 
of a historical legend of the tribe. 
The tale runs that in the far past the 
tribe traveled many long moons, com- 
ing always from the south, far over 
the mountains and the deserts. In 
that long migration the guardian 
spirit of the people in the form of an 
eagle watched over them, and guid- 
ed them to the Mesa Grande coun- 
try, the land of plenty and promise. 
So the eagle has always been regard- 
ed as the sacred bird, and has borne 
a prominent part in fiestas and cere- 
monials. When a chief or great man 
dies, a young eagle is captured tna 
kept In captivity for several months. 
Then on the anniversary of the chlers 
death a great fiesta Is held, lasting 
three days. For this preparation is 
made long in advance. On the night 
of the third day. the day on which 
the chief died, the Eagle dance is 
held, the dancing continuing during 
theentire night, and as the grey 
dawn begins to tinge the darkness ot 
the starlit sky. amid the mournmg 
and chanting of the people, the eagie 
Is killed by "charm." dying a myster- 
ious, painless death, "without vio- 
lence." This sacred eagle is me 
medium through which the relatives 
and friends send final messages lo 
the departed chieftan. and ^^^^ ^^^ 
freed spirit of the bird finally v^in^« 
its burdened flight down the P-^^"" 
way of the spirits." the ^v^ ^J"/^^^^^ 
turned to loud rejoicings. This dance 
has occurred at rare intervals in tne 
history of the people, the last om nav 
Incr been held over twenty V^^f.. ""i^^: 
and the fatal words, ''"^-""y"!* "' . 
erallv Interpreted, "the ^^^''*' , ^at 
was written to Its annals, as to in 
of the chieftanshlp. last Monday 
night. 

Last Fiesta is Most 

Elaborate Ever Held 

This fiest.i of the past week was 
perhaps one of the most elaborate 
that has been held in recent times, 
and a concourse of at least five hun- 
dred people gathered to witness It. 
The direct guests of the Duro clan, 
of which the dead chief ^'^^ a mem- 
ber, represented nearly all the South- 
ern California tribes .including the 
Pala. San Ysidro. Inaja Rlncon 
Santa Ysabel. Mission a^i^l Agua 
Caliente tribes, gathered ^rom the 
sea.'^horo to the desert edge, from the 
mountains in the south, and the fer- 
tile valleys to the north. The white 
people were also welcome, and form- 

itage of the 



rled on thus openly adds not a little 

to the picturesqueness of the scene. 

Saturday. Sunday and Monday danc- 
ing and feasting had continued, each 
afternoon the Tata Huila, or whirling 
dance, being given, and through the 
long nights the fierce war dance be- 
ing held, and on the third evening, 
Monday night, as the fading rosy glow 
of the twilight settled into the clear 
star-gemmed dusk, those not alrea'dy 
at the rancherle. gathered from all 
directions to witness the wonderful 
Eagle dance. 

Autos Appear Strange 
During Fantastic Dance 

Groups of mounted cowboys gal- 
loped down the steep, winding roads 
with jingling spurs and loud laugh- 
ter, all manners of vehicles made the 
descent more cautiously, to the level 
stretch of ground where lay the low 
black blur of the rancherle, sur- 
rounded on all sides by towering oak 
studded hills. Automobiles chugged 
and chirred, and brought up outside 
the enclosure, In curious juxtaposition 
to the flimsy, primitive structures. 
Descending, through the cool sweet- 
ness of the night, with the fresh scent 
of Spanish v/illow and vegetation of 
the bottomland rising in grateful 
fragrance, under tl.e serene expanse 
of the sky. palely lit by the young 
moon, and the brooding silence of the 
dim towering hills, one was oppressed 
with the contrast, of the hopelessness 
of the tiny struggle for existence of 
the people clustered below about the 
dull glow of their man-made bon- 
fire; a people whose boast it had been 
that "when the hills were young they 
had danced upon them." Nature- 
mates they had been, indeed, but at 
this critical moment, how did that 
very Nature overwhelm and crush 
them! 

Entering the enclosure, however, 
the life of the people loomed large. 
The row of ramadas were each lit by 
swinging lanterns or candles, and 
were the scene of much interior activ- 
ity. Squaws and babies mingled 
within, clustering about the smolder- 
ing supper fires, and lounging out- 
side groups of dark-skinned, good 
natured men smoked and talked in 
the soft Mexican patois. Curious 
^sightseers peered and commented, 
whispered and giggled, and at on^ 
end of the square, about a huge blaz- 
ing log fire, a group of some five or 
six old men sat, smoking in con- 
templative silence. 

Then, as the darkness thickened, 
one of the old men stirred the fire 
until the sparks flew high into the 
blackness above, and others threw on 
more logs. This huge mass of flar- 
ing embers furnished the sole illumin- 
ation for the ceremonies, but its 
lurid glow sufficed. It was built up- 
on the edge of a leveled circle of 
earth beaten hard by the tramp of 
many bare feet, and at one side of 
this space an old Indian now stood. 
a small, ten.sely held figure, with an 
ever smlllng-face, — the master of 
ceremonies, "Queresanto." He raised 
his voice in a long calling cry. thrice 
repeated, — the summoning of the 
people. 

Brown Indians Mix 

; With Pale-Face Youths 

Scattering groups emerged from all 
directions into the circle of light, their 
long black shadows wavering uncer- 
tainly behind them. Without any ap- 
pearance of haste, from here and 
there an old woman would detaCch 
herself, and join a group of sisters 
seated upon the ground near the fire. 
— the ringers, the chanting chorus 
which furnished the music for the 
dancing. In the curiously mingled as- 
semblage white and dark faceg blend- 
ed. Young Indians with cerise and 
emerald hued silk kerchiefs about 
their necks, and flapping sombreros 
covering their mats of black hair, 
stood elbow to elbow with khaki clad 
youths whose pale faces showed the 
months of their indoor employment 
in the cities. Society girls. dainty 
and impeccable in white shirtwaist 
suits, tip-toed eagerly beside dark 
skinned damsels, whose bright rib- 
bon bows and neatly braided hair 
marked a soul as truly ambitious for 
the reflnements of life. Seated upon 
the ground next to Isabella, leader of 
the cantadoras, was an earnest 
woman, an artist, whose study of In- 
dian music had made her of note in 
the musical world, and near by was 
the adjusted phonograph of an 
ethnologist, sent down for the purpose 
of securing records of these almost 
extinct Indian songs. Newspaper 
men, painters, collectors and stu- 
dents, ranchers and cowboys in leath- 
er 'chaps," added to the motley, and 
babies and dogs ranged the outer 
circle. 

And now the dancers filed into the 
circle, some eight or ten ancient men, 
hardly one of whom was less than 
ninety years of age; Antonio, brother 
of the dead chief, and leader In his 
place of the ceremonials, a thin, bent 
flgure whose toothless mouth and 
drawn parchment-like countenance 
bore an expression of dignified pathos 
eminently fitting to the occasion; 
Narciso, of a wonderful and powerful- 
ly muscled physique: Queresanto, 
whose Indomitable spirits have en- 
deared him to the tribe: Rafel Char- 
ley, Cinon Peno, Basilio. Ramone. each 
of strongly marked individuality, the 



• er sound, — the merest under-breath 

of tone, musical and droning as the 

song of bees on a quiet summer af- 
ternoon. Slowly this tone resolves 
itself into audible sound with a mono- 
tone of minor inflections, "hm-hm- 
hy-a-a" with a falling intonation at 
the end. Steadily the chanting in- 
creases in volume and climbs with 
each accession of sound to a higher 
pitch, a steady chest tone of bari- 
tone quality, resonant and piercing. 
This singing ig all in the ancient In- 
dian language, and vocal and 
elemental in sound as the voice of a 
forest animal or the audible pres- 
ence of wind-bowed trees and falling 
waters. As the chant rises so the 
dancing develops in fierceness and 
energy, the swaying, stamping flguj-es 
joining into the refrain with strange 
growling bursts of song, indescribably 
wierd in effect, like nothing so much 
as the pandemonium of forest cries 
and groans in a great storm, when 
trees and living creature<? are alike 
driven to expression of their stress. 
The whole thing is distinctly a re- 
versal to the aboriginal, and the wild 
gestures of the circling figures as they 
work themselves into a frenzy of 
bowing, swaying, stamping motion, 
the abandonm.ent of the shrieking 
voices, passionate in rhythm, with 
alternating beat of two and three in 
the accent, and shaded dissonances of 
thirds and fifths our modern system 
of notation knows nothing of, is a 
glimpse straight down into that time 
of our beginnings, when the gap was 
small that separated us from the 
elemental, conscienceless nature 

mother. 

Red Men Parade in 
Coals of Burning Fire 

One crested figure now leaps from 
the circle and with a stick scatters 
living coals about the circle. BacK 
and forth, marching about this mas- 
ter of the fire the bare-footed danc- 
ers tread, stamping' through glowing 
embers, and now and again crouch- 
ing to gather them in their bare 
hands and putting them to their lips 
as though eating them. The spebtacle 
has become a veritable fire dance, 
and when at the pinnacle of emotion- 
al frenzy, without a signal, all ceases 
— the silence cuts into it as a knife 
severing a tautly drawn cable. The 
dancers walk quietly about, each ut- 
tering a tremulous indrawn breathing 
scund not unlike the neighing of a 
horse, and the war dance is finished. 

After a brief period for participants 
and spectators alike to relax, during 
which time a bon-fire is built direct- 
ly in the center of the circle. old 
Antonio appears with a rattle, an 
instrument formerly made of deer's 
toes enclosed In dried deer skin, but 
now consisting of a baking powder 
can with pebbles inside. Shaking 
this in solemn rhythm, he marches 
about the fire with a curious twisting 
step which throws the body far to 
one side and then the other. Gradu- 
ally he is joined by the relatives and 
friends of the dead chief, Cinon, in 
a constantly augmenting procession, 
all following with the same twisting 
motion. 

Suddenly, from one side of the 
circle comes a piercing wall. It Is 
Trinidad, only daughter of Cinon, and 
chief mourner. Her mourning be- 
comes an abandonment of grief, com- 
pletely dominating the droning song 
of the chanters, which has been re- 
sumed. Other women join In the 
mourrlng ,and the tears course un- 
restrained down their faces. The 
marchers, fully forty in nuinber. old 
ahd young, in shawls and calicoes or 
white gowns and red ribbons, overalls 
and feather head dresses or blue and 
crimson kerchiefs and best clothes, 
take up the low intoned mourner's 
chant. On a signal all ceases, and 
an announcement is made th^t the 
sacred eagle will be killed as the 
morning star rises, without pain, and 
by magic, and thus the Indian medi- 
cine men will show their superiority 
to the American medicine men. 

Medicine Men Begin 
Task of Charming Bird 

The four "hochiceros," or medicine 
men, appear within the circle, in full 
regalia of feather headdress and 
plumed skirts, their faces hideou.sly 
painted. These four, Narciso Chappa, 
Querosanto Peno, Rafel Charley and 
Cinon Peno bear the eagle. Narciso 
carries It about In the inner circle, 
close to the smoking blaze of the 
fire, and the procession resumes its 
swaying march and mournful chant- 
ing. The bird stares about with 
gaping beak and lolling tongue, and 
occasionally as the medicine man 
passes the weeping Trinidad she 
throws over its head yards of calicoes, 
red, white or black. As the dance 
progresses, interminably circling and 
chanting, the four medicine men be- 
come active in their efforts to 
"charm" the bird. With many gro- 
tesque g*\sturos they in turn stand be- 
fore the helpless creature, which is 
held before them, and mutter or 
shriek incantations over it. Breath- 
ing heavily as though spent with 
running, they point thoir wizard 
wands at It, and grinning and shak- 
ing their heads, with glaring eyes, 
t<.uch lightly the eagle's gaping beak. 
They blow tobacco smoke upon it, 
and with contorted countenances 
seemingly expend great eriergy in the 



the enclosure, and the deserted fire 
at the dancing floor smouldered and 
gr<^w grey in the brightening '^ast. 

The broad light of the morning sun 
flooded the brown earth of the ran- 
cherle, dispelling effectually all mys- 
tery. Its searching light reflected 
from the ramadas and surrounding 
brown hills with a warmth which 
made the shade of the leaf enclos- 
ures grateful. At 10 o'clock the 
Tata-Huila. or whirling dance, was 
called. This is a dance of most joy- 
ous character. After the sombre 
tragedy of the Eagle dance, and the 
fierce barbarism of the War dance, 
the Tata Huila seems to typify the 
comedy of dances. There is but one 
dancer, and an attendant. Old Antonio 
beats the time with his rattle, and 
the dancer, a wiry athlete of about 
fifty years of age. leaps and whirls 
about the circle with an agility and 
sureness of direction that is little 
short of marvelous. He carries two 
sbort sticks in his hands, which he 
beats together at Intervals, and the 
energy and dexterity of his move- 
ments is a source of continual aston- 
ish mont. Leaping into the air he 
whirls about thr(»e or four times 
until his f«*ather skirt stands out like 
a dervish dress. During this dance 
the members of the family of Clron 
threw handfuls of coin into the ring, 
nnd yards of bright colored calicoes 
gifts which their guests were free to 
.^teu forth and gather in. 

Eagle Buried With 

Impressive Ceremony 

Following this dance the final i*it^|. 
of the fiesta took place, the burial | 
of the eagle. This was perhaps the 
most dignified and impressive of all 
the ceremonies. It w^as of extreme j 
sljnpliclty. One of the old men dug ' 
a tiny grave in the center of the 
circle, directly under the place where 
the fire had burned the previous even- 
ing. Then the bird, pluckfd of its 
longest feathers, which will be made 
into dancing skirts, and wrapped in 
red cloth, was brought to Antonio. 
The old men knelt In a circle about 
the grave, with bowed heads, and 
solemnly lifting and lowering all that 
was earthly of their ^nessenger, to the 
north and the south, the east and the 
west, while thp women chanted, the 
body was placed In the ground and 
covered with earth. Then with re- 
verent voice a low toned service in 
the Indian dialect was muttejed by 
the kneeling men, with lifted hands, 
a.*^ though speeding the sacred me.<;s- 
enger on his final flight, and the last 
Fiesta of the Eagle Dance was ended. 

DAISY EDITH KESSLER. 
• # • •> 



ENCOUNIERSBAD 




Bark Lucipara Arrives From 
Antwerp With Big Cargo 
- After Stormy Voyage 



After a voyage of 127 days, fhe 
Scottish bark Lucipara. W. Henk 
master, from Antwerp, May 16 an- 
chored off the heads at 10 o'clock 
Friday night, and was to>\ed to her 
anchorage in the stream by the tug 
Bahada at 11:30 o'clock yesterday 
morning. The bark encountered rough 
weather in rounding the horn, dur- 
ing which heavy seas smashed some 
of her deck fittings, but did no dam- 
age to her stout steel hull. One of the 
crew was also slightly injured by 
these seas. 

The vessel reports seeing no ice dur- 
ing the voyage. 

When off the horn, the Lucipara 
passed a bark with her mammast gone 
at the deck, and the mizzen topmast 
missing . The crippled craft did not 
exchange signals with the Lucipara., 
and was evidently bound to somo 
northern port for repairs. 

The cargo of the Lucipara consists 
of 108,023 barrels of cement, 50 bar- 
rels of ginger ale, 2 50 barrels of mus- 
tard, 110 drums of bleaching powder. 
50 casks of alum and 5 of arsenic con- 
signed to the Spreckels Brothers Com- 
mercial company. She also has 5000 
barrels of cement for Tacoma, whithel* 
she goes from here as aoon as her 
cargo is unloaded. 

It will be a week before the work 
of discharging her cargo (which will 
require S or 10 days to complete; is 
commenced, as the stevedores will be 
busj^ lor several days with steamers 
now in port, and due to arrive. The 
Lucipara was built at (Jrcenock. and 
is ot abuUL 18 00 tons register. 

First Mate James Buchan of thu 
Lucipara a typical sailorman for 25 
years .once visited San Diego under 
more tragic clrcumsliinces, having 
landed here in December. 1894 from 
the ship Scottish Hills with 19 others 
of the crew of thu Lord Lyndhurst, 
Captain liels, which foundered dur- 
ing a gale off Cape Horn in October of 
that year. The vessel was a total loss, 
but fortunately no lives were lost. 

In the saloon of the Lucipara, 
which is as snug and cozy as any a 
drawing room ashore, a canary bird 
sings in its cage swinging among 
plants and flowers .as cheerily as if in 
a garde^i. A pet parrot, the mascot of 
the ship, which has not yet learned to 
swear, shares honors among the crew 
of 28 men with Leo. a handsome dog 
picked up at Port Los Angeles last 
year. 



-•►♦♦ 



AX AWKWAUD DODCiE 



Milton D. Purdy, of the United 
States department of justice, said lir 
Washington of a rumor brought to 






Adolph Beresford, Half-Breed 

Is Elected to Position 

of Judge 



y 



MOUNTED COWBOYS JOIN 
CITY PEOPLE AT DANCE 



Red Men Tramp on Live Cook 

Chanting Wierd IVIemor- 

ial to Leader 



"Nosome! Hoomow-no-some!" 

"It is finished, the tribe is finished/' 

These were the words of old Clnon 

Duro, the last chief of the Mesa 

Grande tribe of Indians, spoken just 
before he died one year ago. Those 
witnessing the famous Eagle dance, 
which w^as performed for the last 
time in the history of the tribe on 
Monday night, well understand the 
Import and pathos of the venerable 
chief's final words. 

This wierd dance is perhaps one of 
the most interesting remnants of the 
customs of an ancient people, a peo- 
ple whose last flicker of existence lies 
within the breasts of some eight or 
ten old men and as many women; a 
handful of centenarians whose lives 
are in the past, and who embody the 
traditions marking the tribe as an in- 
dividual entity. There are. In fact, 
\bout one hundred and fifty mem- 
b'efs'^f the Mesa Grande reserva- 
tion, but the younger people are 
about as alien to the real life of the 
tribe which was, as are the white 
ranchers and cattlemen with whom 
they associate. It has become al- 
most a matter of pride with them that 
they cannot speak the Indian dialect, 
their native tongue, and have no 
knowledge of the traditions and leg- 
ends of their people. They speak j^^'^^^^J^^yg from the south, far over 
the Spanish of the Mexican, and j ^^^ 
imitate the dress, the manners and \ 
the habits of the whites, as closely as 
possible, so that it is not too much to 
say that the days of an ancient peo- 
ple are numbered, and its life breath 
is held in the enfeebled bodies of a 
handful of centenarians. 



ah mind, Is well expresscu m 
quaint wording, with its swinging 
rhythm and endless repetitions. 

*'At first" — in the beginning, all the 
world was covered with water, and 
the sky was very close to the earth. 
These two, the sky father, **Slng you 
how." and the earth mother were the 
two great gods of all things. And 
the earth mother said to the sky 
father, "Why do you take th- waters 
from my bosom?" And the sky fath- 
er said to the earth mother, "I have 
it within my thoughts to create man. 
and 1 must make him by the rhythmic 
beat of the waters against the rocks." 
And from the union of the earth 
mother and sky father, two sons were 
born; the eldest, *Pu-chi-pa," was the 
creator of all things on earth, and 
the second, "Yo-co-ma-tls," was his 
helper. And the two brothers sat 
upon a tule patch, and the first broth- 
er said to the second: "Uttle brother, 
what am I going to do?" and the sec- 
oiul saiil, ••I do not know.**- v^nd the 
first ?aid, "I am golns to selK^l the 
waters into the great deep." And he 
plucked a pipe from the tulcs, and 
smoking, wafted the smoke three 
times in the air, saying each time, 
'*Ha-wa, ha-wa, ha-wa!" and the wa- 
ters went into the great deep. Then 
he said again: "Little brother, what 
are you going to do?" and the sec- 
ond said, "I do not know." And the 
first said, "You are going to send the 
sky to Its place above." So he lifted 
the tobacco pipe three times in the 
air again, saying, "Ha-wa, ha-wa, 
wa!" with great organ tones of 
cantation, and the sky went to 
place above. 

So the legend goes on, 
the "creator," making 
from east to west of all the stars, 
and the great "path from north to 
south, the back-bone of the sky.*' our 
milky wav, which Is to be "the path- 
way of departing spirits." Then he 
announces that he Is going to make 
man; but first he will make trees, for 
men will need wood to warm them- 
selves, and grasses and seeds, for they 
will need food, and fountains of wa- 
ter, and lastly animals, which were 
also people. He Is now retdy to 
make man, and he takes clay from 
the fountain and forms a man» and 
sets him up to dry. There is then not 
enough clay left to make another, so 
he makes a woman. He then breathes 
tobacco smoke upon them, saying. 
"Sup-la," and they become living 
creatures. After this the "Story of 
Creation" relates the life of man in 
that far primitive time, when the 
frog and the rabbit, the house-fly and 
the covote mingle in their develop- 
ment In fable and myth, and the 
great Moon god comes down and 
lives among them. Instructing them in 
fiestas, in basketries and potteries. 

Eagle is Killed After 
Death of Each Chief 

The story of the eagle is of a dif- 
ferent character, more In the nature 
of a historical legend of the tribe. 
The tale runs that in the far past the 
tribe traveled many long moons, com- 



ha- 

In- 
its 



"Pu-chi-pa" 
"the paths 



Last Chief Dies and 
* Title Becomes Extinct 

The loss which the tribe suffered 
In the death of their last hereditary 
chief, old Cinon Duro, or to use his 
Indian name, Mata Whur. "hard 
rock," will be readily understood, as 
he was, apart from his dignity as 
bearer of the hereditary title, the 
custodian of the sacred legends which 
were handed down from chief to 
chief, and leader in the ceremonials 
and rites of the primeval religion. 
There being none to succeed him, at 
his death the title lapsed, and with 
him was also buried the wealth of 
the history of his people, apart from 
fragmentary records which had been 
gathered by a few enthusiastic 
ethnologists. Old Cinon was over a 
hundred years old, and had practical- 
ly outlived his own descendants, as 
he was a great, great grandfather, 
and in 18^0 had four sons. In this 
bit of family history is shown too 
' Il^Uiliiy Ihvj result of the white man's 
influence, a condition even more 
vividly brought forth at the spectacle 
of the dances, when the gap betwen 
the group of wiry, athletic old danc- 
ers, 'each one over ninety years of 
age. and the lounging young fellows 
among the spectators, hardly any 
being above forty, is a silent »nd 
eloquent tribute to the effects of the 
process of civilization. 

The government of the tribe is now 
wholly political .and consists of a 
••capitan" and a judge, each office be- 
ing filled once a year by election. The 
two offices are sometimes merged In 
one. as is the case this year, Adolf 
Beresford, a half-breed of unusual 
intelligence, holding the office. As 
his name Indicates, he Is descended 
from the English family of Beres- 
fords. of whom Admiral Beresford is 
at present a conspicuous representa- 
tive. 

The tribe is composed of four clans, 

the Duro (hard). La Chappa (short). 
La Chusa (the owl), and Pena (cliff). 
These clans control the social as 
well as the political life of the tribe, 
and Fiesta of the past week was 
given by the Duro clan, entertaining 
the other three factions, as well as 
representatives from surrounding 
tribes of Southern California to the 
number of about five hundred. 

Old Cinon Trusted 

Story of the Creation 

The sacred "Story of Creation," a 
tradition which had been handed 
down from chief to chief "from the 
beginning," was old Cinon's greatest 



the mountains and the deserts. In 
that long migration the guardian 
spirit of the people In the form of an 
eagle watched over them, and guid- 
ed them to the Mesa Grande coun- 
try, the land of plenty and promise. 
So the eagle has always been regard- 
ed as the sacred bird, and has borne 
a prominent part In fiestas and cere- 
monials. When a chief or great man 
dies, a young eagle Is captured f.nd 
kept in captivity for several montns. 
Then on the anniversary of the chlera 
death a great fiesta Is held, lasting 
three days. For this preparation Is 
made long in advance. On the night 
of the third day, the day on which 
the chief died, the Eagle dance is 
held, the dancing continuing during 
theektlre night, and as the grey 
dawn begins to tinge the darkness of 
the starlit sky, amid the ii^ourning 
and chanting of the people, the eagie 
Is killed by "charm," dying a ^y^*^^" 
lous, painless death, "without vio- 
lence.'' This sacred eagle ^f the 
medium through which the relatUes 
and friends send final messages to 
the departed chleftan, and when the 
freed spirit of the bird Anally ^w^gs 
Its burdened flight down the patn 
way of the spirits," the waiUnfiT is 
turned to loud rejoicings. This dance 
has occurred at rare ^^^f ^f^^^^^^"^! 
history of thf people, the last on- hav 
ing been held over twenty V^J^,. ^,^^: 
and the fatal words, '•n^-^;^^^^' f . 
erally Interpreted, "the ^a^^'^^^^^.^' 
was written to Its annals, as to tnat 
of the chleftanshlp, last Monday 
night. 

Last Fiesta is Most 

Elaborate Ever Held 

This flesta of the past week was 
perhaps one of the most elaborate 
that has been held In recent times, 
and a concourse of at least five hun^ 
dred people gathered to witness It. 
The direct guests of the Duro clan, 
of which the dead chief was a mem- 
ber, represented nearly all the South- 
ern California tribes .including the 
Pala. San Ysidro. Inaja Rincon 
Santa Ysabel, Mission and Agua 
Caliente tribes, gathered from the 
seashore to the desert edge, from the 
mountains in the south, and the fer- 
tile valleys to the north. The white 
people were also welcome, and form- 
ed a liberal percentage of the 
spectators. The occasion was a rare 
opportunltyfor ethnologists and those 
interested in the life of these rem- 
nants of a prehistoric people, and not 
only was San Diego largely repre- 
sented, but many had made the 
lournev from San Francisco, Berke- 
ley, Los Angeles and Pasadena, and 
each was keenly alive to the possi- 
bilities of the situation from his own 
particular point of view. 

The fiestas are held at the Ran- 
cherle or 'Took-a-Muck." a large en- 
closure of brush built ramadas, 
wherein the tribe moves bodily, living 
ir the tiny brush huts encircling the 



Deginning, wcis uiu v^iii^n o j^njciucsjc m tiie tiny ut u^i» »i..^- — 

trust, and the true poetic feeling so sun-baked square, during tne cele- 
oXlASL unexpectedly revealed in the 1 bration. and their domestic life, car- 



ried on thus openly adds not a 

to the plcturesqueness of the scene. 

Saturday, Sunday and Monday danc- 
ing and feasting had continued, each 
afternoon the Tata Huila, or whirling 
dance, being given, and through the 
long nights the fierce war dance be- 
ing held, and on the third evening, 
Monday night, as the fading rosy glow 
of the twilight settled into the clear 
star-gemmed dusk, those not alrea'dy 
at the rancherle, gathered from all 
directions to witness the wonderful 
Eagle dance. 

Autos Appear Strange 
During Fantastic Dance 

Groups of mounted cowboys gal- 
loped down the steep, winding roads 
with jingling spurs and loud laugh- 
tor, all manners of vehicles made the 
descent more cautiously, to the level 
stretch of ground where lay the low 
black blur of the rancherle, sur- 
rounded on all sides by towering: oak 
studded hills. Automobiles chugged 
and chirred, and brought up outside 
the enclosure, In curious juxtaposition 
to the flimsy, primitive structures. 
Descending, through the cool sweet- 
ness of the night, with the fresh scent 
of Spanish v.illow and vegetation of 
the bottomland rising in grateful 
fragrance, under tl.e serene expanse 
of the sky. palely lit by the young 
moon, and the brooding silence of the 
dim towering hills, one was oppressed 
with the contrast, of the hopelessness 
of the tiny struggle for existence of 
the people clustered below about the 
dull glow of their man-made bon- 
fire; a people whose boast It had been 
that "when the hills were young they 
had danced upon them." Nature- 
mates they had been, indeed, but at 
this critical moment, how did that 
very Nature overwhelm and crush 
them! 

Entering the enclosure, however, 
the life of thp people loomed large. 
The row of ramadas were each lit by 
swinging lanterns or candles, and 
were the scene of much Interior activ- 
ity. Squaws and babies mingled 
within, clustering about the smolder- 
ing supper fires, and lounging out- 
side groups of dark-skinned, good 
natured men smoked and talked in 
the soft Mexican patois. Curious 
sightseers peered and commented, 
whispered and giggled, and at on^ 
end of the square, about a huge blaz- 
ing log fire, a group of some five or 
six old men sat, smoking in con- 
templative silence. 

Then, as the darkness thickened, 
one of the old men stirred the fire 
until the sparks flew high into the 
blackness above, and others threw on 
more logs. This huge mass of flar- 
ing embers furnished the sole illumin- 
ation for the ceremonies. but its 
lurid glow sufficed. It was built up- 
on the edge of a leveled circle of 
earth beaten hard by the tramp of 
many bare feet, and at one side of 
this space an old Indian now stood, 
a small, ten.sely held flgure, with an 
ever smillng-face, — the master of 
ceremonies, "Queresanto.*' He raised 
his voice in a long calling cry, thrice 
repeated, — the summoning: of the 
people. 

Brown Indians Mix • 
. With Pale-Face Youths 

Scattering groups emerged from all 
directions into the circle of light, their 
long black shadows wavering uncer- 
tainly behind them. Without any ap- 
pearance of haste, from here apd 
there an old woman would- detach 
herself, and join a group of sisters^ 
seated upon the ground near the fire. 
— the singers, the chanting chorus 
which furnished the music for the 
dancing. In the curiously mingled as- 
semblage white and dark faceg blend- 
ed. Young Indians with cerise and 
emerald hued silk kerchiefs about 
their necks, and flapping sombreros 
covering their mats of black hair, 
stood elbow to elbow with khaki clad 
youths whose pale faces showed the 
months of their Indoor .employment 
in the cities. Society girls, dainty 
and impeccable in white shirtwaist 
suits, tip-toed eagerly beside dark 
skinned damsels, whose bright rib- 
bon bows and neatly braided hair 
marked a soul as truly ambitious for 
the refinements of life. Seated upon 
the ground next to Isabella, leader of 
the cantadoras, was an earnest 
woman, an artist, whose study of In- 
dian music had made her of note in 
the musical world, and near by was 
the adjusted phonograph of an 
ethnologist, sent down for the purpose 
of securing records of these almost 
extinct Ifndian songs. Newspaper 
men, painters, collectors and stu- 
dents, ranchers and cowboys In leath- 
er 'chaps," added to the motley, and 
babies and dogs ranged the outer 

circle. 

And now the dancers filed Into the 
circle, some eight or ten ancient men, 
hardly one of whom was less than 
ninety years of age; Antonio, brother 
of the dead chief, and leader in his 
place of the ceremonials, a thin, bent 
figure whose toothless mouth and 
drawn parchment-like countenance 
bore an expression of dignified pathos 
eminently fitting to the occasion; 
Narciso, of a wonderful and powerful- 
ly muscled physique; Queresanto, 
whose Indomitable spirits have en- 
deared him to the tribe; Rafel Char- 
ley, Clnon Peno, Basllio, Ramone, each 
of stronglv marked individuality, the 
epitome of the old order w^hich was 
passing. Each was attired in the 
regalia of the war dance, with mark- 
ings of white, about his waist the 
"pluma," or feathered skirt, and 
bound to his head with a red ban- 
dana, a large pompon, or head dress 
of eagle feathers. Each was bare- 
foot, and on a signal they began a 
slow shufl!ling step upon the beaten 
earth, punctuating the dull thud of 
their foot falls with a low grunting 
•mh — m-m-hm!" which was the very 
essence of barbaric cadence, and suf- 
ficiently gruesome with its accom- 
paniment of fantastic, fire-lighted fig- 
ures, to make the knowledge of civil- 
ization all about, very comfortable. 
Then tho ear became aware of anoth- 



of tone, musical and droning as the 

song of bees on a quiet summer af- 
ternoon. Slowly this tone resolves 
itself into audible sound with a mono- 
tone of minor inflections, "hm-hm- 
hy-a-a" with a falling intonation at 
the end. Steadily the chanting in- 
creases in volume and climbs with 
each accession of sound to a higher 
pitch, a steady chest tone of bari- 
tone quality, resonant and piercing. 
This singing ig all in the ancient In- 
dian language, and vocal and 
elemental in sound as the voice of a 
forest animal or the audible pres- 
ence of wind-bowed trees and falling 
waters. As the chant rises so the 
dancing develops in fierceness and 
energy, the swaying, stamping figui*es 
joining into the refrain with strange 
growling bursts of song. Indescribably 
wierd in effect, like nothing so much 
as the pandemonium of forest cries 
and groans in a great storm, when 
trees and living creatnro*; are alike 
driven to expression of their stros-s. 
The whole thing is distinctly a re- 
versal to the aboriginal, and the wild 
gestures of the circling figures as they 
work themselves into a frenzy of 
bowing, swaying, stamping motion, 
the abandonment of the shrieking 
voices, passionate in rhythm, with 
alternating beat of two and three in 
the accent, and shaded dissonances of 
thirds and fifths our modern system 
of notation knows nothing of, is a 
glimpse straight down into that time 
of our beginnings, when the gap was 
small that separated us from the 
elemental, conscienceless nature 
mother. 

Red Men Parade in 
Coals of Burning Fire 

One crested figure now leaps from 
the circle and with a stick scatters 
living coals about the circle. BacK 
and forth, marching about this mas- 
ter of the fire the bare-footed danc- 
ers tread, stamping' through glowing 
embers, and now and again crouch- 
ing to gather them in their bare 
hands and putting them to the^r lips 
as though eating them. The spebtacle 
has become a veritable fire dance, 
and when at the pinnacle of emotion- 
al frenzy, without a signal, all ceases 
— the silence cuts into it as a knife 
severing a tautly drawn cable. The 
dancers walk quietly about, each ut- 
tering a tremulous indrawn breathing 
scund not unlike the neighing of a 
horse, and the war dance is finished. 

After a brief period for participants 
and spectators alike to relax, during 
which Ume a bon-fire is built direct- 
ly in the center of the circle, old 
Antonio appears with a rattle, an 
instrument formerly made of deer's 
toes enclosed In dried deer skin, but 
now consisting of a baking powder 
can with pebbles Inside. Shaking 
this In solemn rhythm, he marches 
about the fire with a curious twisting 
step which throws the body far to 
one side and then the other. Gradu- 
ally he is joined by the relatives and 
friends of the dead chief, Clnon, In 
a constantly augmenting procession, 
all following with the same twisting 
motion. 

Suddenly, from one side of the 
circle comes a piercing wail. It is 
Trinidad, only daughter of Cinon, and 
chief mourner. Her mourning be- 
comes an abandonment of grief, com- 
pletely dominating the droning song 
of the chanters, whifch has been re- 
sumed. Other women join in the 
mourning ,and the tears course un- 
restrained down their faces. The 
marchers, fully forty in number, old 
ahd young, in shawls and calic.'^es or 
white gowns and red ribbons, overalls 
and feather head dresses or blue and 
crimson kerchiefs and best clothes, 
take up the low Intoned mourner's 
chant. On a signal all ceases, and 
an announcement is made thM the 
sacred eagle will be killed as the 
morning star rises, without pain, and 
by magic, and thus the Indian medi- 
cine men will show their superiority 
to the American medicine men. 

Medicine Men Begin 
Task of Charming Bird 

The four "hechiceros," or medicine 
men, appear within the circle, in full 
regalia of feather headdress and 
plumed skirts, their faces hideously 
painted. These four, Narciso Chappa, 
Querosanto Peno, Rafel Charley and 
Cinon Peno bear the eagle. Narciso 
carries it about in the inner circle, 
close to the smoking blaze of the 
fire, and the procession resumes its 
swaying march and mournful chant- 
ing. The bird stares about with 
gaping beak and lolling tongue, and 
occasionally as the medicine man 
passes the weeping Trinidad she 
throws over its head yards of calicoes, 
red, white or black. As the dance 
progresses, interminably circling and 
chanting, the four medicine men be- 
come active in their efforts to 
"charm" the bird. With many gro- 
tesque gestures they in turn stand be- 
fore the helpless creature, which is 
held before them, and mutter or 
shriek incantations over it. Breath- 
ing heavily as though spent with 
running, they point their wizard 
wands at it, and grinning and shak- 
ing their heads, with glaring eyes, 
touch lightly the eagle's gaping beak. 
They blow tobacco smoke upon it, 
and with contorted countenances 
seemingly expend great energy in the 
"magic," and finally, when at least 
the white spectators have seen quite 
enough, the victim suddenly suc- 
cumbs, throwing back its fine head in 
a last quivering gasp, and with a 
final struggle to hold it erect, sinks 
slowly down upon its breast. The 
eagle is dead. The tension is over. 
Its spirit is freed, and its body is 
carried in triumph by first one and 
then another member of the tribe as 
the dancing continues. 

Contrary to custom, the burial of 
the eagle was postponed until the 
following morning, and the white 
spectators soon dispersed in the early 
dawning. The Indians spent the re- 
maining hours at peon, and monte. 
forming picturesque groups about 



dancer, and an attendant. Old Antonio 
beats the time with his rattle, and 
the dancer, a wiry athlete of about 
fifty years of age. leaps and whirls 
about the circle with an agility and 
sureness of direction that is little 
short of marvelous. Ho carries two 
short sticks in his hands, which he 
bents together at Intervals, and the 
energy and dexterity of his move- 
ments is a source of continual aston- 
ishment. Leaping into the air he 
whirls about three or four times 
until his f*»ather skirt stands out like 
a dervish dress. During this dance 
the mrnibors of the family of Clnon 
threw handfuls of coin into the rlnc,. 
nnd yards of bright colorod calicoes. 
gifts which their guests were free to 
.?tou forth and gather in. 

Eagle Buried With 

Impressive Ceremony 

Following thfff dfinro the flnni rft 
of tho fiesta took place, the burial 
of the eagle. This was perhaps the 
most dignified and impressive of all 
the ceremonies. It was of extreme 
sUnpliclty. One of the old men dug 
a tiny grave in the center of the 
circle, directly under the place where 
the firo had burned the previous even- 
ing. Then the bird, pluckfd of its 
longest feathers, which will be made 
into dancing skirts, and wrapped in 
red cloth, was brought to Antonio. 
The old men knelt In a circle about 
the grave, with bowed heads, and 
solemnly lifting and lowering all that 
was earthly of their -messenger, to the 
north and the south, the east and the 
west, while thf women chanted, the 
body was placed In the ground and 
covered with earth. Then with re- 
verent voice a low toned service In 
the Indian dialect was muttered by 
the kneeling men, with lifted hands, 
as though speeding the sacred mess- 
enger on his flnal flight, and the last 
Fiesta of the Eagle Dance was ended. 
DAISY EDITH KESSLER. 



♦ • ♦> 




WEHTHEIIilT 




Bark Lucipara Arrives From 

Antwerp With Big Cargo 

After Stormy Voyage 



After a voyage of 127 days, 
Scottish bark Lucipara, W. Henk 
master, from Antwerp, May 16 an- 
chored off the heads at 10 o'clock 
Friday night, and was to^ed to her 
anchorage in the stream by the tug 
Bahada at 11:30 o'clock yesterday 
morning. The bark encountered rough 
weather in rounding the horn, dur- 
ing which heavy seas smashed som-e 
of her deck flttings, but did no dam- 
age to her stout steel hull. One of the 
crew was also slightly Injured by 
these seas. 

The vessel reports seeing no Ice dur- 
ing the voyage. 

When off the horn, the Lucipara 
passed a bark with her mammast gone 
at the deck, and the mizzen topmast 
missing . The crippled craft did not 
exchange signals with the Lucipara, 
and was evidently bound to some 
northern port for repairs. 

The cargo of the Lucipara consists 
of 108,023 barrels of cement, 50 bar- 
rels of ginger ale, 2 50 barrels of mus- 
tard, 110 drums of bleaching powder, 
50 casks of alum and 5 of arsenic ccn- 
slgned to the Spreckels Brothers Com- 
mercial company. She also has 5000 
barrels of cement for Tacoma. wnithef 
she goes from here as aoon aa her 
cargo is unloaded. 

It will be a week before the work 
of discharging her cargo (which vill 
require 8 or 10 days to complete) is 
commenced, as the stevedores will be 
busy for several days with steamers 
now in port, and due to arrive. Ta« 
Lucipara was built at Greenock, ai d 
is of about 1800 tons register. 

First Mate James Buchan of tJiu 
Lucipara a typical sailorman for !5 
years ,once visited San Diego unc'er 
more tragic circumstances, hav ng 
landed here in December, 1894 from 
the ship Scottish Hills with 19 othe-s 
of the crow of thti Lord Lyndhurs . 
Captain Uels, which foundered dur- 
ing a gale off Cape Horn in October oiJ 
that year. The vessel was a total loss, 
but fortunately no lives were lost. 

In the saloon of the Lucipara. 

which is as snug and cozy as any a 

drawing room ashore, a canary bird 

sings in its cage swinging among 

plants and flowers ,as cheerily as if in 

a garde^l. A pet parrot, the mascot of 

the ship, which has not yet learned to 

swear, shares honors among the crew 

of 2 8 men with Leo, a handsome dog 

picked up at Port Lori Angeles last 

year. 

_- ^ • » 

AX A\VK\VAUD DODGE 



Milton D. Purdy, of tho United 
States department of justice, said iir 
Washington of a rumor brought to 
him for conlirmation by a reporter: 

**Thls rumor springs from Ignore 
ance of the law. I am surprisea 
that you should have credited it. 
The originator of that rumor is as 
plainly ignorant of the law as a cer- 
tain schoolboy wa|s of French. The 
boy's father said to him one night at 

dinner: 

•• 'Well, how are you getting on 
with your French, my son?' 

** 'Very well, thank you, sir,* the 
lad replied. 

"The father beamed with pleasure. 

" 'Ask politely in French for some 
pea.s,' he said. 

"There was an awkward pause, but 
the boy Anally said, 'But, father, I| 
d^n't want any peas. 



1 1$ 






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The San Francisco Sunday Call. 













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By D. £• Kessler 



T was my fortune this week to wit- 
ness a rcheai:sal of the famous eagle 



I dance, which wiir be given next 
Monday evening by the Mesa Grande 
Indians of southern California for 
probably the last time in their history. 
This, the most important of the Indian 
flestas, Is a I'are occurrence, the last 
liavm^ been held 20 years ago. 

The one to be held this year, for 
which elaborate preparations are being 
made by the remnant of a once power- 
ful tribe, is in honor of the death of 
their last hereditary chief, Cinon Duro, 
or, to give his Indian name, *'Mata 
Whur" (Hard Rock). This venerabla 
chief, the last representative of a line 
which extends back "to the beginning," 
was killed a year ago by a fall from a 
horse. His burial was attended by 
many rites and ceremonials peculiar to 
the tribe and was followed by a week 
of celebration of the "fiesta of the 
dead." Tho people left their homes and 
Igathered in tho brusli Inclosurc of tlie 
rancherla, the public meeting place, to 
lake part in the tata huila, or fcatlier 
dances,' wliicli are performed at sun- 
down, and the solemn "death dance/' 
which begins at the liour of darkness 
and continues its weird Incantations 
until well upon the dawn. 

Additional pathos Is added to the ap- 
proaching ceremonials by the fact that 
they undoubtedly mark the "passing of 
a people," a fact fully recognized by tho 
remaining handful of old men and 
women of tho tribe, as it was also a 
year ago by the aged chieftain, whose 
last words upon his deathbed wore, 
"Homo no sum — homo no sum" ("It Is 
fmished, the tribe is nnished"). With 
his passing, indeed, passed tlie most 
fiaered of tlie tinditions of the pcoplo, 
the "story of creation." which had been 
handed down from lime iniuicmorlal 
Irom chief to chief, to die with this last 
icprcsentatlvi*. 

Cinon*s brother, Antonio, who will 
lead the dancing and chant tho "Song 
of the Eagle," holds the offico of can- 
tadoro. and to him and his predeces- 
sors have been Intrusted this strange 
legend, a legend which will be chanted 
In the anoient language of the people, 
a language so old that not even the 
old men know the meaning of all its 
words,' whilo to the younger men It Is 
hut a meaningless jargon. Thl3 lan- 
guage, which in derived from tho old 
Yuman stock, is without douljt a thoTj- 
sand years old, and for the Indians it 
is, indeed, "from tho beginning of the 
world/' 



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Thh^, the final art of respect and 
mourning to be pai.l to any chief, is 
rich in slgniflcanco, * and its dignity 
and beauty will be bcttpr understood 
with a knowledge of its meaning. '?\\k^ 
eagle is to be the meaning through 
which li^cssages, a. last cnumunfcatlon 
from the living to tht; k\^'<kk\ will b« 
sent, and on the last night of tho danc- 
ing, as ri'o zxixy dawi: l.r-r^'ns to tingo 
the darkness of the starlit sky. amid 
mourning and chanting nf the people, 
the eaglu will die a mysterious, pain- 
less death, "without violence," and his 
mes.sage freighted spirit will Join' that 
of the departed chieftain. The largest 
feathers will then be plucked from the 
body of tho bird, to he made into head 
plumes and danrlnf? skirts, and tho 
body will he placed in a pit and cov- 
ered with ashes and earth. Then with 
loud rejoicings tho gathered multitude 
of Indians -will speed the departing 
sacred bird upon his heavenly mi.?sion, 
and to tlie annals of tho weird and 
wonderful eagle dances will also be 



written, 'Tlomo no sum," ft Is finished. 
A great concourse will be present 
during this time of fiesta, as tho Mesa 
Grande tribe has invited all the tribes 
<^»l! southern California aouth of the 
Santa Margarita, and among them will 
bo the La Jollas, Agiia Callentes. Palas, 
Scquons, Santa Isabels and Mission?. 
The occasion will be a rare opportunity 
for ethnologists and students of th»5 
life of these interesting remnants of a 
prehistoric people, and tho gathering 
of white men will not be far behind tho 
dark skinned visitors In number. 

The Silent Stars 

As we approached the bmch built ra- 
mada, called the rancherla or "took-a- 
muck/' through the star gemmed dark- 
ness of a moonless night, the low build- 
ing lay a black blur upon the land- 
sc?<pe, a reddish glow marking the spot 
within where the huge campHre fur- 
nished the sole illumtnatlon for the 
ceremonies. The oak studded hills rose 
d^ all gldc5, tow^.rlng In solemn grand- 



•E'A<a>Bl>ANa& 



«ur, impassively, even oppressively In- 
different to this tluy tragedy of struggle, 
the dying of a people who had been 
their nature mates back into tho ob- 
scurity of time. The calm void of tho 
sky. serene and clear, the cool sweet- 
ness of the air, even the faint voice of 
a far wandering coyote, expressed only 
a vast unconsciousness, an immutable 
serenity far removed from any hint of 
sympathy. 

We calcicd the rancherla and passed 
from the gloom of fts farther extremity, 
papt the tiny huts of tne ramada, lit by 
a feeble candle flame. Into the circle of 
dancIniT light cast by the log piled Are. 
A circle of spectators had already gath- 
ered about the raised dais of beaten 
ground whereon the bare footed dancers 
performed the weird steps of their in- 
ciintations. Many of the younger gener- 
ation of tho tribe were among the circle 
of onlookers, young men in the garb of 
the cowboys and girls in starched shirt 
waists and cloth skirts, with ribbons in 
their neatly dres.red hair. Several cow- 
boys with leathr-r "chaps" and Jingling 
spurs Idly laughed and talked with 
these younger Indians, who wore much 
more like them in appearance and men- 



T 

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tal attitude than the eight or so solemn 
old men, tho elders or the tribe, who 
were preparing for the ceremony. In 
the motley group, mingling with the 
cigarette smoking loungers, was a Mex- 
ican renegade, his sharp, black eyes 
and wiry frame marking him among 
the soft eyed, good natured faces and 
slouching figures; and one even yet 
more alien, although tied, by bond of 
blood, a half breed with finely chiseled, 
sensitive features and slender limbs, 
offspring of a younger son from an 
ancient English family of title and a 
Mesa Grande squaw — an Phigllsh lord 
for a grandfather, and for mother and 
grandmother an Indian squaw v/hose 
highest ambition was enough tobacco, 
a tule hut to squat under when the 
rains came and a red bandana f^^r h«?r 
hair once In the year. 



An Ancient Dance 

As we watched these fire lit faces and 
speculated upon the strangeness of the 
scene and tho portent of tho gathering, 
wo became aware of a suggestion of 
sound, differing from the subduod hum 
of talk In the outer circle, the chatter 
of children playing at tho far ond of 
the ramada, or the scuffling of dogs and 
crunching of tethered horses outsido 
tho wall of brush huts; tho veriest un- 
dcrbrcath of tone, musical and droning 
as tho song of bees on a quiet * sum- 
mer afternoon. A group of som*: 10 old 
women are crouched in a semicircle at 



the edge of the dais. They are, like 
tlie old men, of the ancient regime. 
Their shapeless figures are wrapped In 
blankets and about their gray locks are 
tightly bound bandanas. Their wrin- 
kjed faces are intent upon the scene 
before them; and, alternately smoking 
and humming, they- look tho spirit 
of the incantation they are invoking. 
The dancers, seven or eiglu in number, 
take up the strain, stamping softly, and 
nodding their beplumed heads as they 
mark tho time with low grunts. Kach 
is stripped to the waist, decorated on 
back and breast with pictures of hift 
"totem" or patron animal in ♦inle 
markings of white, bare legged, with a 
skirt of eagle feathers, and bound to 
his head witli a red bandana is a large 
pompon or head dress of eagle featlT*r.«. 

The clianting voices of the women be- 
come more audible, a steady chest tono* 
of barytone quality, swelling wltli a 
slow but constantly augmenting reson- 
ance. The rhythm now is strongly 
marked, with a heart piercing minor ca- 
dcuco, barbaiiCj^mournful. in a pathetic 
niarchhnr fatality bearing the burden 
of the song to its inevitable de.stlnj'. 

Tho words, vocal and elemental in 
sound, as the voice of a forest animal 
or tho audible presence of wind bowed 
trees and falling waters, repeat and 
vary as tho motif of the song sways 
higher axi4 sinks again In strange 
thirds and fifths, the voices accurately 
striking the shaded quarter tones that 



our modern system of notation Icnows 
nothing of. High or and higher In the 
scale rise the h^vy chest tones — the 
Indian knows no other — louder and 
more piercing ^;omes the swaying 
rhythm, with alternating beat of two 
and three in tho accent; and in response 
the circling figured work Into a frenzy 
of stamping, bov.-ing, uplifting of heads 
and hands, and fierce explosive guttu- 
rals. 'At this pinnacle of wrought up 
emotion, without a signal, without a 
warning, all ceases — the silence cuts It 
as a knife severs a taut cable. The 
dancers walk slowly about, each utter- 
ing a tremulous indrawn breathing 
sound not unlike the low neighing of a 
horsft; the head man (Mated by the fire 
throws back hiff head with an uplifting 
exclamation, twice repeated, as thougli 
calling upon the approval of his gods; 
the womon r<^lapse into a contemplative, 
cigarette smoking silence. A short 
period ensues, and tho low breathing 
droning is resumed, and with some 
ylight variations another canto of the 
story of tlio eagle is related. 

Inexpressively Imprr-slvo is this echo 
from a primoval tii)#-. j?j,vcd from gr^- 
tesquunoiis by its intense earnestness, 
the striving for expression of th« 
depths of a piimltive nature, a nature- 
whose vciy simplicity makes its mys- 
tery; the groping soul reaching to- 
ward the infinite, feeling as In tho 
darkness the call of that greater mys- 
tery/ tho author of its belas;. 













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! Mexican Rebels Lose One Fight, 
But Triumph in Another. 



15 KILLED NEAR CAMPO 



Insurgent Force of Sixty Trapped in 
Canyon and Scattered. 



/ 



Federals Make Spirited Assault on Mu- 
lata, While American Troops Watch 
From Opposite Bank of River— Fail to 
Dislodge Insurrectos— Attack on Juarez 
Again Deferred Until Arrival of Gen, 
Blaaco— Rebel General a Prisoner. 



San Diego. Cal., Feb. 8.-Fifteen rebels 
killed and 6 horses and 25.000 rounds of 
ammunition captured was the result of a 
battle between 60 rebels and 75 Mexican 
troops, under command of Capt. Gon- 
zales, which was fought in Picachlo can- 
yon, east of Campo, late yesterday after- 
noon. ■ , 

The battle, according to advices re- 
ceived by telephone, lasted 45 minutes. 
The federal troops had the advantage of 
position in the canyon, and poured a 
deadly fire into the rebel ranks. Within 
a short time fifteen rebels were killed 
and a number wounded. The rebels then 
fled eastward. 

As soon as the result of the fight was 
learned by Gov. Vega of Lower Califor- 
nia, he started in pursuit of the insur- 

rectos. 

Mulata. Mexico, Feb. 8.— Mexican sol- 
diers made a desperate attack on Mulata 
this morning. The federals were re- 
pulsed by Insurrectos. Troop H of the 
Third cavalry viewed the fight from 
American banks. 

Attack Again Deferred. 

El Paso, Tex.. Feb. 8.— By way of 
variation It Is predicted that Juarez will 
not be attacked tonight. Whether it is 
called upon to defend itself at all, seem- 
ingly depends upon whether Navarro, at 
the head of 1,000 federals from Chihua- 
hua, or Jose de la Lez Blanco with 350 
insurrectos from Casas Grandes, arrives 

first. 

A rumor reached here tonight that Nfi- 
varro had met with a reverse, but It was 
only a rumor. Wires being down, it 
could not l^e Investigated. 

if Navarro reaches Juarez fir 
would be fo 



Indian, ISO, Dies 

Near San Diego 

RIVERSIDE, Dec. 7.— Yellow Sky. 
eaid by United States Indian officials 
to have been about 130 years old. Is 
reported to have died Sunday night on 
the Lakeside reservation in San Diego 
County. According to the best records 
available, he had lived in the same lo- 
cality more than 100 years. Yellow 
Sky did not like to wear the ordinary 
suits of modern days. Instead, summer 
and winter, he garbed himself in a ca- 
I>aclou3 overcoat, I 



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«5| Clipping 
f® Bureau 



.OS ARGELES. 

^ ^ SAN FftANCISCO 

ORTLAMO.ORE. 
LIPPING FROM 



Mfwi*. OAtN. imwn v 

KOYEMBEK 2i, 19S2 



nppe^^t New Invention^ 
Provedhu Madame Catalina 




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Si^ ■ . , I r~C^alina of the ^mm 

A^ed^tmin^ Mountain In- tribe, she admitteTVitli a 

'dTaf W^n Always Has b^^ *.t .. . the o„..aa> 

Bobbed' Her Hair. 



By THE MOUNTAIN GYPSY 
r— ni-APPERS with bobbed lialr 
I T7^ I are as old at least as Cata- 

r I Una, whose picture shows 
1 I I that this enticing style of 
I-*- J knob ornamentation was 
w^long before skirts to the knees 
and a swagger gait became fash- 
ionable. , ^ «„ *» 
The rest of Catallna's name Is a 
mystery. All that is known of her 
SYhIt she is a very aged Cuyapipe 
squaw of Laguna mountain, who 
once wove baskets so hard aiid 
tight that she could cook her ven - 
son m them, and carried l^er prlml- 
live husband's heavy burdens 
without humping ^er back. 

Her hair Is decidedly bobbed. 
She herself explained that it was 
the custom to cut it short in he 
days before the white man took the 
deer away from the Indians. Long 
hli? woufd tangle itself too readily 
in the brush. And skirts! They 
tangle, too, no matter how short. 
Why, then, wear them? 

Catalina, however, now wears a 
long skirt, that the march of clv- 
lization brought her, no doubt a 
ong time ago, judging by its ap- 
nearance. It was a faded red, em- 
beUished with a pattern of arge 
flowers and looked as though It had 
been bought when frontier^n 
paid for their ^'Uc^— ' ° 
er" In 




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yp $361 ,428 Ft 
JE§EPil 9IB 

Semlm Fall Advises This 
^H^ssary to Remove 

Indians From El Capitan. 



A. B. Fall, secretary of the In- 
terior, threw a very interesting 1 ght 
on the question of water develop- 
ment in San Diego yesterday when 
he addressed a letter to the city at- 

i?om the lands of the Proposed El 
,Ktan reservoir site on the San 

^'^S'mSiely after receiving tWs 
imp'siee the council went into ses 
'"ion wtih the city attorney, but 
ea^h^d no definite conclusion. 
'"Not ions ago the ^^^^^^^'f.^^^ 
LCThe^UseT.^o^'^CdT-r^ 

E-^h^ld-thlt .-^^OOr^is^afo i 

E- ■rtLTirs-xr o^^^^ 

nferior should fix the amount nec- 
.«^rv for procuring new Ifnof-, 
novh^g the Indians to these lands 
md procuring water rights for the] 

'S^o^nTdSd upon .y sec-, 

t^trh^nfa^ulsXt^i^alcostofdeal- 
-.ht^^nran^r^^ri^Pf^as tJ 

}ivTn;'"n Ve grounl^.hat will be 
lliving "n /"': » jty decides upon 
irlooded if tnc ^'y " _, r-nnitai 
Liilding a dam at the El Capital 

'""-When the councilmcn heard th. 
Ino^s from Washington ye^t^erda 
there was little comment. T^n^ cJi> 
Luorney. however, ^^e^ared ha 
oven at the price set by Secretary 
i,-oii'lhc El Capitan site is in« 
cheapest that San Diego can no^^ 
^v?ocure on the San Diego river. 

'••^^ h"J.Si^ engineer has m.d^ 
., report on all the resource., of thd 
■4,n Diego river and rccommende 

states roclama'ion service to m.iUc 

.. «iirvev of the river. ' . , 

" T,o council yesterday T-ece.ve4j 

lol or from the chamber of com-l 

;o,vo asumg that Davis be etn 

ploved to make a Report on the en . 

tire water resources of t1 e f o ""yj 

Tt w»s voted, however, that be hH 

onsaged to make a report on thn 

rh^r^ one and that the council 

oouUl talk with '^"^/';ff^^;""g,''*';'r.| 
^vater development after he ar i 

rives. 



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TJMfOSnSBI .428 
^ TpOVE INDIANS 

Ifv t^ inty moves the Indians 
off m Oipltan reservation to make 
way 4oj^ reaervoir there, It will 

cost miWs. 

At a recent oo art bearing it was 
held that $76,000 was enough for 
the Und« that may be condemned. 
Secretary of the Interior Fall now 
Informs the city council that now 
lands for the Indians, water rights 
and coat of moving theLi will he 
$286, 42S. The city attorney ex- 
presses the belief that, at that 
price, the El Capitan site is the 
best available. 



■-!■> :''){'. 







Late Miss Ora SaJJions Had 
Served Native Sc?Vi4s of 
S, D. County 35 Years. 



After having devoted the greater 
part of her life to teaching in the 
Indian reservation schools of Cali- 
fornia. Miss Ora Salmons, 70 years 
old, died yesterday morning after a 
short illness at the home of her 
mother, Mrs. Mary A. Salmons, 1520 
Grove street. 

Idiss Salmons was bom In At- 
lanta, Ga., and came to California 
about 35 years ago when she en- 
gaged In teaching at one of the 
Indian schools in the northern part 
of the state For more than 25 
vears she was in charge of the In- 
dian school at the Pala reservation, 
remaining there until last October 
when she was retired under civil 
service regulations. 

On that occasion she was given a 
notable reception by residents of 
that co'mmunlty and bad the pleas- 
ure of receiving congratulations 
from three generntions of Indians 
whom she had taught during her 
period of service on the reservation. 
Since her retirement Miss Sal- 
mons has made her home with her 
mother in San Diego. Shei is sur- 
vived by her mother, who is 91 
years old; two' brothers. Frank A. 
Salmons of this city and Lk^uIs Sal- 
mons of Oceanslde. and a sister, 
Mrs. JarviK of San Diego. 

Private funeral services will be 
held from the residence tomorrow 
morning at 11 oVlock. 






ms ATVr.FT.F.S, CAT- 



W- 

"t.''' 



M^,v--: 







7%e World at Large 



(A WEEKLY RECORD OF INDIVIDUAL OPINION) 

' *^ By JAMES B. BLOOR 



"A CRY FROM MACEDONIAI" 
"Let there be silence for a mo- 
ment in the synagogue of the Con- 
gregation of the Faithful this blessed 
Sabbath morning/* wrote John Ste- 
ven McGroarty for his page in the 
Sunday Magazine of the Los An- 
geles Times. "Let there be silence 
that the ears of the Faithful may 
hear and the hearts of the Faithful 
feel. There has come a cry from 
Macedonia, saying: 'Come Over and 
Help!' " Mr. McGroarty then pro- 
ceeds to interpret the cry in his 
inimitable, heart- reaching way. The 
greater part of the interpretation is 
reproduced here. To no better use 
could this column be devoted. It is 
a classic of the kind that will live 
long after its writer has passed on 
to the reward that so deservedly is 

his: 

"On the Volcan Mountain that 
looms in shining glory over the little 
valley of Santa Isabel in San Diego 
county, there are several families of 
Indians. They are all who are left 
of the great hosts that once claimed 
that region as their own. God put 
them there when the world was 
young. They embraced the Chris- 
tian faith when the brown-robed 
padres came to California. They 
built a Mission in the valley of Santa 
Isabel, and they were very happy 
and prosperous there through many 
a long and sunny year. 

"Then came a black and evil day 
when their Mission was confiscated 
by the Mexican government, and 
their lands taken from them. Of 
the vast domain that once was 
theirs all that is left to them now 
is the barren mountain and its nar- 
row canyons. 

"Our Government encouraged these 
Indians to raise cattle, which they 
have done. But now come the 
American owners of the valley of 
Santa^Isabel to tell the Indians that 
the spread of grazing grouVid on 
which the cattle feed, and without 
which the cattle will starve and die, 
belongs to the white man's ranch. 
And that unless our Government 
purchases this grazing ground the 
Indians must take the cattle off. 
Which means death to the cattle. 
And which makes an end of the 
Indians, too, for that matter. 

"It makes the heart sick to think 
of it. To think of the endless wrong 
our Government has perpetuated 
on the Indian peoples everywhere 
within the nation's borders. 

"Is it never to end? Will we 
never be satisfied until we leave 
the Indian without a rod of ground 
on which to stand? Must it be that 



we shall never stop our persecution 
of the poor and the helpless red 
man? 

"We shall have plenty of time to 
explain it to God on the last Gr^t 
Day. But, how can we explain it 
to God? will the excuses that we 
now make to ourselves satisfy God 
on the last Great Day? 

"And, leaving God out of it, alto- 
gether, if you wish, whkt kind of 
people are we that we stand content 
in the shadow of our «wn brutal 
shame? 

"Well, here is now a specific in- 
stance put before us that we may at 
least make an effort to right our- 
selves. 

"And this is What we want every 
member of the Congregation of the 
Faithful to do this very day— to do 
it before lying down to sleo^ to- 
night. We want each g.fiC every one 
who sits under tha eaves of our far- 
fiurtg Synagogue to write to his Con- 
gressman, and to every Congress- 
man you know or that you know 
about, to go straight to the Indian 
Bureau in Washington, and to the 
great White Father, himself, if nec- 
essary, and to see that steps are 
taken at once to save the Indians 
of the Volcan from this disaster 
which threatens their very exist- 
ence. 

"Never mind details. Just say' 
that the Indians of the Volcan res- 
ervation in Southern California are 
I being deprived of grazing land for 
their cattle. And tell the Congress- 
man to get busy. Congressmen are 
your hired men. You employ them 
to work for you. Out of your pock- 
ets you pay them their wages. You 
have a right to order them about. 
And be sure you know whether or 
not they carry out your orders. De- 
mand that the Congressman write 
and report to you. You will get a 
letter saying, dear sir or dear 
madam, I have received yours of 
such and such a date and will give 
the matter my attention, etc., etc. 
But, don't let it go at that. iDe- 
mand that he tell you just what he 
has done. .And keep after him. He 
is your hired man. Make him do 
what you tell him. 

"Make your Congressman force 
the cobwebbed, moss-covered, vi- 
ciously-lazy Indian Bureau and the 
great Government of the United 
States to come to the rescue of the 
poor outraged and wronged Indians 
of the Volcan. 

"God will bless you if you do this 

great act of charity. 'Though I 

i speak with the toDgues of men and 

» of angels, and hal^e not charity, I 



am become fs sounding brass or aj 
tinkling cynjbal.' said Paul to the 
Corinthians. [ Which means that un- 
less we help folks who need help we 
are mere, unnecessary noises. 

"As the sands of the sea are those 
who sit in the Synogogue. In the 
four corners of the earth dwell the 
members of our Congregation of the 
Faithful. They are of all creeds and 
of no creed, of every nation and 
every race. Rich man, poor man, 
beggar man and all, high men and 
low men. Democrats, Republicans, 
Socialists, Prohibitionists and of 

every party. 

"And so, if each and every one 
that sits in the Synagogue will take 
a hand to save the Indians of the 
Volcan, it will be done. And there 
shall be great joy in the high heav- 
ens around the throne where the 
Lord God of the Ages sits^ ia-«is 

olden chair." 






110-Year-Old Indian Dies. 

SAN DIEGO, Calif., May 24.--Juan 
de la Cruz Pipe, said to be 110. Is 
dead at the Connejo Indian reserva- 
tion, according to word received htre. 
One of his two sons said Juan never 
ate flesh of domestic animals or vege- 
tables such as grown by white men 
and always arose at 4:30 a.m. an** 
took a bath in a cold ^tream. 



fii* rte^o. r^f*^ iiii;La?e f^* 



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■^ . 




CITES ACT OF CONGRESS 
ON EL CAPITAN LANDS 



ture to tlilnk' 
b© interested Ii 
tlie act of conj 
d«i?nnation by ih€» 





ven- 

^c will 

ana 8 jpid 5 of 

aTiiftorMngr con- 

cliy of land« \r\ 



the Oaplt^n (Grande Indian reser- 
vation. An Inspection of the map 
f^howpc that the construction of the 
dam at M Capltan will involve the 
, flooding: of all tho habitable and 
;ti)lable lands in this reservation. 
The sections are as folfows: 

'*Sec. 3. * * * F^rovided further, 
that the secretary of the interior 
shall require from the city of San 
Dle^o In addition to the award of 
condemnation such further i»uni 
which, in hifii opinion, when added 
to »aid award, will be sufficient In 
the agfrregute to provide for theij 
liurchase of additional landa fpr thel 
Capltan Orahde band of.lndlana| 
Hh© erection of fimttable homes for 
the Indians on the lands so pur- 
chased, the erection of siich schools, 
(lurches and aidmlnletrative build- 
ing, the slnkdn^ of eucih wells and 
the conHtruction of euchg:H)ad8 and 
ditches, and providing- wa/ter and 
water rififhts and for such other ex- 
penses as may be deemed necessary 
by the secretary of the Interior 
properly to establish these Indians 
permanently on the land» pur- 
chased for them * * * 

*'Sec. 5. Thnt said reservoir, 
when constructed, shall be main- 
tained and contrnllpd by the city of 
rtan TMeg^o for the use and benefit 
of «aid city a>nd the inhabitants 
thereof and of such other munici- 
palities within the county of Ban 
T>ioffo, state of Oallfornia, as may 
be now or hereafter fumipf'.ed with 
water by said olty of Ban Diego, and 
for the use and benefit of riparian 
owners along the Sa.n Diego river 
below the lands herein described, 
and for the benefit of persons, cor- 
porations or municipalities situated 
along or adjacent to the pipe lines^ 
of «aid city of San Diego for th 
conservation and storage of wat 
for domestic, irrigation or muni 

Ipal uses. • ♦ ♦ /• 

A. HAINES. 




Old Indian Chief 
stable^ Sheriff and 
Leader at Pala Reservatio 



li^ 



(.Captain wbmlngo Moro, 58t 
Still Heads Indian Band 
Ejected fronVHome in 1903 



By J. H. HEATH 

Secretary San Bie^o Back Country 

Olub 

'' PATjA, June 21. — Of the Indians 
on the Pala reservation wht) are 
making successful agTiculturalists 
on the fertile lands provided for 
them by the grovernment at the 
time of their ejectment from their 
beloved homes at Warner Hot 
Springs, 21 years ago, Capt. Do- 
mingo Moro, at the age of 58, is 
one of the most interesting as well 
as one of the most popular. 

Capt. Moro is a son of the late 
Adolph Moro, chief of the Coapa 
tribe of Mission Indians, at the time 
of their ibanishment from Warners. 
He had held the official positions 
of police officer, constable and dep- 
uty marshal, and was considered 
an important person in the com- 
munity. Moreover he was a (good 
officer of the law. Thirty years 
ago he helped to capture, among 
others. the notorious criminal, 
Francisco Wabish, near Warner. 
He holds the <;ommlsslon as chief 
of police at Pala, and also con- 
stable and deputy sheriff. When- 
ever there is serious trouble on 
the neighboring reservations Cai)t. 
Moro is summoned. **But," he says, 
"the Indians are very well behaved 
and they cause us very little 
trouble.'* 

OliD CHIEF RETVIAINS 

Chief Adolph Moro, father of 
Domingo, was not obliged to leave 
Warner wlthi the rest of this )peo- 
ple for the reason ^that he ha^ se- 
cured, by homesteading, 160 acres 
of land about a mile up the valley 
from the springs, which was not In- 
cluded in the Warner rancho, put- 
ting him beyond the reach of the 
white men in the crusade of eject- 
ment. 

Chief Moro elected to remain on 
the ranch, while I>omIngo made 
the transfer to Pala. And it is said 
that his influence on the Indians 
had much to do with their final de- 
ci.^ion to submit to ejectment with- 
out bloodshed. He takes an active 
interest in agriculture. 

Finally, however, Chief Moro, be- 
coming old and feeble, moved with 
the remainder of h la family to Pala 
in order to be near Domingo. 

The Warner ranch holdings of 
the Moros were sold to R. P. 
Franck, San Dleg4 manufacturer, 
for $10,000. Fi-Jinlk has made It 
one of th© show pl«es of the coun- 
ty, having investefc thousands ofi 
dollars In the erectiln of new build 



vi>- 



DOMINGO MORO 

Aiid l*o's tlie chief of police of 
Pala. What is more, he is one 
of the most siicxjsessful agricul- 
turalists of the Pala Indian 
reservation. Ho is the son of 
Adolph Moro, who was cliief 
of the Indians when tkey were 
ejected from Wai'iier Springs, 
:jr years ago. 













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inga and in the development of the| 
farming acreage. 

Besides his wife Pomlngo Moro'sl 
family consists of two daughter??. 
one married and the other ^jilftpil 
at the Sherman Indaln s^JTCol at| 
Riverside. 









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V » 






PAYON HILSCHMEUP. once a proud 
chieftain of the fighting clan of the 
Hilschmeupa, ot the tribe of Cuyapipe 
(Wee-a-pipe), la the oldest man in the 
world 1 At all events, he looks the part 
and those who have talked with the 
ancient chieftain corroborate his as- 
sertion. 

This last remnant of the most soutK- 
western tribe, lives today in a tin^ 
tule-woven hut, hidden from curioua 
white eyes, with his wifcf Apechuck; hia 
granddaughter, Gertrude, and his son, 
Jose, was born when his savages roamed 
the mountain ranges from Descanso to 
Cahipo and far eastward into the desert 
•—and he ruled with an iron hand. 

His hereditary enemy was that other 
desert tribe, the Cocopahs, who held 
sway below Yuma on the Colorado Riven 
Many were his battles and many were 
the scalps he brought away from battle. 
He lived the rigorous life of the old- 
time American Indian, but he escaped 
unhurt and lived till white men brought 
their modern contraptions to his front 
door. 

In San Diego County the moun- 
tain flowers are in bloom, but Payon sees 
none of these; he can only inhale the 
fragrance which brings to him memories 



/ 



1 Warrior, 
Mountain 



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Said to Be 140 Years Old— Born 
in 1784, Shortly After American 



teiifitioW*'': -^liiiiiiii 



One hundred and 
forty years of life 
is the claim made 
for Payon^ once the 
proud chief of the 
Cuyapipe Indians. 









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of the glorious day when he led his own 
band of warriors dashing along the crest 
of the numerous ranges crossing the 
present American-Mexican border; for 
his "territory" included many miles on 
both sides. 

There can be little doubt that Payon'a 
wife and relatives speak the truth when 
they tell, in their native guttural lan- 
guage, of the old chief's age. They have 
few friends among the white race. Their 
method of life and civilization of the 
white man are too different. They tol- 
erate the few whites who find them 
v/here they live, in Cuyapipe Valley, at 
the ba«e of I.aguna Mountain, the home 
Payon has chosen for his declining days* 
but, occasionally, some "pale face" be- 
comes their friend. 

•pDWARD H. DAVIS, a pioneer of the 
^ old school, with his home in the San 
Diego, Calif back country, knows the 
old chief. He has taken food and cloth 
ing to Payon and has arranged shelter 
lor hitn on several occasions Hil 
schmcup's sightless eyes light tin with 
pleasure when Davis comes from hu 
ranch into the uncharted cauntry to visit 
them. 

"Payon and his old wife liv, in a email 
tule hut not much larger than a doll 
house, about 100 feet from his son Josa'. 
house," reminisced Davis after a recent 
visit to the aged warrior. ''Jose hi^ 
Bon, is a giant strapping man and is 
employed on the reservation. Outside i^ 
a semicircular brush lnclosur« ^ui^t 



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curiosity. She stands aside in silence 
while an occasional coin is dropped into 
her hand. 

The spot on which the old station 
stands is historic. The trail tra- 
versed the then Colorado desert, now 
the great Imperial Valley; crossed the 
famous Warner's ranch and stopped 
again at San Diego. It was in use dur- 
ing the gold days and the days of the 
building of the Mexican continental rail- 
way Now cattlemen ride on the road 
frequently and an occasional automo- 
liSts chooses it a. an ^Ucrnate route 

The buUding Is 
constructed of 
adobe (sun-baked 
mud;, bricks and 
the roof supported 
by pine and cedar 
logs which have 
been there as long 
as tiY\y natives can 
rrmember. They 
were, presumably, 
brou^^bt clown the 

the 



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of the glorious day when he led his own 
band of warriors dashing along thj crest 
of the numerous ranges crossing the 
present American-Mexican border; for 
his "territory" included many miles on 
both sides. 

There can be little doubt that Payon*a 
wife and relatives speak the truth when 
they tell, in their native guttural lan- 
guage, of the old chief's age. They have 
few friends among the white race. Their 
method of life and civilization of the 
white man are too different They tol- 
erate the few whites who find them 
v/here they live, in Cuyapipe Valley, at 
the base of I^aguna Mountain, tha hom9 
Payon has chosen for his declining days* 
but, occasionally, some "pale face" be'^ 
comes their friend. 

T?DWARD H. DAVIS, a pfoneer of tK. 

Diegro. Caht, back country, knows the 
old chief. Ho has taken food and cloth- 
mg to Payon and has arranged shelter 
for km on several occasions in 
schmcup's sightless eye, light up with 
pleasure when Davis comes from H. 
ranch Into the uncharted country to visit 
vnem* 

"Payon and hfs old wife live in a «n,-n 
tule hut not much larger than a "oU 
house about 100 feet from his son Jose^ 
house," reminisced Davis after a t^! ! 
visit to the aged warrior. "Jose m 
Bon, is a giant strapping man and k 
employed on the reservation. Outslrf*. ! 
a semicircular brush inclosure wHnh 
serves as a wind-break, kitchen and sun 
parlor and all the activities of the «Wu 
household center here. "^^* 

"A small fire in the middle kent .11 

by Shoving the sticks up :;'tt:nd: 
barn, serves to do the primitive cooldn^f 

Squatting in front of the fire a verv S 
man (Payon) totally blind, face deepj 
wrinkled and shrunken, mouth iraDinc^ 
Bhowing gums devoid of teeth; scatter^ 
ing coarse white hairs on his chin and 
a mat of snow-white hair on his head 
He was very deaf, but his memory 
peemed good in spite of his age and in- 
firmities. He was the mere husk of a 
once proud chief. 

"Seated near him was his buxom wife, 
who was cracking. and husking acorns', 
preparatory to pulverizing them in a 
nearby Cal-moo or stone mortar. Ape- 
chuck's head was crowned by the snows 
of over ninety winters, but she was still 
strong and able to perform her simple 
household duties. Sweeping, dustings 
housccleaning, dishwashing were not in« 
eluded among her accomplishments. 

"She still goes some miles to groves 
of live oaks, where she contests with 
the ground squirrels for a few quarts of 
acorns and carries them on her back. 
She can still lift and crush the acorn 
meal with the heavy stone mano or 
pestle. She still gathers great back- 
loads pf fagots for the fire and carries 
oUas filled with water; follows the rocky 
and brushy trails barefooted as she has 
done since she was a child. 

"I presented clothing and tobacco to 
this aged couple and they sorely needed 
them. The old chief cackled and chuckled 
with childish delight when he felt the 
new shoes, as his bare feet frequently 
ftep on growing barbed cactus when he 
is led over the trail, and even his tough 
hide is not proof against cholla spines. 
"Both Payon and the old lady are 
greatly pleased with modern clothing 
end they are comparatively comfortable 
in cold weather. They live now in Cuya- 
pipe, far up the slope of Laguna Moiin- 



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Payoti and his wife, Apechuck, spend most of their time doziiig in 
the sun and breathing the death-defying air of California's 
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tain, which is their old home. There a 
great rock, resembling a leaning castle, 
300 feet high, farther up the mountain 
side, dominates the valley from which it 
takes its name (in English) 'Wee-a-pipe,' 
meaning 'leaning rock'. " 

The old Cuyapipe is known— if his own 
family may be believed — to be 140 years 
old. These people do not reckon time by 
caiennar years, but by seasons and by 
reference to events. Payon was born 
before the more adventurous came West, 
long before California became a State. 

While the last of the Hilschmeups 
counts the rapidly passing da^s there 
under the towering forest of trees, alone 
with his thoughts save for Apechuck, 
Gertrude and Jose, visitors on horseback 
occasionally stumble onto his home; then 
depart with little knowledge of the 
older^ primitive life the four represent. 



TT WAS about ten years ago that 
•*• Payon "was discovered" by wandering 
riders, when a party of mountain people 
living in that vicinity found him near 
the Laguna ranger station. He had 
been there, far from cities, for many 
years; no one knows how many. 

He was taken to the Indian Reserva- 
tion over the trail that is still the chief 
line of communication between his hut 
and the outside world and there he tried 
to see with his fading eyes the white 
men who have crowded him from his 
lands; accepted with forbarance the new 
names for his ancient gods and acquired 
tastes the whites have not given him 
money to gratify. 



Later he grew weary of the reserva- 
tion and moved to his present hut, whero 
one may find him blinking at the same 
sun that smiled on him more than a 
century ago. The trail begins at the 
"tin store" and faalts^ abruptly at the 
end of its rocky course near the rough 
bench beside which Payon sits the day 
through. 

The course of the trail winds its way 
at first under pines that give way to 
stubby oaks at the lower level, with hers 
and there a cactus growing in the shal- 
low sands that absorb the water from ths 
brook, i-unning from the thickets of 
roses and the tangles of clematis to 
form cascades about the roots of ths 
willow trees. In front of his highly un- 
comfortable home, which contains a scant 
handful of necessities, are fields of 
yellow daisies which blend gracefully 
with the cardinal flowers and the Ind* 
paint brush growing on the side. ^^^ 

But Payon has not been too'hann 
amid these surroundings. He would n 
fer even now to roam the rocky regfo^^* 
at his pleasure. He became too feebl' 
years ago, though, and was forced to seek 
seclusion, where he might be alone wits 
his family— and memories of hfg fi^Uf 
ing tribe; of brave red men who ranged 
to hunt down deer and wild beasts and 
on occasion, white man. * 

When white settlers first knew Payon 
they paid little attention to him' 
He occupied his tule hut, hidden from 
prying eyes and storms, but gradually 
was shoved further away to the hot 
sands down the mountain. 



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Upon the shoulders of Gertrude, a maiden of almost threescore and ten, 
falls the burden of supporting her grandparents, which she does by 

weaving baskets 



curiosity. She stands aside in silence 
while an occasional coin is dropped into 
her hand. 

The spot on which the old station 
stands is historic. The trail tra- 
versed the then Colorado desert, now 
the great Imperial Valley; crossed the 
famous Warner's ranch and stopped 
again at San Diego. It was in use dur- 
ing the gold days and the days of the 
building of the Mexican continental rail- 
way. Now cattlemen ride on the road 
frequently and an occasional automo- 
bilists chooses it as an aUernate route 
between the Pacific Ocean and E Centre, 

in Imperial Valley. 

The building is 
constructed of 
adobe (sun-baked 
mud>, bricks and 
the roof supported 
by pine and cedar 
logs which hav# 
been there as long 
as any natives can 
remember. They 
were, presumably, 
brought down the 
steep trail from the 
Lagunas. A for- 
lorn cemetery, with 
a single headstone, 
stands back of the 
building, and the 
inscription "John 
Hart, age 31, died 
1853," graces the 

stone. 

payon loves to 
go to this solitary 
outpost of those 
days and to sit 
there with the 
women in silent 
contemplation for 
many hours. He 
senses a peculiar 
relief in his as- 
Bociatlon with old 
memories. Hie 
visits become more 
Infrequent, how- 
ever, and the day 
will soon come 
when he will make 
these short jout^ 
neys no longer. 

The span of Pay- 
on*s life covers al- 
most the entire life 



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As the last days of the old-time mon- 
arch of the Indians wear on, the two 
women who have known him longest and 
love him best, sit by. The first of these, 
Apechuck, attends his personal needs 
and wants and tills the soil. Gertrude 
makes ollas, or Jars, of soft clay and 
mud, coiling the earth rope fashion, then 
patting it firmly and smoothly in place 
with a small wooden paddle. »he sets 
them aside in the shade after molding 
and occasionally adds a modern touch 
by firing them in a liHle oven nearby. 
Gertrude also weaves baskets and from 
the sale of these and the ollas to the 
people in San Diego and Los Angeles 



the three manage to eke out an 
existence. 

Occasionally, Jose packs Payon and 
Apechuck in their rickety buckboard, 
which they keep down the trail nearer 
the modern highway, and carries them 
to the last material vestige of their own 
civilization. It is the old Vallecito stage 
station which was once an overnight 
stopping place on the yet older Butter- 
field Trail, running from St. Louis to 
San Francisco, by way of Yuma. 

APECHUCK studies the faces of 
strange people whom she may meet 
on these pilgrimages with a placid sort of 



of the Jlcpublic, for 

th« surrender at ^of ;^°"' ^'^^^^Viook 
ally ended the Re- ^^^^ 
eltSatHf h\ra;/l}e correct He^g^^^^ 
to manhood and led his warriors on 
forays long before the white man pene- 
trated the Western fastnesses. 

NOW the withered chief is only a pa- 
thetic husk of the once heroic figure. 
Time has robbed him of sight and dulled 
nU his other senses, and his chief de« 
ijgut is to sit in the sun smoking tun 
white man's tobacco. Little trickles oi 
smoke lift from the bowl of his pip^ 
as he dreams of other days. 



lA^^mSoO. CAT.,. TniBUWH 49 





KTER KM 




:ise ih^ fpmchiwse 



About 100 

dians will 

granted them by the ciitiben&hip 
act, passed by congress in its recenti 
sessions, at the Nov. 4 g"eneral elec- 
tion. County Clerk J. B. McLees 
states that the election machinery 
is in shape to handle the redskins 
in the reg-ularly constituted pre- 
cincts. 

Some counties prescribe limita- 
tions on the Indians, such as proof 
of payment of poll taxes, property 
ownership and educational qualifi- 
cations, fbut 'McLees states they can 
vote in San Diego county if they 
ca.n write their names. In some 
i-tates the Indians live on closed 
reservations, where precinct boun- 
daries have no weight, 'but none 
find themselves in this predicament 
in California^. , 

One thousand adult Indians live 
in San Diego county, according to 
an estimate by the county clerk. All 
of them have not awakened to the 
fact that (f'hey can vote Nov. 4. 'ho 
ever. Mcl^ees anticipates it Wl 
take several years to get out mac 
of an Indian vote. 



ret, CUflTTRO. CAI.- »««* 

OCT. 16. IW* 



m^bns Soon to 
Be Able to ¥6te 



This County 




Resorvj 



Indians on tlic Yuma 
111 this county will be 
qualified '4of^\^ in the election 
I next after th|r presidential poll on 
Novembeft* 4, according to L. L, 
Odle, superintendent of the roser- 
Ivation near Yuma, following the 
granting. of the franchise to Indians 
in the XJlii'ted States who comply 
with thrt national, and state laws. 
Only S5 will be eligible to vote on 
November 4, owing to the failure 
|of the rest to register in time. 

It is considered by thosoi w^U in 
touch with thd situation that the 
Yuma Indians might be able, in 
some cases to hold the balance of 
pow€ r , in the electoral affairs of 
I the Imptvrial County, as such elec- 
tions generally hinge on a few hun- 
dred votes on Imperial Valley mat- 
ters. 

The Indians in the past have- not 
paid much attention to the affairs 
of the Imperial Valley, as they are 
I cut off geographically by 50 miles 
of uninhabited desert country. They 
have felt heretofore that the coun 
tv seat is in a distric^t apart trfmi 
them. 



s Wax 



•«^ 



Milt Road Throu 
Bru^h tcyBuru Indian Wc 

Mari 



-^ 



.,«*.i^lto one of the Itvst of If^gitos. tribe of Indians, 
who died recently. She was bom and raised at Descauso 
and was well known throughout the county. She was buried 
in the Indian cemetery at Laguna. ^_^_ 



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I I I J I . I ' . ■ ■■■.■.. ...m m^mmm^mmmmmmmm^^m 







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The story of how a road, four 

miles long, was cut through the 

underbrush so that the casket con- 

, taining the l?ody of Maria Alto, one 

I of the la.st of Xagitjo tribe of In- 

■ (lians, who died' recently, could be 

taken to the Indian cemetery at 

Lagunas, was told yesterday at 

Descanso 

Following the ceremony at Al- 
pine, where Indians from four re- 
servations, Canajos, Dehesa, CamPo 
and Capitan. paid their last re- 
spects, the body, w^as taken by truck 
to a lodge owned by Hulburd 
Grove. 

Here the coffin w-as placed on 
the floor. Two lighted candles 
were placed beside the coffin and 



throughout the hisht, tw^o of the 
dond woman's friends kept their] 
s-.rM vigil. 

KJU,: the road had been cut 
th.oiT-;'.! the underbrush the next 
(lav. the casket was placed in a 
wagon — a motor truck could not 
traverse th6 road — and was takenj 
to the little Indian cemeterj 
where Marie's mother and gran/-| 
mother are bui'ied. 

The casket was placed i"/*"^ 
grave. The earth was heap«i on 
top and a wooden cross, without 
an inscription of any kindl was| 
placed as a marker. 

Marie was born and r^fered at 
Descanso and was wejl known | 
throughout the county. 






ndian 



llndii 




Country in Need 
Of Warm jClothes 

Tlie oomln^r of oool weather 

in the mountains has hrougrht 
fortli lau annual appeal in be- 
lialf of tlie needy Jndians of 
th«t section of the oonnty. It 
is fop cast-off c]othtn|2r to help 
Uiose Indians lieep wami un- 
til the spring sun begins to 
sliino again. 

Kd I>avi.s, who lives at Mesa 
Graiule and who is known 
and beloved by all the In- 
dians of San Diego county, 
some of whom have taken 
him as a diief, will distrib- 
ute the clothing. Those who 
ll^e in San Diego and wish to 
assist in this good work may 
U?avc clothing and blankets at 
the San Diego hotel. Sanii 
Porter, skipper of the hotels 
always sees to that end of thi 
annual task. 



DECE^IJUER 15, 1924 




h 



ERM GOVERNMENT 
REDUCE PRICE ON 



LANDS H EL CAPITkN 




RetXfars ir^erday from V..S ; 1 ^^^^^.^y_ ^^ tnp to ^^^^ ,.,^^,,.01- 
, ^*''^J*1« Jbkftrney S. J- lit*** av was a ereat succts, f ^egt res«r»t 
' i"eton;^«»fT^-tVilI^ tVjfi,**^' "]?,^ ^.av over the "*\'°" „ ' the depart- 
brouglW^he^e^ $3*?«*^^«"" V^U Uvii he obtained from ine . 



gin _ „ ...-^^-m-Tt-rrT^gV"- , 

FO that he' could answer questions 
put to Him 'by the New York buy- 
er?. The iiiXorniatlon furnlehed by 
Higglns at New York was tho- 
I rouffhly satisfactory. The city, 
however, does not intend to sell all 
the bonds at one time. T>ess than 
$1,000,000 will \he sold in 1926. 
thus savinj; the taxpayers the bur- 
den of interest. The bonds will be 
wsold as they are needed, during the 
work of construction on the dam. 
To Have Value I^xcd 
The iVxt step, Hi|?ffiR« sald^ld^st 
night, is to tiroceed with the con- 
demnation in the- Orange county 
court of the Cuyamaca company's 
part of the El Capltan dam site. 
Tha law arguments on the defend- 
ant's demtirrer probably will be 
made next Friday, or a week from 
Fridiiy. Then the value of the 
land will be fixed by a jury, unless 
the citv should decide not to with- 
draw its application to have a 
value placed by the ral#oad com- 
mission. President Brundldge of 
the railroad commissTon «aid while 
her© recently, however, that itl 
might require a year for the com*| 
mission to fix a valuation, and the 
city Y lieves it could get quicker 
actlou by having, a jury do it. After 
the price is fixed, and should 
either the city or the defendant ap- 
peal, the city can put up bond 
equaling the amount fixed, and ^ol 
to work at El Oapitan. If there Isl 
no nppeal, the city can pay th6j| 
amount and g^^t-eed with work. T 
TUa nitv r(^N»)hcil i« nreparing m 



I The city co^oil is preparing Po 
I rush all proceedings !n the courfsJ 
I with the announcement thatY id 
5 there is any offer for a "Compromlsd 
H it'^must come from the other^idej 







suoN l«»"" ""•'•'"; ',^.,UVV 









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— Uf 



W5e. I, 



m 



«,nn the celebrated New Tork 
'^mhorUy on bonds. .He furnished 
the city attorney with a written 
preliminary report on ^bese bonds. 
The bond market is particularly 
active at present and .^^^^ny New 

York buyers are i"?^^^'^"^/^^^^,^, 
the!^ El Capitan bonds. The Ne\\ 
York expert consequently desired 
to have considerable first-hand m- 
forniatlon from City Attorney Hig- 
gins regarding the San Diego issue 
.o that he could answer questions 
put to liim -by the New York buy- 
or? The iitfiormatlon furnished by 
Migglns at New York was tho- 
roughly satisfactory. The city, 
however, does not intend to sell all 
the honds at one time T.ess than 
$1,000,000 will lb* sold i" ^\^-^' 
thus saving the taxpayers the bur- 
den of interest. The bonds will be 
sold as they are needed, during the 
work of construction on the dam. 
To Have Value *^^^<^<1 ,,. ,^ . 
The rtpxt step. HigguMB said^ld-st 
nlffht is to l5roceed with the con- 
mgnt, in v^ H Orange county 

demnation m me^ v^iuub'- ^^^^^_„-..- 
court of the Cuyamaoa company s 
part of the El Capitan dam site, 
^ha law arguments on the defend- 
ant's demurrer probably will be 
made next Friday, or a week from 
Fridnv Then the value ot tnc 
land will be fixed by a jury, un les. 
{he city should decide not to wit h^ 
draw its application to^!^^^®^^^' 
value placed by the raifoa^ coni- 
mlssion. president Brundidge of 
the railroad commission «aid whllei 
here recently, however, ^t^a^^^^^ 
might require a year for the com^ 
mission to fix a valuation an^ tnej 
city 1 lieves it could &^t quicker 
actlou by having a jury do it. Af^!'; 
the price is fixed, and should 
cither the city or the ^ef^^^^^^^^^' 
peal. the city can put up bond 
equaling the amount ^^^^^J' ^"^^^.^ 
to work at El Capitan. If tbere Is^ 
no appeal, the city can pay thei 
amount and ^^^^d with work. 
The city cdliCll is preparing 
rush all proceedings in ^l^e^cou*s.| 
with the announcement tna^ i 
there is any offer for ^ comprojljlst 
it" must come from the other^iae^ 









'lilt'' 



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THE BlitllfeTlN MAGAZINE- 




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^ETI N MAGAZINE ■- y Ji^Vi^, \^*lS 

California 





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"Digger" Aborigines Left to Shift for Themselves in Squalid, 
Surroundings, Having Feu) Rights White Race Seems Bound to Respect—Arid 
Ground, Leaky Shacks Only Heritage of Former Owners of Golden State Soil 










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By PAUL FREDERICKSEN 

OUR HUNDRED THOUSANb strong they roamed the 
I mountains and the valleys of CalifcVnia, free as the sunshine, 
wild as the fruits they plikked fro|n wild trees and bushes. 
Life was easy and the "Digger Indians" thrived. 
^21 But that was 1 50 years ago. Since then the white man 

has come to California. 
Today there is a mere handful left, so scattered they are hard to 
count. The best estimate seems to be 17,000 or 18.000 — perhaps 
5000 of them on the 40 reservations established by the federal govern- 
unent. some on homesteads, but the greater majority just drifting from 
place to place, unwilling to be herded by the white men's rulers, but 
aiwountering race distinction at every turn. 

No one seems to know exactly how the Indian stands in Cali- 
(ornia today, though many have tried to learn. Partial surveys have 
been made, but they have never been wholly correlated. A move was 
made at the last legislature to spend $25,000 for a thorough investiga- 
tion and an additional $100,000 for prevention of disease among 
Indians, but Governor [Richardson vetoed the bills as unnecessary. 

Recently thr» Commonwealth Club of San Francisco conducted 
iux independent investigation of Indians' conditions. It found them 



Starting at upper left— Typical ''Digger'' woman, u;/io^ culture. If the Indians arc to be provided with usable lands, it must 
lives near Toros, Southern California. Next—Scene * be through purchase and subdivision of private holdings. '' ^ 

near Palm Springs, Riverside county, where a white '. The committee recommends that Indians' water rights be safe- 

man constructed his house over a ditch from [ guarded and that the Indians granted fee-simple patents be protected 
which the fndians derived drinking abater. ^ against real estate speculators who would rob them of thci> title. 
''Home'' of an Indian family near Anderson, In their report on Indian health, the club members found Dr. 

Shasta county, where they have lived for 
35 years. All five are afflicted with 
trachoma. At bottom — "Topsy," bas- 
ket-maker near Fort Bidwell, and 
house'l she has lived in 35 years. 



' Gillihan's report illuminating. Gillihan found that the percentage of 
Indian children and old people is considerably above the average — 
that death by disease mows down the red men during school age and 
the prime of life. 

Poverty of the farms means poverty of the home, and hundreds 
* of Indians still live in tepees or in small shacks made of boards thrown 
together helter-skelter without adequate roofing, floors or heat. 
The report continues: 

**In certain sections tuberculosis is the leading disease,, venereal 
'^ diseases are highly prevalent, trachoma is universal among them, the 
communicable diseases find them easy prey, and there is everywhere a 
^ high infant mortality rate. 

*Thc full-time and contract doctors supplied by the Indian Bureau 

^ seem to lack often the ability to obtain the confidence of the Indians 

and there seems a general lack of medical contacts. In the south 

^ there are two fairly equipped hospitals for Indians, one at Saboda and 

another at the school at Yuma. Each has a competent trained nurse 

in charge, but neither hospital appears to do any sort of field work 

•^v^'that would encourage the Indians to make use of hospitals. 

**In the north there are no special hospitals for the Indians, and no 
adequate care given the sick. True, the county hospitals are sup- 
posed to take these citizens of California, but only a few of the 
hospitals find vacant beds for sick Indians, and the treatment the 
^ Indians generally receive is not such as would encourage them to make 
use of the hospitals. 

**It is obvious there exist in California numerous medical agencies. 

federal, state, county and municipal, that could be utilized for the 

! care of the sick Indians were there some connecting link that would 

' inspire confidence and guide them as well as command these various 

agencies." 

The report recommended employment of four field nurses to 
serve as contacts between sick Indians and the hospitals. This sug- 
gestion was turned down at the state capital. 

Dr. Gillihan's report on Southern California revealed, among 




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low the runid itv of ^\^i ^ i &nc ^rs d«,tip, ^fe ^JJ^ 
idians. In one case a white man went so far as to con- 



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they were not treated unkindlv. 
And it was not until the gold 
rush began that the white men 
persecuted them and hunted them 
down like animah. 

Thr California Indian had 



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struct a house, the corner of which bridged the ditch used to convey 
drinking water to his red brothers. Some ditches were used as gar- 
bage dumps by the white men. 

Cachil Dehe, the reservation housing some 80 Indians at Colusa, 
is situated in a hollow. Rain seeps down the hillsides and floods the 
village. Roads to Colusa are impassable in wet weather. Green 
scum forms on the drinking troughs. Nine Indians have died there 
since last Augyst. The last to die was Davis Pulsiver. aged four 
years. He followed his brother by 1 days. Three of the nine died 
because of poor sanitation. Six were just recorded as * 'tuberculosis.' 
In his relations toward his government and his hospitals the Indian 
understands in a vague sort of way that he is being discriminated 
against. But in his relation toward the schools he is made to feel the 
worst humiliation. 

*The Indian is not a white man and cannot be converted into one,** 
remarks Dr. Gillihan, discussing the efforts of the government to enroll 
him in the public schools. 

Yet the Commonwealth Club learns that the conversion from red 
into white is exactly what the government is trying to effect. The 
nation allows an Indian a small daily sum while he is attending his 
own Indian school. When he is transferred to a public school this 
dole is paid to the county. Where the federal government plans to 
save is in the ultimate abandonment of Indian schools as such. 

*The administration of the educational side of the problem re- 
quires that those charged officially with responsibility for his guardian- 
ship in some way come to understand Indian psychology," states the 
club's report. "Before any plans can be made which look toward 
constructive educational resuUs the officer must consider the Indian 
as an Indian, ^and not treat him and legislate for him as though he 
were a diluted specimen of the American pioneer white man. Ways 
and means must be found for developing in him qualities which will 
make of him a citizen in whom the ownership and control of his own 
property may be safely vested. 

*Two investigations pertaining to this subject have been made by 
the state supervisor of school attendance in the last three years — the 
first during 1922 and the second in February to April of this year, ^ 
The first was concerned particularly with school attendance as d s- 
tinguished from features of instruction, and was undertaken (or tiie 
superintendent of public instruction because the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs was quite fra nkly seeking to e nroll In dian children in public 

^schooTT !R fmdff^^ pmw^' miiinmrvrm^B'^ P^mi^^r mm^ 

visor in the West for this purpose. l?chool patrons in the districts 
affected protested against the action and school trustees and superin- 
tendents were asking for assistance in determining their legal -responsi- 
bility, authority, and in securmg of financial aid. 

•The second has attempted in a brief survey to bring the Imd- 
ings of the first investigation up to datr." 

There are three types of Indian schools in the state, the highest 
taking pupils through tl^ tenth grade. But by far the greatest .num- 
ber of children never get past the purely elementary grades because 
they feel for one reason or another that they ar^ nol wanted in the 

schools. J L • 

The general day schools in reservations were designed to brinr 

civilization to young Indians and through them to their elders. But 
the Commonwealth Club finds that the salaries paid teachers art not 
enough to attract good ones, supplies are handled * mdiff^rrntlv. and 
medical inspection is wholly inadequate. 

The report concludes: 

**Thc attitude toward ihr Indian child m the public school is an 

n , ^( iK^ -»♦;», irto .^^ tlir rnmrriTin^tv toward th^ Indian. 



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By PAUL FREDERICKSEN 

$ , I QUR HUNDRED THOUSANb strong they roamed the 

la^^i mountains and the valleys of CalifoVnia free a* the sunshine, 
wild as the fruits they plucked froin wild trees and bushes. 
Life was easy and the ''Digger Indians'' thrived. i 

But that was 150 years ago. Since then the white man 
has come to California. 
Today there is a mere handful left, so scattered they are hard to 
count. The best estimate seems to be 17,000 or 18.000 — perhaps 
5000 of them on the 40 reservations established by the federal govern- 
unent, some on homesteads, but the greater majority just drifting from 
place to place, unwilling to be herded by the white men's rulers, but 
aiu^untering race distinction at every turn. 

No one seems to know exactly how the Indian stands in Cali- 
fornia today, though many have tried to learn. Partial surveys have 
been made, but they have never been wholly correlated. A move was 
made at the last legislature to spend $25,000 for a thorough investiga- 
tion and an additional $100,000 for prevention of disease among 
Indians, but Governor Richardson vetoed the bills as unnecessary. 

Recently the Commonwealth Club of San FVancisco conducted 
AA independent investigation of Indians' conditions. It found them 
appalling. It found plenty of persons willing to answer questions, but 
it found no official who felt he had the power to remedy affairs. 

The Indian apparently has too many bosses. The State Supreme 
Court calls him a citizen. The United States Supreme Court calls 
him a ward. And the Department of the Interior, charged with pro- 
tecting his welfare, never quite recognizes either obligation, according 
lo the Commonwealth Club*s findings. 

Charles Elkus, chairman of the club's Indian section, reported at 
a conference with several of California's national legislators that 
many of the red men are starving and thai disease is rampant among 
them. 

"The California Indians never have had a chance." declared 
Elkus. "They are given only about $29 a year each. The Indians 
of this state get less help from Washington than any other state in the 
JJnion. Some help is given by state and county, but this aid is not 
t-ordinated with the work of the federal government. 

"California Indian children are so diseased that they are not al- 
lowed to attend public schools for fear they will contaminate other 
childreW. The Indians* land has been taken from them, and they 
have been put on worthless soil where it is impossible even to live, let 
alone be prosperous. 

"They have insufficient medical attention, insufficient schools and 
insufficient legal aid. so that they are often deprived of their rights. 
Because they are the nation's wards they are treated more like cattle 
than like humans. If the federal government would make sufficient 
appropriation toward caring for the Indians the state could administer 
it economically without the great overhead cost which now exists." 

Elkus' statements fairly summarize the extended findings of the 
investigators. The reports were based on personal inquiry and upon 
such statistics as were available. Of the latter two, surveys by Dr. 
Allen F. Gillihan, district health officer for the State Board of Health, 
were found most valuable. Dr. Gillihan made one survey in North- 
eastern California in 1921, and another in Southern California in 
March of this year. These two surveys, despite their incompleteness 
as bearing on the Indians of the entire state, frankly set forth the plight 
of the remaining redskins. 

Chauncey S. Goodrich, sub-chairman dealing with the legal 

aspects, discovered that from the time the "Diggers*' were baptized, 

sometimes by force, by the Franciscan friars in the early part of last 

rf^ntury, until the present, their status has become increasingly hard. 

Under the Catholic fathers they were compelled to work, but 



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another at the school at Yuma. Each has a compHrnl t.amrd nurs. 
in charge, but neither hospital appears to do any sort of t.eld ^vork 

«^that ^ould encourage the Indians to make use of hospitals^ 

"In the north there are no special hospitals for the Indians, and no 
adequav care given the sick. True, the county hospitals are sup- 
posed to take these citizens of California, but only a few of the 
hospitals find vacant beds for sick Indians, and the treatment the 

. Indians generally receive is not such as would encourage them to make 

use of the hospitals. 
( "It is obvious there exist in California numerous medical agencies, 
federal, state, county and municipal, that could be utiliied for the 
care of the sick Indians were there some connecting link that would 
inspire confidence and guide them as well as command these various 

agencies." ,. ,, 

The report recommended employment of four tield nurses to 

serve as contacts between sick Indians and the hospitals. This sug-' 
* gestion was turned down at the state capital. 

Dr. Gillihan's report on Southern California revealed, among 
^rjMtr thiPRs, how 'he n.niditv of w^^jtp » n«=*»gr3L.dabP:ys. the watfj 




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they were not treated unkindly. 
And it was not until the gold 
rush began that the white men 
persecuted them and hunted them 
dov^ like animals. 

The California Indian had 
never felt the need of banding 
into strong tribal organizations. 
Food was too easy to get to fight 
for. Except in rare instances, 
the Indians had lived peacefully 
alone or in small groups. It was 
this lack of tribe that now made 
the **Digger" defenseless. 

Great tribes farther East had 
been able to wrest from the in- 
vading white man treaties that 
guaranteed their security and na- 
tional protection. The scattered 
California Indians were unable to bargain collectively in this fashion. 
They had no weapon with which to demand protection. They suf- 
fered complete humiliation. 

Then the United States Supreme Court came to their rescue as 
best it might. Following precedent set in relations with Eastern tribes, 
the court ruled Indians to be national wards and reservations were set 
aside for them. But these reservations failed to hold the wandering 
type of Indian in this state. Besides, most of the ground in the 
reservations was barren. 

The result has been that most Indians have left the reservations 
and go, therefore, outside the paternal protection of the federal govern- 
ment. Once outside they have all the statute rights of citizens except 
the most important — literal equality. 

The report on land holdings bears out Goodrich's findings.^ It 
shows that while the total area of reservations is 517,1 18 acres, the 
estimated amount of irrigible lands is only 7 per cent of this and that 
the acreage actually under irrigation is less than 2 per cent of the 
total. More than four-fifths of the reservation acreage has never been 
allotted, so unpopular is the system among Indians. 
Says the report: 

**Most of the land held in reservation for. or purchased for. or 
allotted from the public domain to. the California Indians is worth- 
less for agriculture; much of it is worthless for any purpose save as 
watershed land. For the lands which would be cultivable there is an 
insufficient water supply. The average Indian would be better off 
with a smaller area of land were it usable. There arc no remaining 
public lands in California thai have any appreciable value for agri- 



Sdve IS m the ultiinale abandoniiienl ol Indian scliools as such. 

**\ he administration of the educational side of the problem re- 
quires that those charged officially with responsibility for his guardian- 
ship in some way come to understand Indian psychology," states the 
club's report.^ "Before any plans can be made which look toward 
constructive educational results the officer must consider the Indian 
as an Indian, 'and not treat him and legislate for him as though he 
were a diluted specimen of the American pioneer white man. Ways 
and means must be found for developing m him qualities which will 
make of him a citizen in whom the ownership and control of his owa 
property may be safely vested. 

**Two investigations pertaining to this subject have been made by 

the state supervisor of school attendance in the last three years — the 

first during 1922 and the second in February to April of this year. 

The first was concerned particularly with school attendance as d s- 

tinguished from features of instruction, and was undertaken for tae 

superintendent of public instruction because the Bureau of Indian 

Affairs was quite frankly ieeking to enroll Indian children in public 
schools as rapfcffy as possftfc !*TfW IJaW |fJJ«eecf a spcre/a/ schotrt 

visor in the West for this purpose. $chool patrons in the districts 
affected protested against the action and school trustees and superin- 
tendents were asking for assistance in determining their legal -responsi- 
bility, authority, and in securing of financial aid. 

'The second has attempted in a brief survey to bring the find- 
ings of the first investigation up to date.'* 

There are three types of Indian schools in the state, the highest 
taking pupils through th« tenth grade. But by far the greatest. num- 
ber of children never get past the purely elementary grades because 
they feel for one reason or another that they are not wanted in the 

schools. 

The general day schools in reservations were designed to bring 
civihzation to young Indians and through them to their elders. But 
the Commonwealth Club finds that the salaries paid teachers art not 
enough to attract good ones, supplies are handled ''indifferently," and 
medical inspection is wholly inadequate. 

The report concludes: 

•The attitude toward the Indian child in the public school is an 
exact reflection of the attitude of the community toward the Indian. 
The range is great, going from a cruel exploitation to friendliness and 

honesty. 

•The Indian Bureau is concentrating its efforts and funds upon 
the boarding schools, without providing the after-school follow-up that 
would make them effective. The day schools, which could be made 
the most effective units in the system, are being discontinued as fast 
as the children can be enrolled in the public schools. That enrollment 
has been greatly accelerated by the granting of citizenship to the 
Indians and by the payment of tuition to the school districts, but does 
not insure a pauper Indian his education." 



'-•<< 







J'V.. ,^ V",'; 'V 



BAN DIEGO, iCAli.. TniBW 




SE, SAN DIEGO 



IS DEAD AFTER 
SSINGCENTURYMARK 



is the I 



was 
the 



Almost lost in antiquity, 
history of ChieriggS^^n 
I ndi an who "ffe TjesTerday 

Ty h ' (:)si)lia ' i : -^on\§.^say,.tTicit he 
97 years old when he tn\ter^_ 

co unTV - pTtoi -tanpyfr;m)T^vit ei^t 

vears ago That would mai^e hib 
a^e nearly 104 years. The obituary 
fitates he was 100 years old, but 
thl^ is a conseryative estimate, de- 
Hared the director at Norell and 
i'onweirs funeral parlors where 
the a^ed chief's body awaits huri.il. 
GD Porter, secretary of Edgmoor, 
the county poor farm says ^^^^ 
chief was 104 years old Any ot 
these speculations would vest the 
Indian with the awe. curiosity and 
veneration attending a man who 
had lived through the days that 

ern institutions. His 
equipment for the struggle to livfe 
in such a maelstrom of quickening 
events probaiDly was meager. Only 
the education, perhaps, of a mis- 
sion Indian. By tliis time, the 
later quarter of last century, his 
early friends and companions all 
were dead, and he was left to work 
his way. alone with recollections 
of the days when he wjus a man of 
matters in his tribe and when 
events moved with the «low pace of 
the old-fashioned ox cart. 

Eight years ago he became a 
county charge, taking the remain- 
ing niche left him at the county 
poor farm. 

Today there are eight men in 
this state who can trace their date 
of birth back to the decade that 
witnessed the birth of California 
as a state. When they were born 
Chief Jose, had he been present, 
could have looked at them wilfi the 
knowledge of a strapping ^oung 
Indian buck 24 Vears old. 



marked the events contempora- 
!eou6 with the early history of thii 



Chief Jose was 



state and nation. 
It is said that 
born at Old Town and witnessec 
the posseission and the customs 
the early Spanish settlers here^Th 
«tory includes the tales ot man^ 
fracases, common to pioneer day^ 
that the chief had a hand in. 

Jose was a young man or 
years when California was admitted 
to the union in 1850- With the 
coming of the ordinary "lan s mld^ 
die age he .«aw the first building, 
erected on the site now occupied| 

by San Diego. 

As more years ipassed 

res6 of civilizatioji In the new ter- 



2^ 



the prog-l 



IAN BIEGO, CAIi., UNION 50 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1925 



nifian Who Saw San Diego 
(se From^ Spanish Pueblo 

egent Glory, Is Dead 



Chief Jose, a Mission Indian who 

waa a vigorous young man when 

California was admitted to the 

United States 75 years ago, who 

probably »tood on. the shores of 

San Diego bay when Richard Henry 
Dana visited this .port on the bark 
"Pilgrim** during his famous **Two 
Tears Before the Mast," died at 
the county farm Tuesday at an age 
variously estiftiated at from 97 to 
104 years. 

For the last eight years Chief 
Jose had lived at ^Edgemoor, the 
county farm, and it was understood 
that he was about 97 years old 
when he first was admitted. Norell 
and Conwell, funeral directors in 
charge of the body, declared tha/t 
100 years was a /conservative esti- 
mate of the old Indian's age. 

Within the memory of the chief, 
born At Old Town during the height 
of the Spanish domination of the 
statte, was the gold rush of 1849 
that brought the world to Califor- 
nia 'by land and by sea. He was not 
yet 130 when California was admit- 
ted to the United States. He 



watched rthe Incidents related in 
the story ''Ramona." and may even 
nave participated in some of them. 
He was a passive observer of the 
development of San Diego from a 
barren hillside to a beautiful city, 
and he saw the horse take the 
place of the ox-cart and the auto- 
mobile replace the horse. Concrete 
highways replaced the dirt roads. 
Which had been widened from the 
winding Indian trails and foot- 
paths. : ' 

All of the romance of early 
California, of America sovereignty, 
of the battles of the civil and 
Mexican wars, ipassed before the 
eyes of Chief Jose. The memories 
of his youth and position in his 
tribe were clouded with the ever- 
present need to make a living in an 
environment new and strange. The 
task became too great for his ad- 
vancing years, es it might have 
been too ^reat even in ,the days of 
his most vigorous youth, and the 
old man became a ward of the 
county. He died within a few 
miles of the little pueblo in which, 
he was born. 






•■■,*,:..• 



.;+■■■ 



'*"''':^^»■.■4^^|^:^^ 




























! 





from P<iJ6<-' 1 



ritory became more tPe^^y,/\^^' 
'as events proceeded, they left the 
ohief then at the age when most 
men begin to think of handling their 
active affairs over to younger men 
tacin^ the problem of ^^^^^^^^ 
amonK modern institutions Hl^ 
equipment for the struggle to live 

in «uch a maelstrom of Q^i<;^^;Ynlv 
events probably was meager. Only 
the education, perhaps, of a mi6,- 
sion Indian. By this time, the 
later quarter of last century, his 
earlv friends and companions all 
were dead, and he was left to work 
his wav. alone with recollections 
of the days when he was ^ ^^^l 
matters in his tribe and ^hen 
eventfl moved with the slow pace of 
the old-fashioned ox cart. 

Eight vears ago he became a 
countv charge, taking the remain- 
ing niche left him at the county 

^Tod'arthere are eight men in 
this stau who can trace their date 

^^ KirfVi bark to the decade that 
of b*^th DacK t o u California 

witnessed the blrtn or ^;^;^'" 
as a state. When they were born 
Chief Jose, had he been PrJ^e"^ 
could have looked at them w/i ^^^ 
knowledge of a strapping ^oung 
Indian buck 24 Vears old. 



IAN DIEGO. CAL.. UNION 

SEPTEMBER 10, 1925 



n 



tan Who Saw San Diego 
se From^ Spanish Pueblo 




Chief Jose, a Mission Indian who 
w&s a vigorous young man when 
California was admitted to the 
United JBtates 75 years ago. who 
probably stood on the shores of 
San Diego hay when ^i^^^^^ Henry 
Dana visited this .port on the bark 
"Pilgrim" during his famous a wo 
Teare Before the Mast." died at 
the county farm Tuesday at an age 
variously estimated at from 97 to 

^^ror^the last eight years Chief 
Jose had lived at ^Edgemoor th(| 
county farm, and It was understood 
that he was about 97 years old 
when he first was admitted. Norell 
and Oonwell. funeral directors In 
charge of the body, declared that 
100 years was a ^conservative esti- 
mate of the old Indian'* age. 

Within the memory of the chiet, 
born at Old Town during the height 
of the Spanish domination of the 
state, was the gold rush of 1849 
that 'brought the world to Califor- 
nia 'by land and by sea. He was not 
yet 130 when California was admit- 
ted to the United States. He 



ent Glory, Is Dead 



watched the Incidents related in 
the story ''Ramona,'* and mAy even 
have participated In some of them. 
He was a passive observer of the 
development of San Diego from a 
barren hillside to a beautiful city, 
and he saw the horse take the 
place of tlie ox-<3art and the auto- 
mobile replace the horse. Concrete 
highways replaced the dirt roads, 
which had 'been widened from the 
winding Indian trails and foot- 
paths. 



All of the romance of early 
California, of America sovereignty, 
of the ibattles of the civil and 
Mexican wars, ipassed before the 
eyes of Chief Jose. The memories 
of his youth and position in his 
tribe were clouded with the ever- 
present need to make a living in an 
environment new and strange. The 
task became too great for his ad- 
vancing years, as It might have 
been too great even in ,the days of 
his most vigorous youth, and the 
old man ^became a ward of the 
county. He died within a few 
miles of the little pueblo m which^ 
he was 'born. 



.w w 






OCTOBSH 11, 



l?2a 




Indian 
Life 



Interesting Demonstration Is 
Conducted Under Direc- 
tion of Mrs. Leslie Lee. 




Present Scenes of Primitive \ 
Art Center Auditorium in Balbo 




i 



l^hree Indi.n girl, of tb, San Diegu.no '*« XTfnd Iho^ef howTelr^S-e 
S^V'hT^riSvrg^^^.oVjfe^nYr.e'Sgaged in the ..sk. .hat oeenpied .heir .other. 



Three Indian maidens stepped 
out of the pa«t Friday evening and 
presented to a group Interested In 
the orlgrinal Inhabitants of this 
county a series of scenes of Prim- 
itive life. They cooked deer meift 
in a clay olla over a fire. They 
gathered and prepared the various 
«eed8 and wild grains that made up 
their primitive bill of fare. With 
basket, mortero and pestle, and 
metate they made meal and pre- 
pared cakes to bake In the ashee 
of the fire. 

The scenes were given under tne 
direction of Mrs. Leslie Lee, and 
were the result of her long re- 
search among the Indians of this 
county, and six months of careful 
training and coaching of the Indian 
girls wh«^, took part. Because of 
the limited space in the art cen- 
ter auditorium in Balboa park, 
where the exhibition was given, 
I admission Friday evening was by 
invitation only. The exhibit was 
repeated yesterday morning for 

thP public. ^ ^ • 

■^"Th"e little stage of the art center 
had been transformed for the occa- 
sion into an open space in the 
moun4:alns. A painting by Mr. L.ee, 
a grpat live oak on the edge of the 
desert, formed the back of the 
picture. The wild grasses, shrub- 
bery and other plants of the moun- 
tains of the county were arranged 
about the stage as if they were 
actually growing there. In thfe fore- 
ground were the cook fire, mor- 
teros. pestles, metates, oUas and 
baskets used in the reproduction of 
primitive life. The atmosphere of 
.^'he auditorium was permeated 
with the pungent odor of sage, 
which made the scene the more 

realistic. . 

As a reader told something of 
the life of the Mission Indians be- 
fore the advent of the white man, 
explained their customs and their 
mode of every-day living, their 
common tasks and their recrea- 
t^ions, the three Indian girls entered 
clad in the straw dresses of their 
early tribal days and enacted the 
episodes described. The girls, Felis 
and Ella Agiaro, and Carlota 
Hetlemeua, are members of the San 
Diegulto or San Dlegulto tribe of 
the Mission Indians, and are typ- 
ical of the early inhabitants of 

this county. 

First they demonstrated the 

cooking of the deer meat In an 

earthen olla, entering with various 

y>lias and utensils carried as their 

vnothers and grandmothers once 

bore their burdens. In their second 

scene they showed how the useful 

baskets were made with reeds and 

straw, with the^sharpened nb of a 

coyot; for an a#'l. The third scene 

was even m^e domestic, showing 

the anclenjrnte of protecting a 

haby agymst digestive <aisorders. 

e c»ld was brought In and a 



and grandmothers not more than^years ago. 




little mat of willow bark was 
heated over the embers. It was 
then placed over the baby^s stom- 
ach to enable him to eat the good 
things nature provided without suf- 
fering any pain. The child was 
then bound to a cradle to make 
him grow straight and tall. 

The various processes necessary 
to the preparation of the "chla" 
drink constituted the fourth scene. 
With sticks, the girls beat the chia 
seeds from the bushes Into their 
baskets." Then they parched them 



over the fire, ground them, added 
water, and a little salt which they 
had gathered from the margin of 
the ancient sink of the Salton sea. 
and then drank the refreshing pre- 
paration. They gathered cactus 
pears in the fifth scene, brushing 
off th.e spines with bunches of 
twigs and grass. Then they shook 
them in a net of fibres )H^til the 
skins were smooth and the iruii 
fit to eat in safetv. 

Another seed preparation was 
demonstrated in the sixth scene. 



j;ene was\ 
iten wit(Y\ 



O 






na 



Defe 



.fr; 



when the girls- gathered the '"Kish, f 
which Is known to the white main 
as "dock." They dried the.seediS, 
rubbed them in their hanjds to 
loosen the husks, winnowe^ theni 
in their shallow baskets, 'ground 
them on the metate, leached them 
with water to remove the bitter- 
ness, then made the cakes from th 
meal and baked them in the asho^J 

The seventh and ^nal scene wa 
the preparation of acorii 
mush which was always e 
deer meat. The girls gathewi^^ 
acorns, cracked them vri\.Yi rrabbi 
stones, ground Vnem to meal I 

,<>ir iiiorteros, winnowed the mea 

nd leache^ it, then made the 

mush In an earthen olla which Tvlis 
over the fire and beside the olla 
in which the deer meat was cook- 
ing. 

the stone age life of a .^J'^J^Zt 

people carried ^ve^ ^^^^^^"s ^tnd 

electricity. / ♦^^ kv the three 
crafts demonstrated by^^th^^^j ^„d 

prlmUtve life to the <l"^f' ""^^^ | 
lova and customs of the ^"ue 
^li But the customs are dying 
Zt thrianguage which the three 
eh-ls spoke in low tone;, around 
fhe fire is beinff forgotten or is 
allinrinto disuse ^^he glimpse 
oc that life vouchsafed to/^ose 
Who were privileged to be the 

guests of Mrs. Lee m«y.^t» an ess 
Klimpso that any will have unless 
some effort is made to perpetuate 
the customs and the manners of 
the San Dieguenos. 

•■For a long- time," Raid Mrs. T.ee, 
' • iiiK much of the 



>.'.-. lit' 
reiilustic. 

As a reader told somethlngr of 
The life of the MLssion Indians be- 
fore the advent of the white man, 
explained their customs and their 
mode of every-day living, their 
rommon task£ and their recrea- 
tions, the three Indian girls entered 
clad in the Ktraw dresses of their 
early trlhal days and enacted the 
f^pisodefl described. The girls, Felis 
and Klla Agiaro, and ("arlota 
Hetlemeua, are members of the San 
Dieguito o4' San Dieguito tribe of 
the Mission Indians, and are typ- 
ical of th.» early inhabitant* of 
this county. 

First they demonstrated the 
cooking of the deer meat in an 
.•arthen olla, entering with various 
<oljas and utensils carried as their 
mothers and grandmothers once 
bore their burdens. In their second 
scene they showed how the useful 
baskets were made with reeds and 
straw, with the sharpened rib of a 
coyote for an jW^i. The third scene 
was even rnore domestic, showing 
the ancleri^rlte of protecting a 
baby agwhst digestive disorders. 
*hp cijlTd was brought in and a 



h-*-^'-' 






< 










little mat of willow bark was 

heated over the embers. It was 
then placed over the baby's stom- 
ach to enable him to eat the good 
things nature provided without suf- 
fering any pain. The child was 
then bound to a cradle to make 
him grow straight and tall. 

The various processes necessary 
to the preparation of the '*chia'' 
drink constituted the fourth scene. 
With sticks, the girls beat the chia 
seeds from the bushes into their 
baskets.' Then they parched them 



over the fire, ground them, added 
water, and a little salt which they 
had gathered from the margin of 
the ancient sink of the Salton sea. 
and then drank the refreshing pre- 
paration. They gathered cactus 
pears in the fifth scene, brushing 
off the spines with bunches of 
twigs and grass. Then they shook 
them in a net of fibres until the 
skins were smooth and the fruit 
fit to eat In safety. 

Another seed preparation was 
demonstrated in the sixth scene. 



when the girls gathered the -kish,'*/ 
which is known to the white mati 
as ''dock." They dried the, seeds, 
rubbed them in their hands to 
loosen the husks, wlnnoweil them 
in their shallow baskets, feround 
them on the metate, leached them 
with water to remove the bitter- 
ness, then made the cakes from th 
meal and baked them in the asho 

The seventh and ^nal scene wa 
the preparation of acorSi 
mush which was always e 
deer meat. The girls gat 
acorns, cracked them vriV 
stones, groun^". Vnem to 

ftir inorteros, winnowed 

nd leached it, then 
mush In an earthen olla 



h mea^i 
ten wl^fv^ 

LeredU 

i^bbi 

meal J 

the mea 

made the 

which Was 



fire and 
the deer 



beside the olla 
meat was cook- 






'^''■tr ']J^''^'., V 






•;^W'' 



'tf.r 



''m 



over the 
in which 
ing. 

It waa B. remarkahle axJiibM>^ 
the stone age life of a primitive 
people carried oveF into the age of 
electricity. The customs and 
crafts demonstrated by the three 
Indian girls are still observed and 
practiced in the most remote and 
secluded parts of the county by 
those Indians who prefer their 
primitive life to the questionable 
Joys and customs of the white 
man. But the customs are dying 
out; the language which the three 
girls spoke in low tones around 
the fire is being forgotten or is 
falling into disuse. The glimpse 
of that life vouchsafed to those 
who were privileged to be the 
guests of Mrs. Lee may be the last 
glimpse that any will have unless 
some effort is made to perpetuate 
the customs and the manners of 
the San Dieguenos. 

"For a long time," said Mrs. I^ee, 
**we have been making much of the 
picturesque Indians of Arizona of 
the east and middle west. Santa 
Fe and northern Michigan have 
been proud of the handicraft of 
their Indians and the artistry of 
their work. Here in San Diego 
county we have one of the most 
interesting groups of Indians in 
the whole country, and we have 
made no effort to study them or 
to preserve their traditions and 
their lore. 

*'It is true that they are more 
primitive than the more pictur- 
esque tribes, and for that reason 
less spectacular. But they are the 
more interesting, for they give -us 
an insight into a day and an age 
that has passed. Culture can al- 
ways be developed or acquired. 
But primitive life and primitive 
customs once lost are lost forever. 
"It is my contention — and I know 
many will lake issue with me — that 
the Mission Indi^tns, of whom these 
girls are representative, are poten- 
tially as brainy and as capable of 
development as any other tribes. 
But it must be remembered that 
they have never been required to 
live more than the primitive life. 
Nature has been abundant. The 
climate has required no other shel- 
ter than leaves and thatch, so they 
have built no such elaborate houses 
as the Hopis. They have not need- 
ed clothing, so they have not woven 
rugs or blankets of barbaric splen- 
dor. They did not have to culti- 
vate crops, for the wild seeds and 
acorns furnished an abundance of 
food. They were migratory, livlm? 
in the mountains in the warm sum- 
mer, and wandering down into the 
desert to live warm and comfort- 
ably in the winter. They had an 
easy existence and were not forced 
to live in any way other than they 
had always lived." 

In the course of her research Mrs. 
Ijee found, she said, that as recently 
as 40 years ago the Indians in the 
remote valleys and peaks of the 
county lived exactly as they did be- 
fore the advent of the white men 
In California. The men wore no 
clothes and the women only grass 
skirts, and game and seeds were 
the sole diet. But civilization has 
penetrated to the remotest fast- 
nesses, and with the death of the 
old Indians the traditions, the lan- 
guage and the customs are dyin^ 
out. The Indians are becoming 
rather belldered and are inadequate 
imitations of the whites. 



JAI^UARY 2?, J826 



8A:N DIKOC^, CAl/.. TItIDUNE--€tl 

JANUARY 29, 132G 




Suit of a number of Indians 
against the San Diegrck County Wa- 
ter company in which monetary 
damapres are asked for flooding an 
old Indian burial prround, will be 
decided today. The hearing, started 
last week, was resumed yesterday i 
before special Judge Albert J. Leo 
and all evidence had been submitted 
when court adjourned for the day. 
Arguments will be presented this 
morningr and the court is expected 
to announce his ruling: early this 
afternoon. 

Attorneys Leory Wright and 
•Henry Stephens are appearing for 
the water company, with Attor- 
neys Herman Freese, George L. 
Flagg and Fred Thompso'n appear- 
l ing for the tribesmen. * 




A deci^j^^lsl expected to b* 
jreached this afternoon in the suit 
lof Indian tribesmen against the San 
Diego Water company for floo.ding 
their ancient graveyard by creation 
[of Lake Henshaw. 

Arguments were being made be» 
Ifore Judge Pro. Tern. A. L. Lee, 
who heard evidence in the suit yes- 
terday and on a previous date. 
About 50 Indians, men, women and 
children, were on hand to sfee the 
case concluded, filling space in the 
county supervisors* room, where the 
lease wBiS being concluded. 

■Evidence in the case developed 
isome rather dramatic recitals of 
the desecration of the old Indian 
burying ground, where, it was al- 
leged, remains of ancestors of the 
present living Indians had been 
Iplaced long before white man came 
to California. For the alleged 
desecration, the Indians are asking 
$200 damages. Attorneys Plermau 
Freese, George L. Flagg and Fred 
Thompson represent the Tntliani^, 
land Attorneys I^. A. Wright and 
Henry Stephens the water coi 
pany. 



|iA!V DIKGO, CAT... Tl^xniTNE— 4f 

JANUARY 30, 1026 




CISION DEM 





A decision in the suit of I«dian 
tribesmen for damages against the 
San Diego County Water company 
because the company's Lake Hen- 
shaw flooded their ancient Indian 
burying ground will not be had 
until late next month. Albert J. 
Lee, judge pro tem, who heard the 
evidence and arguments in the trial, 
took the case under advisement 
yesterday afternoon and notified 
attorneys in the case that thej 
would have until Feb. 26 to fire 
briefs and cite additional authjW-l- 
ties for their contentions. 



Diisoo. CAii.. ririoif st 

JANUARY 30, 192« 




Tribesman 



^umg '^for 



Dam- 



age for Alleged Desecra-| 
tion of Burial Ground, 



Indian tribesmen, suinff the San 
DDiego Water company for money 
damages for alleged desecration of 
an ancient Indian graveyard, must 
await until Feb. 26 to learn the out- 
come of the suit. iSpecial Judge 
Albert J. Lee heard the arguments 
of counsel yesterday and took the 
case under advisement, notifying 
counsel that they would have until 
Feb. 26 to file briefs and cite ad- 
Jditional authorities. 

When Henshaw dam was buUt 
and a large area o^the Warner Hot 
•Bpringse country about to be flood- 
ed, the water company dedicated a 
plot of gro'und as a burial place and 
removed the bodies of the long- 
dead Indians from the old grave- 
vard, soon to be covered by the im- 
pounded waters, to the new resting 
place. This, the Indians declared 
to be desecratio'n, and they havc^ 
sued for compensatory damages. 



iff"- 


.-i-^fijV^y 


■I 


^^^H 


r0M 


9 







SAN T>IEGO, CAli,, TTWlOlf 

NOVEMBER 21, im 




I 




DIANS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY 



By DANIEL CLEVELAND 



I I ,j Indians, «t other reservations, stock 

The precJblng chapter of thU story professed Chr»s"an»y- ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ fruit trees were sold. The nature 

ha» been devoted nuilnly to an In- ] "Two of the lea g sen- of the supplies depended upon the 

qulry Into, and an explanation oT tne ; congress) are of Indian ojuu". location of the reservation. Some of 

charges made by Helen Hunt J^fk- | ^^^j, jj^bert L. Owen of Oklahoma Whhe reservations have sufficient rain- 
son. In her book "Ramona," that the, . ^^ Cherokee tribe, fail -nri ^r.«, nr^n« without irrlea- 
Amerlcan government, court and peo- %^J^^^^^°^^ curtls of Kansas is 
pie have been guilty of gross Injus- , ^enator Charles cu umatlUa raising, w 
tlce, neglect and cruelty In their 'l**'- j 1" ^'^^'^^^..^Xttve C^ D. Car- , SCHOOLS 
ings with the Indians of this section f '»>«• ^^''P;"^"*^*!^ a member of "In Sa 
Of California. The facts toW m *ha er '^°'^^^0''J;^°X: Chandler from fiv. .Aver 
S rsX^^rreclted^omSg j O^^^^^^^ to the Cherokee 
TLT aacLon-s fierce incilgnatlon tribe; Con^^^^^^^ 



and censure Is deserved; but the story 
as told Is not the whole truth, and. 
like all half truths, Is prejudiced*, 
unfair, misleading and unjust. The 
poet. (Tennyson) says: 

"For a lie that is half the truth 
Is ever the blackest of lies." 
Mrs. Jackson was the soul of honor, 
and was never consciously unfair or 
lunjust. She believed whatever she 
Itold to be true and, as she told it. 
jshe desired only the welfare of the 
Indians and the honor of the Amer- 
ican government to which she was 

5ver loyal. „ 

Mrs. Jackson has told in "Ramona 
That has been done to the Indians 
jf southern California to their in- 
jury. It is my purpose in this chap- 
ter to tell something of what the 
American government and people have 
lone for these Indians to their great 
.jenefit. Justice to all concerned de- 
jmands that both sides of the story 
Ishall be stated before Judgment Is 
■pronounced. , 

I As Mrs. Jackson and others have 
charged against us, our goverimient 



belongs to the Cherokee tribe. The 
Indians are well represented in con- 
gress by members of their own race. 
"I know of no dependent people in 
the history of the world who have 
made more rapid progress during the 
last 50 years than the American In- 
dian, and I know of no government 
during that time that ^fs been more 
generous, or more faithful to its 



fall, and grow crops without irriga- 
tion, others are best adapted to stock 
while others are irrigable. 
__.S AND EDUCATION v* 

San Diego county there are 

five government day schools, at Pala, 
Rincon, Mesa Grande, (Santa Ysabel 
No. 2), Volcan, (Santa Ysabel No. 3) 
and Campo. The attendance ranges 
from 12 to 15 at each school. There 
are grade schools, carrying the pupils 
to the fourth grade at least, some- 
times to the fifth and sixth. When 
the children complete the term they 
are then transferred, if the parents 
wish, to Sherman institute, a board- 
ing school in Riverside, which carries 
them through the 11th grade. Next 



geiiciuuo. v^ «rorriiyear, this school will carry pupils 

trust, than our government towaru ^j^j^^^gj^ ^^ 12th grade, or a complete 



the American Indian. 

The reader will be more specially 
interested in learning about the pres- 
ent condition of the Indians of San 
Diego county, and what is being done 
by the federal government for their 
benefit. The information can be 
best given by an authorized agent of 
our government who is in official 
connection with the work of caring 
for the Indians of this section ol 

the state. ^ ^ * 

C. L. Ellis, district superintendent 
m charge of the Mission Indian 
agency at Riverside, has written me 
quite fully in answer to my request 



^emld^irinrhe^J^^^^^ ^^^^? ^O^ 

thT proUTon an^ benefit of its In- "There are 16 ^^^^^'^^^J^'^^^r' 

dlan wards has failed to protect them Diego county, known as Campo, Capi- 

and has pirmftted great and shame- tan Grande. (El Capitan.) Culpalpe. 



ful outrages to be perpetrated upon 
them and to go unpunished. Yet, 



Inaja, (including Cosmit,) Laguna, 
La Jolla, (known also as Potrero,) Lo 



as a final summary, it must be con- Posta, Los Coyotes, Manzanlta. Mesa 
ceded, when all things are consider- Grande. Pala, Pauma. Rincon, San 
ed, that the United States govern- 
ment has done far more for the 






mf^^ 



'0'} 



benefit of our Indian wards than any 
other nation ha« done, or even at- 
tempted to do. 
INDIANS AS CITIZENS 

The reader can best understand the 
real merits of this matter and the 
extent of the work done by the Unit- 
ed States government for the Indians 
of this country, from the statements 
made, and statistics given by Edgar 
B. Merritt. assistant Indian commis- 
sioner, in an address given by him at 
Baltimore. Nov. 1. 1922. Mr. Merritt 
said : 

•'The Indian bureau was establish- 
ed March 11, 1824; the office of com- 
missioner of Indian affairs was cre- 
ated in 1832, and in 1849 the depart- 
ment of the Interior was established 
by act of congress, and the bureau of 
Indian affairs transferred to that de- 
partment from the war department, 
where it has since remained. 

"Two-thirds of the Indians of the 
United States are now citizens. The 
doors to citizenship are open to any 
Indian who cares to comply with ex- 
isting law. 

"The Indian population of Cali- 
fornia Is 16,000. 

"About 200,000 Indians have al- 
ready received allotments (of land), 
totaling approximately 40,000,000 
acres of land valued at half a billion 
dollars. There remain to be allotted 
approximately 125.000 Indians with 
unalotted lands of about 35,000.000 
acres valued at $76,000,000. Allot- 
ments are usually made under the 
general allotment act of Feb. 8, 1887. 
as amended. 

"The Indians of the United States 
In recent years have made remark- 
able progress In agriculture and 
stock raising. They own livestock 
valued at approximately $35,000,000, 
consisting of 265,000 horse^B, 300,000 
cattle, and 1,400.000 sheep. About 



43,000 Indians are farming nearly 



Pasquai, Santa Ysabel (known as 
Santa Ysabel, Santa Ysabel 2, or 
Mesa Grande, and Santa Ysabel No. 3, 
or Volcan) or Sycuan. The Indian 
popvilation was, on June 30, 1926, 
1544, according to the official rolls. 
There are a number of Indians in San 
Diego county who are not enrolled. 
This is due to the fact that they left 
the reservations years ago. Intermar- 
ried with whites or other non-enrolled 
Indians, and have since resided In 
white communities. Their identities 
as Indians have been lost, and they 
are now considered, and rightly so, on 
the same plane as their white neigh- 
bors. 

"After the Mexican secularization 
act, (of about 1830), the Indians 
scattered from the old missions, a 
great many going back to the, then, 
remote and almost inaccessible parts 
of the country. They lived unmo- 
lested for a number of years, but the 
gold rush days caused a great influx 
of whites, and, after statehood, a 
still larger number came. With them 
came the demand for land. The In- 
dians had been living for years al- 
most without contact with the whites, 
and had no knowledge of courts, 
land laws, etc. When owners of land 
under Mexican grants were notified to 
come into the courts and obtain legal 
title under the new government the 
Indians remained in the hills, not 
knowing the necessity for obtaining 
title. Consequently, land occupied 
by them was proclaimed as public 
domain, and later homesteaded by 
whites. In an effort to remedy con- 
ditions, Inspectors were sent by th*» 
government to report upon the 
matter, and Mrs. Helen Hunt Jack- 
son was one of the^. Her books, 
"A Century of Dishonor" and "Ra- 
mona," (the latter fiction, although 
with some basis of fact) did consider- 
able to alter conditions, and on Jan. 
12, 1891, (26 statutes, P. 712) con- 



900,000 acres of land, as compared 
with 20,000 Indians cultivating 550,.- 
000 acres of land 10 years ago. 



gress passed an act providing for the 



appointment of a commission to in- 
vestigate conditions in California, 

u RcrcB ui i»ii«a ,1V/ j^c**o «sx^. and make report. President Harrison 

"The Indian bureau is conducting | appointed the commission, v/hich is 
one of the most efficient school sys- j known as the Smiley commission, 
tenia among the Indians to be found I consisting of Albert K. Smiley, of 
anywhere in the United States or the' Redlands, and Joseph Moore and 
civilized world. , Charles C. Painter. This commission 

"There are in the'lndian service 18 ; recommended that lands occupied ^V 1 towards" lifting this burden of infa 
non-reservation boarding schools: 81 IndUns on the public domain be pat- p^y^^^^^^ and righting j 

tribal boarding schools. 55 reservation I ented to each band or reserved for ^'^,„^ ^^ ^y,^ jndlan race. / 

jjardini^olioolg^ii^T^j^^ 



high school course. The expenses of 
these schools have been as follow.s — 
to June 30. 1923, $17,773.40; to June 
30, 1926, $16,732.46. Indian children 
are also permitted to attend public 
schools, if they wish. 

"The government also subsists in- 
digent Indians, and provides for 
medical service. At San Jacinto there 
is an Indian hospital, to which all 
Mission Indians have access and a 
considerable number of Indians from 
San Diego county^ have been hos- 
pitalized there. Most of the Indians 
of this jurisdiction (Riverside), live 
In San Diego county. 

"Critics to 'the contrary, the gov- 
ernment has been and is now doing 
actual constructive work among the 
Indians. No dependent peoples have 
shown such progress during t^^ P^s^ 
generation as the American Indians. 
"The record of the American gov- 
ernment in Indian affairs, specially 
during the past two decades, has been 
a good one. Statistics do not have the 
appeal of well written fiction, conse- 
cmently more people are familiar with 
•Ramona' than with governrnent re- 
ports which deal with the Indian sit- 
uation. Our records today show a de 
l)endent people on the road to inde- 
pendence, with opportunities equal to 
the whites, If they will but accept 
them- they show a people who are 
increasing numerically; they show a 
lowering of disease and infant mor- 
tallty. Best of all, they show an in- , 
creasing large number of Indians at-\ 
tending our schools and universities. 
They also show a large number of In- 
dians, men and women, who are work- 
ing Bide by side with whites, and suc- 
cessfully competing with them for a 

livelihood. , ^ . ., ^ 

"Pages could be written about the 
progress of the Indian under govern- 
ment control." 
FOUGHT IN WAR 

Many Indians entered the American 
army, and rendered gallant service 
during the last great war. 

To Helen Hunt Jackson, more 
than to any other one person. Is due 
the credit for the vastly Improved 
condition of the American Indian. She 
well deserves a monument, and endur- 
ing fame, as the "Friend of the Amer- 
ican Indian.'* 

Helen Hunt Jackson was less for- 
timate than William Lloyd Garrison, 
John G. Whlttler and Wendell Phil- 
lips the pioneer abolitionists. They 
lived to see the fruition of their life 
work in the emancipation of the 
American negro from the bondage of 
slavery. She died many years before 
the reforms in the administration of 
Indian affairs, for which she had so 
long and so 'strenuously worked had 
been consummated. But before she 
closed her eyes on this world she saw 
the dawning promise of "the better 
day" for her Indians. 

Four days before her death in San 

Francisco in September. 1885, Mrs. 

Jackson wrote to Grover Cleveland, 

then president of the United States: 

"Dear Sir: 

"From my death bed I send you a 
message of heartfelt thanks for what 
you have already done for the Indians. 
I ask you to read my 'Century of Dis- 
honor.' I am dying happier for the be- 
lief that it is your hand that is des- 
tined to strike the first steady bio 






«»ci March 11. 1824; the oxTwe^'orcoTn^ "^"Iff^r tn. x>r i , . ,, 

ml85loner of Indian affairs was rr^ ^^^^ ^^® Mexican secularization 

iat«<l m 1832. and in 1849 the depart I ' *''^. '°^ ^^^'^^ ^^^^^' ^^^ ^^^^^^"' 
ment of the Interior was estAbllshed ' ^^^^[^"^^ ^^^m the old missions, a 
by act of congress, and the bureau of ^'^^ "^^"^ »°^^^» ^^^^ ^ ^^e- ^^®"' 
Indian affairs transferred to that de ^®°^°^® ^^^ almost Inaccessible parts 
partment from the war deDartment' ?^ ^^* country. They llv»d unmo^ 
where it has since remained lestcd for a number of vears. but the 

"Two-thirds of the Indians of the ^?^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ caused a great Influx 
United States are now citizens The ^^l^s. and. after statehood, a 

?^[' to citizenship are open to any 
Ist^nt'^'T^^^'' ""^'^^ ^"^ ^°"^P^y ^^th ex- 

fnr3-'. ^il^'i^" population of Calt- 
lornla Is 16,000. 

•'About 200.000 Indians have 1.I 

ments are usual iv^^V^ Allot- 

general aUotmen"Lt'":?Vert''l88'V 
a« amended. ' ^°®^' 

in'T^c^ent'''*™ ''k ^^^ ^^^ted States 
ablJ^^Ij^ *'^^^*''® '^^^e remark- 



still larger number came. With them 
came the demand Tor land. The In- 
dlanfi had been living for years al- 
most without contact with the whites, 
and had no knowledge of courts, 
land laws, etc. When owners of land 
under Mexican grants were notified to 
come into the courts and obtain legal 
title under the new government the 
IndJans remained In the hills, not 
Knowing the necessity for obtaining 
title Consequently, land occupied 
by them was proclaimed as public 
aornaln. and later homesteaded by 

^^l^T ^"^ ^ ^^^^''^ to remedy con- 
ditions. Inspectors were sent by the 

able nrfurrV.7"' .™"^ '"""^ remark- ^V'^I' ^"^ ^^s- Helen Hunt Jack- 
Btc^k ^J^T ^^ agriculture andlTrl^ '^'"^ ""^ ^^^' Her books. 
va^L tt ^' ^^y ^^ livestock mon^^^^'i7 ?^ Dishonor" and "Ra- 
J^i^n. *^ approximately $35,000 000 ^^u^' ^^^^ ^^^ter fiction, although 
consisting nf o«^ ru.^ .{_ /^ .uug.uoo. ^^jth some basis of fact) did consider- 

12 i«oi*^^fL^^^^^^^°"«' and on Jan. 
JtL ^^^' ^2^ statutes. P. 712) con- 
gress passed an act providing for the 
appointment of a commission to In- 
r^H^*^ conditions In California, 
l^^ f^!'^ ^^P^- President Harrison 
appointed the commission, which Is 

P^rfew. ^ ^^^ ^"^^^y commission, 
consisting of Albert K. Smiley, of 
Redlandfi and Joseph Moore and 
Charles C. Painter. This commission 
recommended that lands occupied by 
Indians on the public domain be pat- 
ented to each band, or reserved for 

c^L^^\^\ ^^^ ^^^^ ^y executive 
oraer, that lands occupied by In- 
Qians but owned by whites be nur- 
ceased, if possible, or excha^ed. 
inis report was approved br Presi- 
dent Harison on Dec. 29, 1891. 
i ''Under this act, Jan. 12, 1891, pat- 
ents were issued to the bands for 
lands occupied by them on the pub- 
lic domain, and since that time the 
wicre IS lumished food, clothing I reservations have been added to by 
transportation, medical attendance' I ^^^^ purchased or reserved, until at 
and dental service, together with vo-i^^® present time there are 111,726 
catlonal training. The Indian boys ^^^^* ^^ ^^^^ ^^ the 16 reservations. 
are taught and furnished practical ^^ ^^* recently passed provided for 



consisting of 26T<;^"Tors«-"3"(^r6 
900^00 «..°",T 'a™»i»8 nearly 
onn.'°°- ''"****"' cultivating 550,- 

nn/^* ^^<l'an bureau le conducting 
one of the moet efficient school sys- 
tems among the Indians to be found 
anywhere In the United States or the 
civilized world. 

„^"7*'*^* *•■' *"* the 'Indian service 18 
trm:['^'!iV°" »>°«dlng schools; 8 
tribal boarding schools. 66 reservation 

i^"I^Jlf. '^*V^'»' »n<l 170 day schools. 
In addition to these schools we have 
contracts for the education of In- 
dian pupils in 18 mission boarding 
schools Indians are also receiving 
education In 38 non-contract mission 
boarding schools and 25 mission day 
schools. • ' 

EDUCATION PRACTICAL 

"In our Indian boarding schools "*= aomam, and since that time the 
inere is furnished food, clothing reservations have been added to by 
transportation, medical attenrfun^o' '*nds purchased or reserved, unti] at 



ceitun. ".^/"'".r"'* ''*-h»tes."a;d"s;c. 

proerTrnfVi'' ?* '■■'"«" "bout the 
progress of the Indian under covfrn 
ment control •■ govern- 

KOIGHT IN U AR 

Curi'ng the^a;r.?eat^f^"^"' «"^'« 

Helen Hunt Jackson was les«; fnr i 

IlM t?« Whlttler and Wendell Phll- 

?ed trf .P'°I'r'" abolitionists. TheV 

work ^n VJ"' "■'"*'°" °' their litl 

i America" negroT^r'f^^*'?.'^ ^^ ^'^'^ 
slaverv RhT^I^i "^ ^^^ bondaRe of 
the r7,or^J^," .^'\i '"any years before 
Indian Rf7«.r, ^^^ administration of 
long and ,irt; ^"^ ''^'^^ ''^^ had so 
been consume ?^°"^^^ ^°^^^'^ had 

closed he7™ on "tv,.^"* ^'^°'^ «he 
the dftwn)^» t*^'* ^"rld she saw 

da|"^:ref zc: °' "*^^ "«"- 

henre.sS of t^ ^ ^^^ -'-^ 
"Dear Sir f ^^^ """^'^ States: 

mes^agT orhe^Lrtfelt'^f^ ^^^"^ y°» ^ 
vou have alreadv rii ^^^""^ '"^ ^hat 

•l ask you to rea'^ Z^J?"" l^^ ^'^^'''»«- 
honor • l am dt1n»T <^?ntury of DIs- 

Wlh respect and eratltue 
"HELEN JA 



experience In trades, agriculture, and 
stock raising, and the Indian girls 
are given education along practical 
lines Including domestic science, and 
are given the opportunity by doing 
the things they will be required to 
do In their own homes. The govern- 
ment Is doing a wonderful work in 
educating the 66,000 Indian children 
now In school, and at remarkablv 
low cost. 

"There are 200 Indian reservations, 
with 193 different tribes, under 130 
Jurisdictions — schools and agencies. 
The Indian country covers an area 
as large as all of the New England 
states and the state of New York 
combined. The Indians of this coun- 
try speak 58 different languages. 

'"There are at this time 400 Pro- 
testant and 200 Catholic missionaries 
In the Indian field. About 48,000 In- 
dians have affiliated with Protestant' 
churches, and 63,000 with Catholic 
churches. There are a large number 
of adult Indians who have not yet 



the purchase of more than 600 acres, 
for the Santa Ysabel reservation 
U. S. AIDS> FARMERS 

"After patenting the lands to the 
Indians, the government provided 
for schools, appointed farmers and 
other employes to assist in making 
the Indian self-snpporting. furnished 
tools, implements, seeds, stock, etc., 
and arranged for Irrigation facilities. 
Up to June 30. 1924, the government 
expended $216,996.09 In the construc- 
tion of irrigation projects in San 
Diego coimty alone, in addition to ex- 
pending large sums for the purchase 
of lands, schools, farming implements, 
seeds, etc. 

/'As an Incentive to individual ef- 
ff^t the government provided for al- 
lotments of lands, that is, by divid- 
ing the reservations among the In- 
dians in individual tracts, giving 
what is known as a 'trust patent.' 
This trust patent provides that the 
land shall be held in the name of the 
Indian, but exempt from all taxes, 
for a period of 25 years, or until the 
Indian has proven competency, and 
makes application for what is known 
as a fee patent,' which gives title 
in fee simple to the Indian owner — 
all government restrictions are re- 
moved. The allotments have proven a 
benefit, as can be observed at Pala 
and Morengo. The Indians, feeling 
that the land was theirs Individually. 
and not owned by the tribe in com- 
mon, erected their homes, tilled their 
fields, and progressed rapidly. Many 
can now take their places with whites 
on an equal footing. 

"In 1916, as a further incentive to 
Indians, the government provided for 
what Is known as the reimbursable 
plan. Under this plan congreiss ap- 
propriated considerable sums of 
money, running into the millions, 
which permitted an Indian to receive 
property, supplies, stock, etc., up to 
$600 par head (more with special per- 
mission). The purchases were made 
by the reservation superintendents at 
the request of the Indians. When 
received, the Indians signed agree- 
ments to reimburse the governm.ent 
for the various amounts within two, 
three, four or five years. This re- 
imburseable plan carried no Interest 
payments, only the actual amount 
extended was to be reimbursed by 
any Indian. While this plan applied 
to all the Indians In the United 
States, the San Diego Indians received 
their proportion of the amount, and 
further, they took advantage of the 
opportunity. At Pala considerable 
seed and implements were sold to the 



f^Y.'.'Vi'f! ■'"):;«/ 






i>i^X'J:bBl::K 5, 1926 



^ 



IAN MICt 

TO CITY 




word waT receive^ from Congress- 
Iman Phil D. Swine: by Mayor Bacon 
yesterday Indicating that ItUfe^p^r- 
ests of the city m the El Capltan 
r^^.fT?ir ^»<W^n lands ftre being prq- 
jtecte'd by the Indian service. The 
lands which the city must eventually 
own to flood for the El Capltan 
reservoir are held In trust by the In- 
dian service to be divided among the 
Individual members of the Capltan 
iGrande Indian division. The trust 
period Is about to expire, but the In- 
dian service is seeking to have the 
trust period extended another 10 
[years. 

A telegram from Swing yesterday 

Jlndlcated that the Indian service has 

Irequested congress to extend the 

Itrust for 10 years, and the congress- 

Iman asked for information regarding 

Ithe city's attitude on the project. 

I There is no question, said Mayor 

IBacon, that the city is in favor of 

Ithe extension. If the deeds to the 

Hand are issued to the Indians and 

Ithe land is allotted before the city 

lis ready to buy and build, it means 

■that the city will have to deal with 

Iseveral hundred individual Indian 

lland owners. Aa long as the trust 

Icontlnues the United States govem- 

Iment is the only party with which 

Ithe city will have to deal. The city 

Ihas already obtained permission to 

purchase the lands needed, and the 

Iprlce for the lands has already been 

Ifixed. If congref?s agrees to exten 

Ithe trust 10 years, San Diego, it 

■pointed out, should be ready bef<»e 

Ithe end of that period to purcliase 

Ithe Isind and build El Capitan^^ttam, 

and one transaction with onjrdeed 

will cover the whole deal. 



iA9r DiEoo, CAi.! vmdip 3r 

DECEMBER 21. 1»26 



f 



wm Aum 



JMeiegram fro 



S EL CAPITAN RIGHT 



'Mayofifcon cn^J? Washington to 
Swine VeRti^rt.J^^^'^®^'"*'^ Pli" D. 
dWs riehtf 7 announced that San 



L%- fir --^^^^^ 

.. "Glad to advise v«„ - .„.— „_., ^"^ have been c^nf-^nA^ **l"o»». 



be_ preserved. 

"thS**th.*?> *^^*** y«"'" wires Swine 
inat the house today oassprt .«^\r.f,' 

extending the time fS .«,w*l ^^ '>"1 



dlans be given other lands before th- 



would have been ^nT.^ fe^%J««°'». 
patents to the InXns 5^,!° ***?• 
mean that the council Sh^x'^'* 
had to deal uith .J7,.-", ^.^^\^ l^a^* 



extending the time Mr ."^T** '"^ '>"! mean that the eo.m^n '"*^ "^^"^^ 
tan reservoir site." ^ acquiring Capl- they are needed. However ^hl 1^*^ 

igtv?n^^x^'^oiSrb%r" -'«'-"y h-'^" eS vTh^hn"'^ ^?/" 

<2 



•iu» 



SAN niEGO, CAT.., SWf 



li&I^ian Pro., 

nianv^ai?ioHi'^'''j^^'', °' ^°^'*" '■"8«' >•«»«» »»<! huge baskets of 
^SJj^vy i 1°' wil^lowers. as a setting, an. entertaining and In- 
WprifftlLJ'rfiTf'" was presented at the San Diego Woman's club 
SnntS^^- » r:";."'- ^- ^^ipp, chairman of Indian, welfare for the 
es8avn„'.r »'■'*'*• <^H*^°''"*^ Federation of Women's clubs. A prize 
Son Ind?■fn°"l^^•"''I'■**^"'^"« °* Southwest Indians." written by a 
Misf MarHni r^^/' '".A""^ Sherman Institute. Riverside, was read by 
Senfor Xh ^r*°,' ^T.""'® Indian girl who is attending the San Diego 
henior High school. Dressed in an Indian costume, she breathed tha 

Indians.' ^^^ '"**'*" ^^^ *^ * member of Cahullla tribe of the Mission 

Charl^R p^lfifff; '7^^ ^"^'^'i ^^ ^ have Known Him," was given by 
Tomnkino' ».♦!.' ^°'"™^'" superintendent of Indian Schools. William 
spoke on '"Sr and lecturer on the Universal Indian Sign language, 

M?.c, t!. ^^ ^"^^ Symbols of th» Red Man." 
< i^ncy MUwt i^w?.?"!' *" ^"<"*" costume, sang "Indian Lullaby" 
panled bv miIl I ** "^ah-tay-see" (Clifford Cole). She was accom- 
next produJJ nr, ^f"^, V*"*"- ^^"^ A"*™" ^"^ ««"« the lead in the 
the ranch nf?L^ ^'"*^ °^ ^^^ «"'«•" ^^Ich will be held June 11 at 

Mr« r the producer. Mrs. Lucy Miller of Guatay. 
tume «p;«^' "• "®l*tt and Mrs. Alice Greason. in quaint Indian cos- 
Wilson and Mrs H. Tan DiS.'"'""''' ^""" *° '''"^' °' ''"• °°''' 

Economic ^n^ ^nf ^^^^ °^ "^ ^^''"'^^ °^ '"*'=**' programs sponsored by Uie 
"Un Waal Rr„?h „ department of the club on the general them/of 
years^ work nnH ^''^,r*'; '^*'*« department has Just complete/two 
win h«^^r^.L /k ^\% leadership of Mrs. Charles J. Leopolj?^ She 
will be succeeded by Mrs. George Abel. 






-. \ 



/THE 





Gathering acorns for the 
feast. An old Campo 
woman ready for a 
journey up the moun- 
tain with her net on her 
head, and an olla to 
carry the nuts. 



D I E G U 




An Inaja woman, separating 
wheat grains from the chaff — 
a primitive but highly suc- 
cessful operation. The Inajas, 
unlike most of the Diegueno 
tribes which take their name 
from a geographical point, 
derive their title from the 
Indian word, "Inaja," which 
means "my water." 



Maria Antonio, a Mesa 
Grande, is the most expert 
basket maker of her tribe. 
Here she is starting one, 
later to be sold in San 
Diego or Los Angeles. 



A Campo Indian curing pulque 

for food on the desert in Coyote 

Valley, San Diego County. 



la^ 






U 



'.fL 



V 



\ hi 



[\ 



Old Yellow Sky, chief of the 
Campos. Even at an advanced 
age he still displairs great vigor, 
occasionally aiding his sons who 
no longer range the hills for 
deer, but till the soil and raise 

com. 



THE DIEGUESO family of In- 
dians, living chiefly in San Diego 
County, and so named because of their 
erstwhile allegiance to the San Diego 
Mission, have been one of the few 
groups of California Indians that have 
met our civilization and survived. That 
they have not entirely perished may 
be explained by the fact that they have 
been slow to adopt modern modes and 
manners, living much the same now as 
they did a century and a half ago. 

At one time, the DieguetLos num- 
bered between 3,000 and 4,000. Now 




^ 






■>. 



ki> 



1 A 



OF 



TOD A V 



L6S K'V\^gAfcsTo^^'»^^ '^-?'':'^,~ ^*^ V^i7 



^^•^••:*- 






>r 



>' 



^^n 



.■^.f^i^^» 



V. 



N 



\ 



\i.p's 



'V \ 



Monica Ardillo, once a beauty 
among the Indians of San Diego 
County, has been withered by 
time and hard work, hovering 
about her domicile while the 
young generation provide the 
necessaries of life. 



JS3*' 



Volcan, a Piapa child, at play on the 
Campo Indian Reservation. The ex- 
traordinary comeliness of the young 
Dieguenos is readily apparent from 

this portrait. 



they have been reduced to 700 or 800. 
Among the tribes, which are of Yuman 
stock and belong to the Hokan lin- 
guistic group, are the Campos, the Mesa 
Grandes and the Lagunas, who take 
their tribal names from the names of 
their home communities. 

Despite the fact that they resented 
the invasion of the Spaniards and never 
were completely submissive to the 
authority of the missionary fathers, 
they have come to be in later years 
a peaceful and interesting people. 





Not much more than a toddler, 
this youth already is learning to 
handle a bow and arrow. His 
name is Angelo Quilp, he is 
third of his line, and he lives on 
the Campo reservation. 



An Inaja woman grinding acorns for the family larder. 
Th^e hollowed stone is called a nietate. 





With the passing of 
time has gone, likewise, 
much of the wild life 
of the San Diego Moun- 
tains, but this aged 
Campo has not forgot- 
ten his archery. 



i \ 



White men's tobacco delights 
this aged Campo, who puffs 
continually at a home-made 
cigarette, while he basks in 
the balmy sunshine of the San 
Diego mountains. 



Maria Larsario Alto, olla 
maker of the Laguna 
mountains, displaying some 
of her wares, which are 
widely sold to curio seek- 
ers and collectors of In- 
dian craftsmanship. 






■Air iinECH»« fixut 

I JULY 19a 1937 




d 6 1 f 



MAD INDIAN 



BM at Campo Starts Gun-Play Resulting in Slaying 



h 
;e 



Of Two Natives and^Wounding of 
White Agent and Others 

While with weird wails Campo Indians mourn their dead, 
government officials today started an investigation of a 
factional fight on the Campo reservation Saturday night which 
was quelled by deputy sheriffs only after two Indians had| 
been shot and killed and two other men serio usly wounded. 

The dead are Marco Hlllmiup|g' 
and Frank Cuero, aUeged ring- 
leaders in the rebellion. ^p 

The seriously wounded are 
George Robertson of Pala, gov- *-^ 
ernment head of the reservation, 
who is in Mercy hospital, and 
John Leo, chief of the govern- 
ment Indian police of the reserva- 
tion, who is in the county hos- 
pital. Both may live, hospital 
authorities said today. 

A dozen other Indians were 
scarred by bullet or knife wounds. 
UNREST DESCRIBED 

A vivid description of the un- 
rest on the reservation after the 
fight was given by Coroner Schuy- 
ler C. Kelly who ordered the 
bodies of the Indians brought to 
Johnson-Saum funeral parlors 
here. Kelly arrived at Campo 
about midnight Saturday. 

"I anticipated difficulty in ob- 
taining the bodies," Kelly said. 
"My feeling was increased by the 
half-suppressed moaning of the 
Indiana who sulj.enly resented 
the presence of any white man. 

"However, the mob, leaderless, 
only milled threateningly, show- 
ing no real defiance.'* 

BODIES BROUGHT HERE 

When he explained through in- 
terpreters that the "white man's 
law" required that the bodies be 
brought to San Diego, the Indians 
stood aside while the corpses were 
loaded into an automobile, Kelly 
said. 

An inquest into the deaths will 
be held this week, probably Wed- 
nesday, Kelly said. 

In addition to investigation at 
the Inquest, further inquiry into 
the affair will be made by D. E. 
Murphy, government Indian agent, 
who arrived here yesterday from 
Riverside. 

Murphy questioned Robertson 
this morning. He did not an- 
nounce what action the govern- 
ment expected to take. 

STARTS WITH ARREST 

The fight broke out when 
Deputy Sheriff! Ralph Kennedy 
attempted to larrest an Indian 
caught sellingr'canned heat" to 
other IndianJ Those involved 

(TIRN TO >'mT PAGE. PLEASE) 



B 



al 



l'™» ■:>■././;, 



ly auaufwii 

Powell said th^r© wag no ap- 
parent drunkenness among the 
Indians and no liquor evident ex- 
cept the ''canned heat." 

Kennedy and H. E. 




mmmmmmmm 



II ||«g|MWWippM(MW(W| 



.••/:: 



iTftSf' 



i(iiw>f^'' 









7f-^ 




-ui ein tui^»> o^ pe]dui9nB Pu| 
dn udiisui XeaaniM pu« ua^^ioj 

•px)iUf 

3uiaq euoiuB 'aaAd.^oq *jnoq)r 
'peujn^ai eia.vi 6]oq8 a^q puv qoi 
aq) o:>u| paJ|J 'uauiaono^ "'H 
-UI l^AOi aqi JO ^^^^ 's^aajog ©r 
-mif -.CBiiiB pa:iiii<lB pu^ pauD^i 
8«Av 'pajjnopuBq iin« *Jaaoip| 
Biq puB 'paipuBquBui XidjaAas 8B 

XpauuaM -dniuiiUH ^q P^P^^'^ 
'saABjq peuappBUi jo (Inoj2 
Xq paqsTU ajaA oaq jejqO P^b n< 
-:jjaqon 'iCpaunan ^lo^TBipauiiui 

aaaosan H3X09IHJ 






;*'ji.y. 



?rtl^ 



^ere Robertson, Deputy Sherifts 
King Powell, Kennedy and 
Charles E. Murray, Chief Leo and 
his loyal Indian police on one 
«ide, and on the other, a group of 
Indians belonging to an organiza- 
tion called the "Federation," and 
headed on the reservation by the 
Indian HUlmlup. 

Scores of shots were fired from 
automatic pistols and rifles on 
each side. 

The deputy sheriffs were pres- 
ent at the request of Robertson, 
and it was at Robertson's request, 
they say, that Kennedy attempted 
to arrest the liquor seller. 

PRISONER RESCUED 
Immediately Kennedy, Robert- 
son and Chief Leo were rushed by 
a group of maddened braves, 
headed by HUlmlup. Kennedy 
was severely manhandled, and his 
prisoner, still handpuffed, was 
rescued and spirited away. Jlm- 
mle Boregas. one of the loyal In- 
dian policemen, fired into the 
mob and his shots were returned^ 
without, however, anyone being 
injured. 

Powell and Murray rushed up 
and attempted to calm the In- 
dians, who. Powell said, spread 
out In a fan-shaped group, with 
the whites and the Indian police 
at the apex. 

Cries in the Indian tongue, 
later translated, the officials said, 
to mean "Kill 'em! Shoot 'em!" 
went up from the mob. 

CHIEF IS SHOT 
Observing HUlmlup behlHxT 
Robertson and Powell, Chief Leo 
moved to defend the whites. HUl- 
mlup, according to Powell, imme- 
diately drew his gun and fired 
lour shots Into the chief's body, 
dropping him Instantly. 

As if the s-hots were a elgnaU 
the Indians rushed the little 
group. The firing became general. 
Leo. although badly wounded, 
returned HlUmlup's fire. Another 
Indian jumped Kennedy, attempt- 
ing to turn him about so his 
friends could get a shot at him. 
Powell reached over Kennedy's 
fihoulder and fired twice at Ken 
nedy's attacker. The latter fell. 
INI>IAN DROPS 
•*I*m sure I 'got' him," Powel 
Bftld today. *'I don't understand 
-why his body was not found." 

Powell says he then turned hi 
fire on HUlmlup and the latte 
dropiped, although Powell wa 
uncertain whether it was from hi 
bullet or Leo's. Robertson wa 
pointing his automatic at Hlllml 
up but declares he did not fire 
and an examination of his gun a 
the sheriff's office today failed to 
show that It had been discharged 
Kennedy, Powell said. flred| 
two shots. Murray did not fire a 
single shot. I 

REBEIiS SOATTBR 
The fall of their leader, Powell 
said, seemed to frighten or dls- 
cc^rfk.ge the rebels, and they be- 
gsCti to scatter. Leaving the other 
two deputies on the field, Powell 
rushed to Campo to summon 
help. 

Powell declared there was no 
Indiscriminate shooting by the 
sheriff's men. "We drew our 
l?uns only after we were fired 
upon." he said, "and were care- 
ful to fire only upon those actual- 
ly attacking us." 

Powell said there was no ap- 
parent drunkenness among the 
Indians and no liquor evident ex- 
cept the "canned heat." 

Murray and Kennedy and H. E. 
Mcl>anlel of Campo. bear out 
Powell's statement. 

Powell charges that the real 
cause of the outbreak was not the 
arrest, but a long smouldering 
enmity betv/een the Indians be- 
longing to the "Federation" and 
the regularly constituted Indian 

ill attrlbuteH 



to arrest the liquor seller. 

PRIHONER RESCUED 

Immediately Kenn*v4y, Robert- 
Eon and Chlet Leo were ruahed by 
a group ot maddened braves, 
headed by HUlmlup. Kennedy 
was severely manhandled, and his 
prisoner, still handcuffed, was 
reacued and spirited away. Jlm- 
mle Boregas, one of the loyal In- 
dian policemen, fired Into the 
mob and his shots were returned,* 
without, however, anyone being 
injured. 

Powell and Murray rushed up 
and attempted to calm the In- 
dians, who, Powell said, spread 
out In a fan-shaped group, with 
the whites and the Indian police 
at the apex. 

Cries in the Indian tongue, 
later translated, the officials said. 



em 



? »» 



to mean "Kill 'em! Shoot 
went up from the mob. 

CHIEF IS SHOT 

Observing Hlllmiup behln^t 
Robertson and Powell, Chief Leo 
moved to defend the whites. Hlll- 
miup, according to Powell, imme- 
diately drew his gun and fired 
four shots into the chief's body, 
dropping him instantly. 

As If the shots were a eignaUj 
the Indians rushed the little 
group. The firing became general. 
Leo. although badly wounded, 
returned Hillmiup's fire. Another 
Indian jumped Kennedy, attempt-! 
ing to turn him about so hisi 
friends could get a shot at him. 
Powell reached over Kennedy's] 
ahoulder and fired twice at Ken 
nedy's attacker. The latter fell. 
INI>IAN DROPS 
••I'm sure I 'got' him," Powell 
Bald today. "I don't understand] 
why his body was not found." 

Powell says he then turned his 
fire on Hlllmiup and the lattei 
drop|>ed. although Powell wai 
uncertain whether ft was from hi! 
bullet or Leo's. Robertson wai 
pointing his automatic at Hlllmi- 
up but declares he did not fire, 
and an examination of his gun ai 
the sheriff's office today failed to| 
show that It had been discharged. 
Kennedy, Powell said, flredl 
two shots. Murray did not fire al 
single shot. 

HEBEIiS SOATTER 
The fall of their leader, Powelll 
said, seamed to frighten or dls-l 
CQjJirage the rebels, and they be- 
gaYi to scatter. Leaving the other I 
two deputies on the field, Powell 
rushed to Campo to summon! 
help. 

Powell declared there was noi 
indiscriminate shooting by the 
sheriff's men. "We drew our 
guns only after we were fired 
npon.'* he said, "and were care- 
ful to fire only upon those actual- 
ly attacking us." 

Powell said there was no ap- 
parent drunkenness among the 
Indians and no liquor evident ex- 
cept the "canned heat." 

Murray and Kennedy and H. E. 
McDaniel of Campo, bear out 
Powell's statement. 

Powell charges that the real 
cause of the outbreak was not the 
arrest, but a long smouldering 
enmity between the Indians be- 
longing to the "Federation" and 
the regularly constituted Indian 
authorities. Powell attributes 
much of this enmity to alleged 
overbearing tactics of the Indian 
policeman, Jlmmle Boregas. 
FEDERATION BLAMED 
The "Federation," Powell 
charges, is headed by a white 
man of Riverside. Tibbetts by 
name. According to Powell, about 
9000 Indians in the southern part 
of the state belong to this or- 
ganization. Each pays Tibbetts |1 
a month, he said. The purpose of 
the organization is unknown to 
the loyal Indians, Powell saJd, 
hut it is known that it elects/its 
own officers, and refuses to /ec- 
ognlze the authority of the 
ular Indian authorities. 

A demand for a federal 
of the rebellion and of th( 
eration will be made to ^vern- 
ment authorities, the sherjf's of- 
ficers said. 



•eg- 

irobe 
Fed- 






';;i.i. 



'^vi'i 



















'A,!,.^ 



^^•^ 



AS DEPUTIES 
QUai RIOT 



Government Chief of Reser- 
vation at Point of Death; 
. Many Wounded in Pitched 
Battle With Insurrectos. 



^ c/v.^+iT.ir We did the first time I Have drawn my gun 
the Indians we saw ^5^\^- it is a 1 since I joined the sheriffs force here, 
not fire Into the crowd ^l^^f^' ^YiJf^^ I carry it not Inside my coat, but In- 
mlracle that no woman or chUdren ^^»^^ ^ Indians knew us 




Two Indians are dead, one 
white Indian agent probably 
fatally wounded, and a number 
of Indians variously estimatea 
at from six to 12 are suffering 
from gunshot wounds as a re- 
sult of a factional Indian dis- 
pute at the Campo reservation 
fiesta Saturday night Aftei 
having smouldered sullenly for 
several months, the resentment 
of one Indian faction flamed 
into killing fury that spent its 
ioTce in a massed attack on 
three San T)iego county deputy 
sheriffs, the Indian agent for 
the souliiem California reser- 
vations' and two or three In- 
diait police, all of whom were 
assigiied to keep order during 
the Campo fiesta. 1 

FIGHTING FURIOUS 

That more men and even women 
^ind children were not wounded or 
lined in the furious fighting that 
wasted for several mlnux.es is little 
\hort of a miracle, for an armed force 
)f some 20 Indians were shooting des- 
perately to "get" the white men, and 
the white men were just as desperate- 
ly defending themselves. 

The known dead are Marco Hiumi- 
up "Federation" policeman on the 
:jampo reservation, and Frank Cuero. 
another Indian known to have been 
ihot at point blank range ^as not 
boen found, and It Is believed that hU 
friends have hidden his body. Indian 
Agent George J. Robertson of Pala lay 
last night at the point of death in 
Morcy hospital with four bullet 
wounds in vital parts of his body. Two 
of the more seriously wounded In- 
dians, one. John Leo. chief of the In- 
dian police, and the other a Feder- 
ation" insurrecto, are in the county 
hospital, while a number of others 
with wounds of varying severity have 
reported to Jacumba and other phy- 
sicians for treatment. I^js ^,^1^^^!^^ 
that several slightly wounded Indians 
have hidden themselves and have not 
reported to have their wounds dressed^ 
The war ended yesterday morning 
when a force of additional deputies 
from San Diego went out to Campo 
and took charge, the Indians agree- 
mg to call off the rest of the Fiesta 

(OonfBImie^nPage 2) 

whiat he was tryii* uu uv^ •"'r*,"';' r,;:' 
to defend us. and HUlmlup ^ 1^^^^^/ 
aSots at him, dropping him instantly^ 
The Indians rusHed us «jd^ ^^^^^ 
became general. Leo returned HIU 
«r<iirfc'« fire and a man Jumped K.en 
^d^ try^ S> turn him around so 
J^at'thJy could shoot him. A man 
oStra^d out of the darkness at me 
lusT^^ I^ew W gun. which I carry 
iMldrmy vest, and he fired at me 
l^int bTank. I don't know how he 
" me. 



were injured." . 

Both Murray and Kennedy bear out 

Powell's statement, as does H. fj^' 
Daniel, manager of the Standard Sani- 
tary Manufacturing company plant aL 
Campo. who was present and saw tne 
whole thing. ^ , .^- 

"It was Just like a movie In tne 
dark," said Murray. ''There were guns 
popping on all sides of us and tne 
buUets were whistling around ^ fom all 
directions. We could see atoost noth- 
ing of our attackers except the spurts 
of fire from their guns." 

"My God. they've kUled me. was 
the remark Robertson made as ^® 
crumpled Into Powell's arms when 
HUlmlup fled backward after shoot- 
ing Leo and fired at Robertson as he 
backed away. Leo. ^o^^r^^^^.^fll^ 
Powell all fired at the Indian leader 

and he fell. 

liLAMES DEPUTIES ^ rrr v 

A man giving the name of W. E. 
Gould, deputy labor commissioner at 
El Centro. called The Union by tele- 
phone from near Campo yesterday 
and Indignantly charged that the 
deputies had fired Indiscriminately 
into the crowd without any provoca- 
tion, asserting that HUlmlup was the 
only Indian who was armed and that 
as "captain of the reservation police 
he had a right to be armed." ^^^ ad- 
mitted that he had not seen the bat- 



side my vest. The Indians knew us 
from former fiestas and we had our 
badges on. They were out to klU us 
and would have done so l^they couia 

have." 

"The man shot me without provo- 
cation," said Indian Agent Robertson 
in a statement made in contempla- 
tion of his death. "I was looking on 
whUe officers were trying to s^dJ^ 
the Indians, and one Indian walkeu 
out of the crowd and shot me." 
EXPLAINS 'FEDERATION' 

In explaining the "Federation an- 
gle" of the battle, Powell said that the 
organization Is headed or led by this 
white man, Tlbbett, of Riverside. He 
declared that Tlbbett has been heard 
to address the members of the Feder- 
ation and to urge them to recognize 
no authority or laws but their own, 
and to refuse to permit government 
officers to come onto the reservation. 
"I believe there are about 9000 
members paying a dollar a month, 
and these constitute about three- , 
fourths of the Indian population of | 
the county," said Powell. "They have 
their own police officers, who are of 
course without any real authority or 
any kind. These police they say they 
recognize, but not the regular govern- 
ment Indian police, who of course do 
not recognize the Federation police. 
"This Indian policeman, Jimmy 



mltted that he had not seen jne od,u- ""° run-in with some Ped- 

tle. but claimed to have talked with I Bo^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^,. 



witnesses. Mrs. P. M. Moore, propri- 
etor of the Oak Knoll grocery near 
lampo, also called to say that she 
ad left the fiesta Just a short time 
rfore the shooting and that she haa 
en no drunkenness, supporting the 
atement that only one Indian was 

med. ^ 

AU I can say is that they were not 



Jiere and did not know what they Irom IlestaB 



eratlon men some time ago and ar- 
rested them. They were all released 
by Judge Ryan, but they were furious 
at Boregas and swore they would get 
him I told Chief Leo that he had 
better warn Boregas a^nf. ^^^^^ too 
bMd and had and overbearing or he 
would have trouble, and I also sug- 
gested that Boregas be kept away 



were talking about," said Powell, when 
shown their statements. "There were 
liot less than 20 Indians who were 
armed, and they started the shooting 
both times. We did not draw our 
guns until the firing had started and 
we were actually In danger of our 
lives. We tired only at armed at- 
tackers and not into the crowd. 

"As for HUlmlup having a right to 
have a gun, he was not an official 
government officer and he had no 
right to carry a gun. He was re- 
sponsible for the whole shooting, he 
and the "Federation." which is prob- 
ably responsible for the eye witness 
reports that these people telephoned 
you. We are peace officers and do 
not shoot unless we have to. This Is 



"I told Sheriff Byers a week ago 
that this blowup would come soon, 
and warned him to be on the lookout 
for trouble. As It Is a federal matter 
and under federal contro. we were 
not anxious to mix up In It^ We 
knew Tlbbett had been stirring up 
the Federation members and tnar 
boregas was likely to start something 
he couldn't finish. But when Robert- 
son asked to have us detailed at 
Campo to guard against liquor an^ 
arms. Sheriff Byers assigned us ar^ 
nut us under Robertson's commai 
We were under his direction In every- 
thing we did. I hope the govemn/ent 
win investigate the Federation. JMbr it 
is certainly a dangerous organiza- 
tion." 



^^kM^ 




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• '^i'V /■^" Ti>^-,- ■.■•■•^' .i^'i.*^ ,>i\! '^'■;'. 'iJ •■'.■.•"<% r.-.«-ji :■■"■■■■■■■-■■'■" ' .' ■> 







.>^QE„ 




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IS -it 



nuLu 



rme I have drawo ^y ^^ 
xed the sheriff's force here. 
\ot Inside my co»t, but in- 
it. The Indians i^"^^,"? 
. fiestas and we ^ff„°"f 
They were out to kl" u? 
tave done --if ^^^ .^2^}^ 




^<^/V//V/7 



"-'^,^^^ipc!^;:. 



!^i~ , ■ 



Wv^ 









/ 



"d'to^iis^ to their homes wllU- 
out making further tarouble. 
INDIANS REBEL 
The real cause of the battle accord. 



who has had a special opportunity ^^ 

watch the Indian «i^^*^^\^?-„ ^^J^. re! 
past few months. Is found In the re 
segment of the members of the so- 
called Indian "Federation" against 
the properly constituted government 
luthSrrtras%ersonlfled In the Indian 

police. This r^*e^,^^^^^^,ii5fces al^ 
fanned by inflammatoij utterances ai 

leffed to have been made by the leaaer 
Ke Federation, a white man named 
Tlbbett. living at Riverside The 
ictual overt acts whl<:h <.aused tl^^ 
present flareup. according to Poweu^ 
kre the unjustified bragadocclo of one 
of the Indian policemen, and the 
lustlflable arrest by a deputy sheriff 
Tan Indian caught selling canned 
heat as a beverage. The overbearing 
attitude of the Indian has been bulld^ 
ing up resentment for «ome time and 
the arrest at Campo was Just the ex 
riifie for a violent demonstration. 
ToweU with two other men from 
the sheriff's office Deputies Ralph W. 
Kennedy and Charles E. Murray, at 
f^erlZest of Indian Agent Robert^^ 
son. went to Campo to assist in keep 
inff llQUor and fire arms away from 
SI Kns at the fiesta. A" three of 
the men had been doing similar duty 
at other fiestas at Pala Santa Jsabd 
and La Jolla reservations, and had 
b^me very friendly with the Didla^^ 
performing their duties ^f f clently yet 
without arousing any ill feeling 
among the Indians. Powell. Chief 
aoto lieo ol t^e iruUan p6Uce, and , 
Murray were at the gate stopping cajs 
for arms and whisky, and Kennedy 
was inside the grounds with P^hert- 
son when the trouble began. Robert- 
son, chief in authority on the reserva- 
tion, was in charge of the whole group 
of peace officers, both white and In- 
dian. 
ARREST START RIOT 

On orders from Robertson, Kennedy 
arrested the Indian selling canned 
heat, when the "Federation" Indians 
rushed him and attempted to start a 
fight with clubs. Kennedy was man- 
handled and his prisoner, still hand- 
cuffed, escaped, while the deputy was 
obliged to warn one Indian who was 
reaching for his gun that he would be 
shot if he attempted to draw the wea- 
pon There was some shooting at this 
time between Jlnuny Boregas, the In- 
dian policeman, and the "Federation 
Indians, but none was injured, and 
Boregas was disarmed and taken into 
the center of a circle of the Federa- 
tion Indians on the dance floor. At 
this point word was sent to Foweii 
and Murray, who rushed to the fiesta 
grounds fearing what eventually hap- 

^•HBreak awav there, men; that's no 
way to settle anything/' shouted 
^owell as he approached the circle 
;hrough the darkness. 

The circle broke away into a fan- 
shaped formation. witU the Indians 
shouting in tneir own language words 
whlchi have since been Interpreted to 
be ••kill 'em. shoot 'em." Then things 
began to happen with lightning rap- 

^^Standlng directly behind PoweU was 
Marco Hlllmlup, "captain of the Fed- 
eration police." and leader of the 
"Federation" malcontents. 
FIRING BEGINS 

"He was watching ^botli me and 
Robertson." said PoweU. ''And he was 
ready to shoot either of us. but did 
not have an excuse as neither of us 
made a move to draw. Chief Leo saw 
wTiat he was trying to do and moved 
to defend us. and Hlllmlup fired four 
shots at him. dropping him instantly. 
The Indians rushed us and the flying 
became general. Leo returned HIU- 
miup's fire, and a man jumped Ken- 
nedy, trying to turn him around so 
that they could shoot him. A man 
charged out of the darkness at me 
lust as I drew my gun, which I carry 
inside my vest, and he fired at me 
point blank. I don't know how he 
missed me. 



;HED BAULE AS CAMPO 

L; WAHY OE ffRS WOUNDED 

toe Indiana we saw Shooting. We did the flrrt time ^ »>a^« ^Lt^?,^/ ^^ 
not fire into the crowd blind. It Is a since I olned the sheriff s force here 
miracle that no woman or chUdren I carry It not liislde my coat, but In- 
„„„ ,ninr»rt " s"** ™y '^st. The Indians knew us 

^th Murray and Kennedy bear out from former fiestas and we had our 
Poweirs statement, as does H.^E^Mc- badges on ^They -ere <>ut to klU^^ 



Daniel, manager of the Standard Sani- 
tary Msoiufacturing company plant at 
Campo. who was present and saw the 
whole thing. 

"It was Just like a movie in the 
dark," said Murray. "There were guns 
popping on all sides of us and the 
bullets were whistling around from all 
directions. We could see almost noth- 
ing of our attackers except the spurts 
of fire from their guns." 

"My God. they've killed me," was 
the remark Robertson made as he 
crumpled Into Powell's arms when 
Hlllmlup fled backward after shoot- 
ing Leo and fired at Robertson as he 
backed away. Leo. Robertson and 
Powell all fired at the Indian leader 
and he fell. 
ULAMES DEPUTIES 

A man giving the name of W. E. 
Gtould, deputy labor commissioner at 
El Centro. called The Union by tele- 
phone from near Campo yesterday 
and indignantly charged that the 
deputies had fired indiscriminately | 
into the crowd without any provoca- 
tion, asserting that Hlllmlup was the 
only Indian who was armed and that 
as "captain of the reservation police 
he had a right to be armed." He ad- 
mitted that he had not seen the bat- 
tle, but claimed to have talked with 
witnesses. Mrs. P. M. Moore, propri- 
etor of the Oak Knoll grocery near 
dampo, also called to say that she 
had left the fiesta Just a short time 
before the shooting and that she had 
*een no drunkenness, supporting the 
statement that only one Indian was 
armed. 

"All I can say is that they were not 
there and did not know what they 
were talking about," said Powell, when 
shown their statements. "There were 
liot less than 20 Indians who were 
armed, and they started the shooting 
both times. We did not draw our 
guns until the firing had started and 
we were actually in danger of our 
lives. We tired only at armed at- 
tackers and not into the crowd. 

"As for Hlllmlup having a right to 
have a gun, he was not an official 
government officer and he had no 
right to carry a gun. He was re- 
sponsible for the whole shooting, he 
and the "Federation." which is prob- 
ably responsible for the eye witness 
reports that these people telephoned 
you. We are peace officers and do 
not shoot unless we have to. This is 



and wovdd have done so 1> they could 
have." 

"The man shot me without provo- 
cation," said Indian Agent Robertson 
In a statement made in contempla- 
tion of his death. "I was looking on 
while officers were trying to subdue 
the Indians, and one Indian walk^ 
out of the crowd and shot me." 
EXPLAINS 'FEDERATION' 

In explaining the "Federation an- 
gle" of the battle, Powell said that the 
organization is headed or led by this 
white man, Tlbbett, of Riverside. He 
declared that Tlbbett has been heard 
to address the members of the Feder- 
ation and to urge them to recognize 
no authority or laws but their own. 
and to refuse to permit government 
officers to come onto the reservation. 
"I believe there are about 9000 
members paying a dollar a month, 
and these constitute about three- 
fourths of the Indian population of 
the county." said Powell. "They have 
their own police officers, who are of 
course without any real authority of 
any kind. These police they say they 
recognize, but not the regular govern- 
ment Indian police, who of course do 
not recognize the Federation police. 

"This Indian policeman, Jimmy 
Boregas, had a run-in with some Fed- 
eration men some time ago and ar- 
rested them. They were all released 
by Judge Ryan, but they were furious 
at Boregas and swore they would get 
him. I told Chief Leo that he had 
better warn Boregas against being too 
b^ld and IobA and overbearing or ne 
would have trouble, and I also sug- 
gested that Boregas be kept away 
from fiestas. 

"I told Sheriff Byers a week ago 
that this blowup would come soon, 
and warned him to be on the lookout 
for trouble. As it is a federal matter 
and under federal control, we were 
not anxious to mix up in it. We 
knew Tlbbett had been stirring up 
the Federation members and that 
boregas was likely to start something 
he couldn't finish. But when Robert- 
son asked to have us detailed a" 
Campo to guard against liquor an 
arms. Sheriff Byers assigned us a~ 
put us under Robertson's commai 
We were under his direction in evofy- 
thing we did. I hope the governnfent 
will investigate the Federation, tbr It 
is certainly a dangerous orgatolza- 
tlon." / 



luirii 



the men had been "^.'"^s,";" ysabel 
at other flestai. at P^V/^n^ and had 
„„d La J°"-,,;«'^r;;Vtrthe Sfdliln*. 
become ^•^J^^^^'^JuJiettlciently yet 
performing *l^«'r,°"''' „„ Ul feeling 
without ar^V^-'J'',,. Powell Chief 
among ^he Indlans^^ Po^";^ ^^^ 

John Ueo ol „f*^te stepping cars 
Murray were at the gate * P^ ^j^^^^y 

for »"«• »^^ ^Se with Robert- 
was inside '^"®^^,",: vwwan Robert- 
son when the trouble began^ ^ 

«on. chief in authority on ^"f J^^oup 

tlon. was »« f»i"81^Jb*'whTte and in- 
of peace officers, ooxn wiii 

alan. 

ARREST START RIOT 

on orders from R^^^^^^J^-i^^S 
arreBted the Indian se Ulng cann^ 
heat, when the "federation Indians 
rushed him and attempted to start a 
fight with clubs. Kennedy wa^ inan^ 
handled and hlB prisoner. stlH /^ana 

ci:ffed. escaped. ^^11%:;^^^,^^^^^^ ITs 
obliged to warn one Indian who was 
reaching for his gun that ^e would be 
shot If he attempted to draw the wea- 

pon There wa.. «^"^^4^^°,^i^^fe Sx^ 
?lme between J^\^^^.|^de^atl^'' 
dian policeman, and t^e Federation 

IndlanB. but none was InJ^^eu. iwx 
Boregas was disarmed ^^^,^f |,^.^,^ 
the center of a circle of the Federa 
tlon Indians on the dance «oon At 
this point word was sent to PoweU 
and Murray, who rushed to the fiesta 
grounds fearing what eventually hap- 

^•^l?eak away there, men; that's no 
i«y to settle anything." shouted 
KXell as he approached the circle 
through the darkness. ' . ^ - „ 

The circle broke away ipto^^-^^t^; 
shaped formation, with the Indians 
shotting in their own language words 
whl^ imve since been Interpreted to 
Se^-klll 'em. shoot 'em." Then things 
began to happen with lightning rap- 

^"^ Standing directly behind foweU was 

Marco Hlllmlup, "^P^J^ J?L^^^. ^I 
©ration police," and leader of the 
"Federation" malcontents. 
FIRING BEGINS 

"He was watching both me ana 
Robertson." said PoweU. "And he ww 
ready to shoot either of us. but did 
not have an excuse as neither of us 
made a move to draw. Chief Leo saw 
what he was trying to do andmoved 
to defend us, and HUlmlup fired four 
shots at him. dropping him instantly. 
The Indians rushed us and the firing 
became general. Leo returned Hm- 
mlup's fire, and a man jumped Ken- 
nedy, trying to turn him around so 
that they could shoot him. A man 
charged out of the darkness at me 
lust as I drew my gun. which I carry 
inside my vest, and he llred at me 
point blank. I don't know how he 

missed me. ^ .^- 

"I warned the man on Kennedys 
back to get away or I would shoot 
him. and as he continued to try to 
get Kennedy exposed for a shot. I 
reached over Kennedy's shoulder a^d 
fired twice, the Indian dropping. He 
was warned, and If I had not f<hot 
Kennedy would have been kllled^^l 
fired point blank at the man who 
charged me and he dropped. He is 
the one whose body has not been 

found. X « 1. ^ 

"Hlllmlup was diootlng at Rooen;- 
son. and Robertson was pointing his 
gun at Hlllmlup. but says he did not 
shoot. I think that he really did, 
but was Justified as the Indian at- 
tacked him first. I backed off trying 
to get where I could not be attacked 
from l:>ehlnd, and tried to ease Rob- 
ertson to the ground when he was 
hit. I took one shot at Hlllmlup, the 
last one In my gun. He dropped, 
though whether from my shot, one 
from Robertson or from Leo. I dont 
know. When HlUmlup dropped It 
seemed to frighten the Indians and 
they began to scatter In every direc- 
tion. I was about the only one able 
to shoot, for I was a little free of the 
Jam and had my back protected so I 
did not have to look out for myself 
so murti. Kennedy fired two shots, 
one m trying to hold his gun while 
the Indians were trying to wrest it 
from his hand, and one at a man who 
was shooting at another man. Mur- 
ray did not fire a shot. 
DEFENDS ACTION 

"When It had quieted a bit I went 
for help, leaving Kennedy and Mur- 
ray to watch the situation. We took 
Robertson out to the Warren hotel. 
TA^en reinforcements came we argued 
the Indians Into dispersing and we 
took out the two bodies after some 
argument. 

"I want to make It clear, and i 
have plenty of witnesses to support 
my statement, that there was no In- 
discriminate shooting, at least as far 
as the county officers were concerned. 
None of us drew a gun until the 
shooting had begun, and neither Ken- 
nedy nor I fired at anyone except 
men who were shooting at us or at 
the Indian police. We were the tar- 
get, all the bullets were hitting 
around ua. We had no target except 



tie. but claimed to have talked w 
witnesses. Mrs. P. M. Moore, proprl- | 
etor of the Oak Knoll grocery near , 
Campo. also called to say that she 
had left the fiesta Just a short time 
before the shooting and that she had 
%een no drunkenness, supporting the 
statement that only one Indian wm 

armed. ^ 

"AU I can say Is that they were not 
there and did not know what they 
were talking about." said Powell, when 
shown their statements. "There were 
not less than 20 Indians who were 
armed, and they started the shooting 
both times. We did not draw our 
guns until the firing had started and 
we were actually In danger of our 
lives. We llred only at armed at- 
tackers and not Into the crowd. 

"As for Hlllmlup having a right to 
have a gun, he was not an official 
government officer and he had no 
right to carry a gun. He was re- 
sponsible for the whole shooting, he 
and the "Federation." which is prob- 
ably responsible for the eye witness 
reports that these people telephoned 
you. We are peace officers and do 
not shoot unless we have to. This Is 



t.«v»vir» men some time ago and ar- 
rested them. They' were all released 
by Judge Ryan, but they were furious 



. 



at Boregas and swore they would get 
>ilm. I told Chief Leo that he had 
tetter warn Boregas against being too 
b^ld and bad and overbearing or he 
wo\Ud have trouble, and I also sug- 
gested that Boregas be kept away 
from fiestas. 

"I told Sheriff Byers a week ago 
that this blowup would come soon, 
and warned him to be on the lookout 
for trouble. As It Is a federal matter 
and under federal control, we were 
not anxious to mix up In It. We 
knew Tlbbett had been stirring up 
the Federation members and that 
boregas was likely to start something 
he couldn't finish. But when Robert- 
son asked to have us detailed at 
Campo to guard against liquor an 
arms. Sheriff Byers assigned us a*" 
put us under Robertson's commai^_. 
We v/ere under his di/ectlon In every- 
thing we did. I hope the govemitfent 
win investigate the Federation, l()r It 
is certainly a dangerous orgaihiza- 
tlon." / 



f\'~>f, 



^^^■''^;-:.^^'\''f^:' 









■'■■■■..,; i;;t' 






Los Kwflk<Q.» Tv\w<-s 



INDIA NS ON WAR PATH 

Old-Time Feud Breaks Out at Fiesta Resulting in 
DeatJupf Two; Two Others Badly Injured 

BA1«)Mjo; July 18.— An armed clash which broke loose at the Campo 
Indian fiesta as a climax of several years opposition of a so-called Indian 
Federation headed by "Chief" Tlbbets, of Riverside, to control by ^^^ ^^f- 
ularly constituted United States Indian Service of the Department of the 
interior, leaves two known dead and two crlctlcally Injured In hospiatls 
today. The dead are Marco HllUnlup. captain of the "Federation" police, 
and Frank Cuero. partisan o f the d^ ad ^a^P^aln.^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

I J. B-obertson. government Indion 
agent of this area, with residence at 



Pala, under Indian Agent C. C. Ellis 
of Riverside. In charge of Southern 
California reservations, and Juan Leo, 
chief of the regular Innian police. 

Robertson is in the Mercy Hospi- 
tal with two bullet woands In bis ab- 
domen, a bullet gash on the right 
side of his neck and another In nis 
left shoulder. Leo is In the County 
Hospital with four tuUet woun^^s. 
three in his chest, and one In a hand. 
One more of »ihe Indian federa- 
tlon" men Is reported probably fa- 
tally wounded, and It Is believed sev- 
eral were Injured more or less seri- 
ously, but facts and names were un- 
available this mornmg. 

The armed clash, In which It is 
said a score or moie guns were 
barking, began about It o clock Bat- 
urday night on the Cixnpo Indian res- 
ervatlon The :oag bitterness of 
the "irregulars" agal^ist the regu- 
lars" of Indian affairs, fanned Into 
flame over a packaire of canried heat, 
which one of the "irregulars 'carried 
into the fiesta, and was reducing to 
firewater for his conimtrlots. 



JtLY 10, l©27 



J 



ENT TO INVEST 




Jeral Offic 



CAMPO INDIAN BAHLE 



Federal off icial Arrives to Conduct Inquiry Into Gun Fight 
That Cost Two Lives; Wounded Officer Expected to 
Live, Indian Chief Is Repo rted as Improving. 



Thorough investigation of the Cam- ' 
po Indian battle, which took plpx;e at . 
the Campo Indian reservation late 
Saturday night, and resolved itself 
into a gun fight between deputy sher- 
iffs and Federated Indian police, will 
be made by O. L.^ Ellis, government 
Iridian agent for southern California, 
who arrived here yesterday from 
Riverside, in co-operation with a dep- 
uty attorney general from Los Angels. 

That the shooting, which took a toll 
of two Indians' lives, injured two 
others severely, and wounded a half 
dozen, is a closed incident as far as 
the sheriff's office is concerned, was 
indicated yesterday by James C. Byers, 
county sheriff, who explained his 
men were on hand merely to prevent 
liquor being brought into the reserva- 
tion, and that any investigation that 
is to follow will have to be made by 
the proper federal authorities. 

The parts played by the San Diego 
deputies were under the direction of 
George J. Robertson, government In- 
dian agent of this area living at the 
Pala reservation. Robertson, who is in 
the Mercy hospital seriously, wouhded 
from gun shot wounds Incurred In 
the battle, is a subordinate to C. L. 

Ellis. 

Reports from Mercy hospital last 
night indicated that Robertson was 
••holding his own" and unless unfore- 
seen complications set In hla chances 
for recovery are good. According to 
Dr. Mott Hunton Arnold, who is tak- 
ing care of the wounded agent, Rob- 
ertson is suffering from two wounds. 



one In the abdomen and one in the 
back of his neck. Although Robert- 
son A^'as able to take a little food yes- 
terday, and his condition was report- 
ed slightly improved since he was 
brought in, he is still too weak to un- 
dergo the strain of having the lead 
slugs removed from his body. 

Juan Leo, chief of the regular In- 
dian police, who was brought In with 
Robertson early Sunday morning and 
taken to the county hospital, was re- 
moved to the Mercy yesterday, where 
his condition was reported as critical. 

According to Coroner S. C. Kelly, 
who was summoned to the reservation 
immediately after the shooting, and 
ordered the bodies of the two Indians 
sent to the Johnson-Saum undertak- 
ing parlors, no date has been set for 
the inquest that will investigate their 
deaths, although arrangements are 
being made to hold one in a few days. 

Agent Ellis, who will investigate the 
affair, went to the reservation earl ' 
yesterday afternoon to begin his 
quiries. 



81 



■^'■ 



M 









-V^'y' 



^mus^^m 



SAW BIBGO. €A1^ •TMBtrMW 
JULY 1^ IW^ - 



JMAN AGENT ENROUTE 
HERE TO PROBE RECENT 
ARMED, CLASH AT CAMPO 



United States 
mp.nt of justice " 



nt H E. I night, according to an Associated Press 

' -"'spatch from Los Angeles today. 

Two Indians of the Federation of 



^iM by a depart- dispatch from Los AJi gel es today. 
■^ is enronteSke • -Two Indians of the Pederatio] 



r^rr^i nf instice •»»: is enronte>i^r€ Two Indians of tne re^^^y.^^^^ ^- 

armed clash at the Indian fl^^ta on ganizatlon wf^re kllle^^^ 

the Campo reservation last Saturday] (Continued on }^xt FagP) 



(Conttnued on r*xt Page) 

tie. and'STdten AgenToeorge J. Rob- 
ertson. Of Pala. and a chlet of regula 
Indian police, critically wounded^ Th^ 
outbreak Is declared to have devel- 
oped from enmity of the federation to 
the regularly constituted Indian serv- 
ice "Chief Tlbbets. white, of Rlver- 
eiriP head of the Federation of Mls- 
t on Indian^ was indicted during the 
world war'^for alleged opposition to 
government control of In?/,^;^^- 

who appeared at the fiesta. 

Hlllinluo according to reports ol 
ti,?fi Sit shot both Robertson and 
Sflef'Suln^Leo of the --^-^^ ^^fred 

Wiled Himnlup and also Prank Cuero, 
the s«!Ond federation man killed^ 
Powell wnh Deputy Sheriffs Ralph 
TCennedv and C. E. Murray, had bee^n 

ITerf A reiort madTby other deputy 
Sfs sent as relnforoements aner 

the initial battle. '^"'^^I'^Zr^n 
lor his prompt axition after Robertson 
tvirf T«o had been shot down, anu 
st'ates^attls action probably pre- 

'^SZranrifef^'tlllwe bat- 
tUng^oT^helr lives In Mercy hospital 
"odiy. the former having passed m^ 
J«U^»» o -niffht and Leo a lair 
mg^ accordfng to hospital report^ 
The Indian agent Is said to have been 
shot through the Uver as his most 

dangerous wound. T/.vT,tmon- 

The two dead are at the Johnson 
saum morgue, where Coroner S. C. 
K*uy X^^ hold an Inquest to- 
morrow but such inquest may de- 
pend u^n the wishes Of Agent wads, 
worth to the progress of his Inves^ 
gation. 



1 " »™<»«. rSAu. rwiwr 

•fVLY 31, 1837 



OTIES EXCEEDED AUTHORITY 

IN, CAMPO INDIAN FICHT, JURY 

AT C ORONER'S INQUEi ST FIND 

lad No Right to Enter Reservation and Used Poor Judg 
ment in Guft Battle That TooI< Two Lives, Verdict Says 
Eye-Witnest Tells His Story. 



Countjr deputy Iherlffs ^exceeded 

heir authority when they entered the 
ndlans* reservation at Campo last 
" tturday night, and used poor Judg- 
lent In the gun battle that ensued 
[shortly after their arrival b'etween 
''federated" Indian police and them- 
selves, a coroner's jury. Investigating 
the deaths of two Indians killed in 
the battle, found yesterday at an In- 
qu'est held at the Johnson-Saum un- 
dertaking rooms. 

The verdict, which was returned 
after only 20 minutes' deliberation by 
the Jury of 12 men. read, In part: 

"We, the Jury, found that Marcus 
Hilmiup died from hemorrhage re- 
sulting from a bull'et wound In the 
lung. We further found that said 
wound was Infllcfed by a bullet shot 
from a gun In the hands of either 
George J. Robertson, Indian agent, or 
Ralph Kennedy or King J. Powell, 
deputy sheriffs, with homicidal in- 
tent. We further found that said 
deputies exaeeded their authority 
when they entered the Indians' reser- 
vation and ufi^ed poor judgment, when 
all testimony submitted was to the 
effect that everyone participating in 
the festivities on the reservation was 
peaceful and quiet and no signs of 
Intoxication of any sort had been 
shown." The Jury returned the same 
verdict in the case of Frank Quiro, 
although they found he died from a 
;)Dullet wound in the abdomen. 

Although testimoky Introduced at 



the Inquest at thb morning sesslo. 
yesterday tended to Indicate that th 
Indians opened the shooting affraj 
stories told by witnesses In the after 
noon hearing wer'e that the deputle 
were the first to open fire. 

That no liquor was on the reserva 
tion and that no one had been drink 
Ing, was the positive testimony o 
nearly every witness during the day. 

Lawrence Perkins, chief witness a 
the afternoon session, and eye wltne 
to the shooting, told the jury tha 
the fight started outside the fles 
grounds when Indian police were en 
deavorlng to bring an Indian, who 
they had arrested, before their cap 
tain. The man didn't want to go andl 
appealed to Indians nearby. The cap- 
tive was taken into the center of the 
plaza. A crowd collected, and when 
the white officers arrived they didn't 
seem to understand the situation, 
Perkins said. 

A deputy, later identified by the 
witness as Ralph Kennedy, came 
ahead of the other men, Perkins said, 
and told the crowd to g'et back, say- 
ing, "If you don't get back I'll shoot 
you." A fight ensued and two In- 
dians Jumped on Kennedy's back. The 
crowd failed to break and Robertson, 
who was following Kennedy, is said to 
have shot into its midst. Robertson 
then rushed up to Kenn'edy and fired 
at the Indian holding Kennedy. The 
Indian dropped, and Robertson started 
shooting it out with Marcus, who was 
killed. 

Other evidence presented was that 
th'e deputies entered the reservation 
with their guns drawn. 

DEPUTIES TESTIFY 

The main witnesses at the morning 
session were Dick Woods, 756 Nine- 
teenth street, and King Powell, both 
deputy sheriffs. They both stated 
that they opened fire only after Ken- 
nedy had been attacked. Powell told 
the Jury he didn't fire upon the In- 
dians until after they had shot, al- 
though h'e admitted he had fired at 
two men who had fallen. 

Other witnesses who were Intro- 
duced were Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Daniels 
of Campo; W. M. Humphreys, store- 
keeper near the reservation; Charles 
E. Murphy, deputy; Ambrose Ting, 
Tecate; Jim Meza, visitor at the reser- 
vation, and numerous Indians who 
testified through an Interpreter. 

Coroner S. C. Kelly, who conducted 
the inquest, was assisted by Emmett 
Doherty, assistant United States at- 
torney, of Los Angeles, who arrived 
here yesterday especially for the in- 
quest. Whether any action will be 
taken by the government was not 
learned last night, although It was! 
known that any step the governme; 
may make will be made through jiffel 
federal attorney's office in Loai^fn- 
geles. 

■»♦ » 






"LO THE POOR INDIAN" 

ClAiin anotler long, black mark against the Indial* 
buriuWcciri^^^ inefficiency and graft 

K?Srro^*rtfe Campo Indian reservation Saturday 
SgitVATesufed i the death of three I^^^^^^^^^^ 
\\t woundijife of one white man. Let it be hoped that tne 
inveSS wUl be not merely a whitewash as usual 
but a thorough searching into the manner in which the 

'^'SSo^the reports, , the Indians were conduct- 
ing the^^seWes in a peaceful manner f Joying their na- 
tive games, when white men started the t^oub e. This 
would be a first-class opportunity for^ a criminologist to 
demonstrate his ability by identifying the b",\l^t« Jhat are 
stijl in the wounded Indian agent's body, with a v^w to 
ascertaining from whose pistol they ^yere fired-whethor. 
from an: Indian's or from a white man s. ,^^^,. . toi 

It will be exceedingly difficult, verdict or ^o verdict ta 
convince anyone from the Impeml Valley who jva^ pres/ 
ent at the fiesta, that the fatal affray, was not the resui 
oCtob much officiousness. 



JiXV 3^ 1S2' 






VERSION OF 
IN0IAN OUTBREAK 
AT CAMP HESTAI 

Various>^ndiitft!t stories have been 
[given out about tfc causes for and 
•esults of the fight between the In- 
lians and county and federal officers 
[at Campo during the Indian fiesta 
held July 15 and the five days there- 
1 after. 

The federal officers, as represented 
by Mr. James Benegas, were not al- 
1 together satisfied with some of the 
statements given out, and knowing the 
local papers were fair to them, came 
to make a statement as to the^true 
aspects of the affair. 

According to Mr. Richard Benegas, 
a nephew of Officer Jim Benegas, the 
whole trouble happened as follows: 

Friday evening, July 15, when the 
fiesta was officially opened by Cap- 
tain Marcus Jilmeup, the local repre- 
sentative of the Mission Indian Fed- 
eration, which has its headquarters in 
Riverside, the statement was made 
from the dance floor that the Federa- 
tion would do its own policing, and 
order would be kept by the Federa- 
tion policeman. 

To thoroughly understand such a 
statement it is necessary to know a 
little about the big Federation of Mis- 
sion Indians. It is presumably an 
organization for the enforcement of 
law and order and the protection of 
the Indians. It has many thousands 
I of Indian members and has under its 
control a band of Indians who are 
called "police'' and marked with 
[badges given by the Federation of a 
I somewhat similar character to the 
I ordinary police badge. This powerful 
body of Indians has several times 
come into conflict with the regular of- 
ficers of the law, both county and fed- 
eral. The Indian federal police seem 
to be particularly obnoxious to this 

order. 

The fiestas given throughout the 
county on the various reservations are 
usually under the management of the 
Federation and the amusements and 
arrangements are provided by that as- 
sociation. 

Things moved peacefully at Campo 
until the evening of the 16th when 
Indian Federal Officers Jim Benegas 
and Mariano Blacktooth, accompanied 
by Deputy Sheriffs Kanady and George 
Robertson, came to the fiesta. While 
there they found two Jndians who 
were under the influence of liquor and 
were mixing "canned heat" to drink. 
The officers arrested the lawbreakers 
and were taking them to the official 
car, together with the evidence, for 
transportation to San Diego. The offi- 
cers now came into contact with the 
'ederation police, who asked their 
business there and for a display of 
their credentials. When the federal 
[officers showed their badges and pa- 
pers the Federation repudiated them 
and announced that they would toler- 
ate no interference of federal police 
or other government officials. Words 
followed which soon came to blows 
Ij and the firing of guns. In this melee 
John Leo, deputy federal special of- 
I ficer, was badly wounded. Jim Bene 
Kas was dragged to the dance floo 
and beaten up more or less severely b 
the excited crowd. Captain Marcu 
Jilm»nip, head of the fiesta, then calle 



To thoroughly understand such a 
statement it is necessary to know a 
little about the big Federation of Mis- 
sion Indians. It is presumably an 
organization for the enforcement of 
law and order and the protection of 
the Indians. It has many thousands 
of Indian members and has under its 
control a band of Indians who are 
called "police'* and marked with 
badges given by the Federation of a 
somewhat similar character to the 
ordinary police badge. This powerful 
body of Indians has several times 
come into conflict with the regular of- 
ficers of the law, both county aild fed- 
eral. The Indian federal police seem 
to be particularly obnoxious to this 
order. 

The fiestas given throughout the 
county on the various reservations are 
usually under the management of the 
Federation and the amusements and 
arrangements are provided by that as- 
sociation. 

Things moved peacefully at Campo 
until the evening of the 16th when 
Indian Federal Officers Jim Benegas 
and Mariano Blacktooth, accompanied 
by Deputy Sheriffs Kanady and George 
Robertson, came to the fiesta. While 
there they found two Indians who 
were under the influence of liquor and 
were mixing "canned heat" to drink. 
The officers arrested the lawbreakers 
and were taking them to the official 
car, together with the evidence, for 
transportation to San Diego. The offi- 
cers now came into contact with the 
ederation police, who asked their 
business there and for a display of 
their credentials. When the federal 
I officers showed their badges and pa- 
pers the Federation repudiated them 
and announced that they would toler- 
ate no interference of federal police 
or other goveiTiment officials. Words 
followed which soon came to blows 
and the firing of guns. In this melee 
John Leo, deputy federal special of- 
ficer, was badly wounded. Jim Bene 
gas was dragged to the dance floo 
and beaten up more or less severely b 
the excited crowd. Captain Marcu 
Jilmeup, head of the fiesta, then calle 
on his followers to seize and bind th 
white men and officers and take thei 
papers away from them. 

At this sympathizers on both side 
went into action and the result wa 
the firing of guns by both sides. Afte 
the smoke of battle had somewha 
cleared it was found that Captai 
Marcus Jilmeup and Frank Qw 
were dead. A gun was in the latter' 
hand when found. Among the seri 
ously wounded were John Leo an 
George Robertson and also Joe Quero 
one of the Federation Indians. 

The coroner was called by telephone 
and an extra detail of police provided. 
At 4 o'clock in the morning Corone 
Kelly returned to San Diego carrying 
the dead, while the wounded hid *away 
here and there as they thought best 
in fear of Uncle Sam's wrath. All day 
and for days following the Indians of 
the Federation talked and counciled 
with each other as to what they would 
witness when called to testify. Some- 
times one thing was decided on and 
sometimes another seemed best. The 
head of the councillors was Charlesj 
Jilmeup from Sequam reservation and 
presumably a relative of Marcus Jil- 
meup, the dead leader. 
The whole affair seems to have 
rown out of the antagonism between 
the Federation Indians and those who 
do not belong to that powerful body 



and who are WUie side of 
law and order as represeni 
federal government. 



RrTERSrDB, CAXa^ KKTBRFRItX 
JUI/Y 3«, 1927 ^ ' 



■ >"'/». 






Thirfy Versions 
Of Reservation Fig 



The tru^ory of \he Campo In- Murphy. Some told ^^"^^ ^he Mis- 
dians' deatlv?fiesta Saturday night, ' sion Federation I^f ^.^^^.^^^f ^^^^ 
the 16th, probably never will be fight, and some ^o/.^^^^^l ,^^^^^^^^^^ 
told, according to D. E. Murphy, I ernment Indian police fir^dp^J^^^ . 
assistant agent at the Government j shots. Some said there ^^f J^^^^^ 
Indian Agency here, who has re- I at tl?e fiesta, some said there was 
turned from an investigation of the i none. 

battle between Mission Indian Fed- The fiesta was going .^^11 b^la^^ 
eration police and official Govern- I on the second night of jts f ned- 
ment Indian police and deputy uled three days, said Murphy. Out 
Xriffs o^ ^^^e P^^^^ darkness of the tem- 

Perhaps in a year or two some porary camp, illuminated only by 
Indian will tell what may prove to a few flickering lights, came a vol- 



be the true story, but r»nw Murphy 
has more than thirty different ver- 
sions of the fiesta battle. Not one 
story told him fitted with another, 

he said. 

Twp C ampo Indians were kUled, 
and estimates of injured were from 
two to five or six. Two Indians re- 
ported to be wounded were seen 
working the next morning, s^id 



ley of shots, and the battle v/as on. 
When it was over, and some say it 
was half an hour, some say it was 
only a few minutes, two Indians 
were lying dead in the dust. The 
reservation is close to the Mexican 
line, about seventy miles east of^ 
San Diego. Agent C. "L. Ellis wil' 
return this week from his invest^ 
gation th^r^, 



8AK Draco* CAL., TMON 
OCTOBBR l»i 1^27 




Federal Grand JuiV Indipts 
10 for Conspiracy; Deputy 
On Trail of Four. 



Indians of the Campo reservation 
"conspired to overthrow the estab- 
lished government of the United 
States" when they staged a riot at a 
fiesta on July 16, the federal grand 
Jury in session at Los Angeles has 
ruled. Indictments against 10 mem- 
bers of the Camjgo tribe were returned 
and six of the 10 are In the San Diego 
county Jail. J. Keno Wil><5n, deputy 

United States marshal^ "Arrested one 
of the Indians Monday; brought five 
more of them to Jjili Tuesday and at 
a late hour las^.-liight w^ reported 
In the mount^ffns of Hipass on the 
trail of the pemalning four. 

Two Iiy^Ians were killed; George 
J. Robeirt.son of Pala, Indian agent, 
chief in authority on the reservation, 
was seriously wounded and a number 
of Indians hurt in a battle in which 
San Diego county deputy sheriffs, 
Indian police and members of the 
"federation" police, the unofficial or- 
ganization of the tribe, exchanged 
many shots. Deputy sheriffs were 
present to prevent the sale of liquor 
on the reservation but say that the 
battle was not precipitated by their 
acts. 

The outbreak was blamed at the 
time on the resentment of the Indian 
"federation" against the "properly 
constituted government authority as 
personified in the Indian police." The 
federal grand Jury, apparently has 
taken that view of the situation, in- 
dicting the 10 federation members on 
charges of conspiracy against the gov- 
ernment. Department of Justice 
agents have spent some months in- 
vestigating the trouble. The indict- 
ments returned some days ago, were 
kept secret until arrest of the accuse 
Indians had been effected. 

Those placed in Jail are Jim Mez 
Garcia Qullawha, Louis Quero, Do 
Ingo Conlhich, Esuqulro Toby a/d 
Juan Prlesto. They will be placedjon 
trial on the coming session of 
eral court here next month, 



tA fOlK,^, CAl. ^OVftNAS I4f 
AVQVfVI W. 1928 ^L" 



♦<••♦ M 



MfliKffYON 





LECTURE HEP. 

EDWARD H^i^I^irO TALK AT 

THE WOl^N'S CLUBHOUSE 

AUGUST 24TH 



Edward H. Davis, of Powam Lodge, 
Mesa Grande, |Indian name, "Qui 
Pi-Mil-chis, the white chief of the 
Too-ka-muck Indians, Mesa Grande, 
has been among Pima, Apache, Papa- 
go, Yuma, Mojave, Pueblo and Cali- 
fornians, besides Opata, Seri, Yaqui, 
Maya, Cora and Huchol Indians in 
Mexico. He has been field-collector 
for many years for the Museum of 
the American Indian,' Heye founda- 
tion in New York City, and thus his 
opportunities for knowing the Indians 
in their real thoughts and beliefs, 
their customs, etc., has been excep- 
tional. Using a keen and observing 
mind in the task, Mr. Davis has col- 
lected about our own California In- 
dians data of exceeding interest, and 
La JoUans will have the privilege, on 
the evening of the 24th, of hearing 
this authority speak at the La JoUa 
Woman's Clubhouse, illustrating his 
talk with a series of pictures. La 
Jollans know Mr. Davis well, and fre- 
quently visit his home in the hills, 
and many local people have lodges a 
Mesa Grande. All wish tojpreet 
Davis when he speaks 




e^vve^fvo 



103 



Ancestral Hooch 

Anthropology 

A young Diegueno Indian who 
jfound the white man's bootleg hard 
to get has recently tried concocting 
the old-time whiskey of his ancestors 
— with results that have scared off 
I any other young Indians who might 
be seized with the same inspiration. 
Facts of the unusual incident were 
learned by Arthur Woodward, an- 
thropologist of the Los Angeles Mu- 
seum. This youth of the Volcan 
Reservation, near Santa Ysabel, had 
heard stories of how his ancestors 
used the Jamestown or jimpson weed 
in ceremonials before the white men 
came into the West. The Indians 
dried the roots and crushed them in 
a special ceremonial mortar and made 
a powerful narcotic drink, Mr. Wood- 
ward states. Young men who drank 
it fell into a stupor for one to four 
days and in their dreams they 
learned which animals or birds were 
to be their personal totems to help 
them through life. Weaker boys 
sometimes died from overdoses. Early 
Spanish missionaries undertook to 
stamp out such customs but this 
"toalache ceremony'' survived to 
some extent up to half a century ago. 
"The young Diegueno noticed that 
jimpson weed was plentiful," says 
Mr. Woodward. "The old folks said 
that it made a man drunk and happy. 
So, this ambitious youth gathered 
some roots, pounded them, and made 
a small keg of jimpson weed brew. 
He drank heavily of the stuff, and 
for several days was like a man pos- 
sessed of devils. His companions did 
not learn what made him act so 
'crazy' for several days." 
I The young Indian is "cured." So 
are the other Indians who saw him. 



Science News-Letter, August 18, 1928 



iNDz::PEriD-£:NT 






I 



J. C. CURATOR FINDS 
ORIQN OF TRIBE OF 
CAUFORNIA INDIANS 



Conclusive evidence that a scat- 
tered group of 25 Indians calling 
t^emt^^lves Kamia, and living in 
various parts""ot' fhe Imperial Val- 
ley, are undoubtedly the remnants 
of a more extensive tribe which 
controlled that section of California 
before the coming of the white man. 
has just been obtained by E. W. 
Giflord, curator of the University of 
Oaliiornia Museum of Anthropol- 
ogy. 

It was formerly though that the 
Kamia might be wanderers from 
the Diegueno tribe on the coast, or 
the Yuma tribe along the Colora- 
do river. As a result of a field trip 
[ recently made by Curator Gifford, 
during which he studied the cul- 
ture of the Kamia for a month, it 
is definitely settled that the Kamia 
have formed an independent * group 

for many years. ; 

Came From South 

Gifford states, how^ever, that th#: 
tribe originally came from the 
mountainous district of San Dieg# 
county; for the language is a (Jiar 
lect of the Diegueno and much, of 
the culture is similar to that of the 
Diegueno. Through long periods of 
isolation and contact with the Yu- 
ma on the other side of them, their 
culture has developed along lines 
that is identical with neither. 

The interesting pint in their 



history, Gifford points out, is that 
they had utilized the floor of Im- 
perial Valley for agricultural pur- 
poses long before the white pop- 
ulation developed it by irrigation. 
By utilizing the overflow lands of 
the Colorado, along the banks of 
sloughs that extend far into the 
valley, they w^ere able to eke out 
a precarious existence. In dry years 
they moved eastward toward the 
Colorado and did their planting 
closer to its banks. 

Build Houses of Weeds 

The dwelling houses of these 
tribesmen are built of cottonwood 
posts and arrow-weed, covered <> 
with sand until each house resem- 
bles a small hill. An early Span- 
ish explorer, seeing this type* of 
dwelling for the first time wrote 
that the Indians lived in burrows 
dug in sand hills. 

aVflord made a study of the 
amount of Diegueno culture kept 
by the Kamia, and of the amouA 
of Yuma culture taken over by 
them. He also, for the first time, 
gathered definite information as to 
their •former tribal territory. In- 
formation, previous to his trip, had 
been very scanty on these points. 



■;-,.■ r'A.S 



■v.- 



*:., 



I 



lil-rr:-fr 






. .fe /s Day of Days for Redskins 

' A few of the San Diego county Indians who will be guests of the County Federation of 
Women's ohii in Balboa f ark today. Top left picture, in the «^:^rP'^7-^,i?,nn';^f '^C 
IndS oC^ upon in 1925 l)y Dr. Barton, government speciahst, at boboba Indian hos- 
SVnWaT^to for trachoma and cataracts. Top right-Squaw from the Campo reserva- 
Ln'mXng acorn mush Below-Three Indian dancers of T^Ka-Mucktribe, Mesa^rafiOe, 
with their white chief, Ed Davis, second from the left. 




lEd Davis and W. Coleman 
Lead Invasion; Women's 
Clubs to Sponsor Program 

Led by Ed Davis of Mesa Grande, an 
honorary chief of the redmen, and 
William Coleman. Indian Interpreter 
of Campo, Indians of the county be- 
gan arriving yesterday for the first 
Indian day in the history of the coun- 
ty and probably in the history of the 
country. 

By dark only a few had arrived 
bringing word that the main bodyl 
would begin the journey from the 
reservation at daybreak In order to| 
have most of the Indian day in San 
Diego. 

Preceding the Indians was Padre 
Ricardo, former Indian teacher here 
who now lives in Sacramento. He will 
be found on the official program a^ 
Father J. R. Purtill but the Indians 
know him as Padre Rlcardo. j 

MRS. MILLER'S PLAN i 

Indian day, to be celebrated today, 
was conceived by Mrs. Lucy Miller of 
the Indian welfare department, Coun-| 
ty Federation of Women's Clubs, and 
sponsored by the federation. The 

, celebration at Balboa park will be 
under the auspices of the clubwomen 
and will have, they emphasized, no 
official tincture. 

The Indian band from the Sherman 
institute and the band from the naval 
training station are on the program 
for the musical numbers, while a 
number of speakers well known to the 
Indians will discuss problems con- 

: fronting the redmen and the steps 
I ' being taken to ameliorate their lot. 

' \ Lunch will be served In the pepper 
grove, where extensive arrangements 

Ito accommodate the Indians have 

Ibeen made. During the day an ex- 

shlblt of Indian handiwork will be on 

1 display at the Indian arts section of 

ithe San Diego museum. 

I The program will begin at 10 o'clock 
this morning at the organ and con- 

a tlnue through the day. Mrs. Ada W. 

CHildreth will be mistress of cere- 
monies: Mrs. Esthef Robinson, assist- 

cant; Hal HotchklsM master of cere- 



(Barnhouse), Juan Chaves, class of 
1930; Heber Dann, class of 1930, Riv- 
erside J. C. 

The eternal question of who Is right 
or wrong between the superior and in- 
ferior sex. She, as always, has the 
last word. 

Waltz, "The Wedding of the Winds" 
(Hall), clarinet cadenza by Damon 
Pachlto. • 

Plantation songs, "The Sunny 
South" (arr. by Lampe). 

Address, F. M. Conser, superintend 
dent of Sherman Institute. 

Organ solo, "Finale, from the Fourth 
Symphony" (Widor), Gladys Hollings- 
worth. 

"Homing" (Del Rlego), massed 
chorus of federation. 

Group of songs, Mrs. H. W. Sammls, 
"At the Close of Another Day" 
(O'Hara). 

Organ solo, "Processional March" 
from "Montezuma" (Stewart). 

Descriptive characteristic, "A Bull 
in a China Shop" (Holmes). 

Idyl, "Gluhwurmchen" (Lincke 

Suite In four parts, "Atlantia><Saf- 
anek) (The fabled lost coniment). 

March, "Rolling Thj^imer" (Fill- 
ore), 

National anthem 



(Continued dn Page 10) 

^ - "-";, yjiiwsx^% HolIIngsworth 

March, "Civic Pride" (Panella). 
Overture. "Morning, Noon. Night" 

(von Suppe). 

Cornet duet. "Argurmentation" 



aMlstinj vocal soloUt ^ ^**'^' ^^^^ an 

KHQV)!oKfe"'KG'>j;^^,p^^^^^^^ melodies, 
a mlxW qviaflet tn*t>,\ ^' ^^^- Songs by 

' 5?I*='V1"*S"S"' -"-'">?"''""" "' 

KECA. ""^ -M«»lcal Musketeers. KGO, 

!'n?'i'"KOMO?'ila^°"i'S;5 J.a?lo hour, 
soenkers, dramiitii^H .. '^P- ^^l- Guest 

'"terludes wlTbe he«rd° '* '""* '""«''»' 
singing octet; whe?tr«i°'^f{''' .* "omen's 

7:15-8 p.m -^Hotii jS®'*^^ nature. 

thS.?'"' and""^'l?i banl"'' "«"'" ""«« 

KM°-KSM8."koA**?fh?ttln',"'''S- . ?°0. 
and magazine ai-n^l..*",' about books 

Jackson will be heard ' ^°"'^ Henr? 
pWed by Mix n«ii«"/ «5lo?le» will bi 



and 



played by Mix Do in"s* or?;?!?.?!" '^1" be 
KFSD "^li' P?^° "Vran'o?"''" "»<* '"n* 

ll-«-i7 n/in.; o '"""o program. 
|y%"«.'12?J?5:^Sfe"*l'vf4a'',j;°'''''»- 

Bayoa'°p?r?-'"'"''"%S^»<«<=''''»*"»n 

7:30-8:30 * P.m -r' ^^^vLu^ 
scmble. ^m.-r^ V^^Hpan cn- 

8:30-10 p.m.^.--^ ^ ^^«^x»^ 
trol from Rot'^P^ A. X ^^^^». ^^^' 

10-11 p nu^^ ^S> X ^^^^^ 
from KenriJ^Sr - ^^ >v.X ^^^ItPl 
KOB. SA 

8-9 
Un( 



1 cordlnta. 
KFI. LOR 

fl:45 a.m.- 

l:idS. 

10 a.m.— 

rMa." 
10:15 a.m. — ^l 
10:30 a.m.—oJ-, 

10:50 am. — Chrl 

12 noon—Helen Ou«v 
T^ 12:30 nm.~-"NatIo5ia 
HourJ^ iKFi oriflr.). NBC. 

i'? J? "^^fylvla's Happj 

ba?laK"-^^^'^"* *"*°' ^^'' ^ 
3 :3M>.m— "Advanced Thoughl 

?.'?l^m ""f?"*!^^ J^a^io hour. N 
5.133P.m.— Atwater Kent hour. NBC 



11 io --"i— Organ, 
chi'rcl'^'^ P.m. -St. Luke'5 

12:30-1 p.m.— Music. 

1-2 P.m.— Holb wood Girls, trio. 

^A 5°^~~5?^^ P«»**^cr: Hawaiian!. 

2'; P.m.— Planistlc Pansy: organ. 
of Old •' P.m.— "A Moment with Patrli 

l:iSi*3S P.m.— Organ. 
J:?2"5'^^ p.m. —Troubadours. 
5.20-6 p.m.—HoUywood Girls. 
a'^n2 R:m.— -Em and Clem 
Kiddles P.m.— Zadah Stoker 

S'J?oi P-m.—Poater and Doris. 
i'i^^2 Pm. — Harmony Boys. 
2-30-8 p.m.— Hollywood Girls. 
entist ^•°*-'~'^*^'^ Church of Christ 8cl 
9-1 a.m.— Capers; records. 

K^WB' HOLLYWOOD (050) 

g.JO-9 a.m.— Funny Paper Man. 

iT 7i*o5}- — Courtesy programs. 

}}:11:30 am.— Music. 

io:?S'}2:30 p.m.— Records. 

i.-in "^-^^ P^m. — Courtesy program. i 
Mlk|o°ni'Ts-L?r^'„\^'e?eJ«^ "aseb.U gam^ 

n'n^^2 P.m.— Entertainers. 
I'lnl P-m.— Cheerful Philosopher, 
tra. ^'^' — ^^ssian Balalaika ^ orchei- 

9'?n''n"l;r:?Jlf^ National hour. 
KNx f ?i;?I^*^?i?5' Spanish tenor. 
i?'i5'9§ ANGELES (1050) 

in"i?'i? jm.— Home Remedy hour. 

11 i5 o^ *m. — Music. 

i2"7n ^° Ji?-~"F*J5t Presbyterian church. 

1 o ?l"L P-m.—Astroanalyst. 

2 4 SSJ-^i^^^F^^^io^al Bible Students. 
^-| p.m. — Music. 

?'S.n^"^-~^*5*o church. 

v^n 2 ?l!2i-"~??^/,^^"^H Research bureau, 
fifi.^n P.m.— Hollywood Plaza hotel. 
fi"§n^7 5-"^-~-B''- Ernest Holmes. 
7*« ;7j^"^o~^Hm*'*i8* society. 
2 Q P-m.—Symphony, tenor. 

|:?0 Trin^l^yip^h'o^n^?.""'" "'"•«»'• 

11-12 noon — Cosmopolitan luncheon. 
12-1 p.m.— National Sunday Forum. 
1--2 p.m. — ^National religious service. 
2-3 p.m. — Catholic hour. 
3-3:30 p.m.— Los Argentlnos. 
3:30-4 p.m.— Williams Ollomatlcs. 
i:fiM P.m.— Enna Jett^ck Melodies. 
ioi'S-iS P-m.— Collier s radio hour. 
a^'a't^ P.m.— Atwater Kent hour. 
jlS-.il ^^'^""^Sf ^5®u'^,*me of Roses. 
:it P;m.-^tudebaker Champions. 

dSrJ'-^a""^",^,'^^*^^ Cathedral choir. 
■*>.m. — Sam Herman. 

.-—Studio program; Solitaire 

•aritone. 
rden program, 
-der's Guide, 
xt Jewels. 
~'Y (1130) 
pgram. 

Up." 

;ht Opera 

oes; concert, 

the taber- 

tal en- 



sej 
b] 



9- 
9 




Glel 

l( 

sen 
Ij 
1 

Hoi 
1 
2- 
3- 
4- 
4: 
5 



'HY GATHER 
TION HERE TODAY 



r^fitlnuedfrrom Page 1 ) 

^ 'xi^s, and Willltoi Coleman, inter- 
yreter. 

MAYOR WILL TALK 

The address of welcome will be given 
by Mayor Harry C. Clark, and the 
naval training station band, as guest 
artists, directed by R. M. Porsythe, 
bandmaster, will tplay a program of 
musical numbers. Ed Davis of Mesa 
Grande will speak on "Indian Cus- 
toms, Old and New." 

The Rev. Purtill will read recent 
congressional bills and Dr. Herbert 
Kelly of the naval hospital will speak 
on "Health and Sanitation." The naval 
training band's program in the morn- 
ing will include the following num- 
bers: "La Feria Suite— Los Toros, La 
Rega, La Zarzula" by Lacome; "Bill- 
board Bazaar" and "Ponderoso King" 
by King, and "Blue Is the Night" by 
Fisher. 

After luncheon, the following enter- 
tainment is scheduled: 

Jean Jurad dancers in a ceremonial 
Indian dance, 1:40 o'clock. 

Band concert, 2 o'clock, Sherman 
institute student band. 

Frank M. Conser and D. Ray Camp- 
bell, assisted by Gladys Hollingsworth, 
P. A. G. O., organ; Mrs. W. H. Sammls, 
soprano, state chairman of music; 
massed chorus of county federation- 
Alice Warwick, director; Mrs. Harry 
Plersol at the organ. 

Organ solo, military march, "Pomp 
and Circumstance" (Edward Elger) 
Gladys Hollingsworth. 

"Great Is they Love" (Bohn), massed 
chorus of federation. 

Organ solo, "Shepherds Dance" (Ed- 
ward German), Gladys Hollingsworth 

March, "Civic Pride" (Panella). 

Overture. "Morning, Noon, Night" 
(von Suppe). 

^OT^net duet. "Arguementation" 



(Barnhouse), Juan Chaves, class of 
1930; Heber Dann. cla«s of 1930, Riv- 
erside J. C. 

The eternal question of who Is right 
or wrong between the superior and in- 
ferior sex. She, as always, has the 
last word. 

Waltz, "The Wedding of the Winds" 
(Hall), clarinet cadenza by Damon 
Pachito. 

Plantation songs, "The Sunny 
South" (arr. by Lampe). 

Address, P. M. Conser, superinten* 
dent of Sherman institute. 

Organ solo, "Finale, from the Fourth 
Symphony" (Widor), Gladys Hollings- 
worth. 

"Homing" (Del Riego), massed 
chorus of federation. 

Group of songs, Mrs. H. W. Sammis, 
"At the Close of Another Day" 
(C'Hara). 

Organ solo, "Processional March" 
from "Montezuma" (Stewart). 

Descriptive characteristic, "A Bull 
in a China Shop" (Holmes). 

Idyl, "Gluhwurmchen" (Llncke 

Suite in four parts, "Atlantia^^af- 
ranek) (The fabled lost cor^liffient). 

March, "Rolling Thj^iTOer" (Pill- 
more), 

National anthem 



•AH DIEGO, CAL., TRIBrXE <• 

JUNE 2. 193« ""^ 




San Dingo's refcervation Indians — 
more than 150 frorn Pala. Cam po. 
Mesa Grande, La ToUa. Volcan, Capl- 
tan Grande -4Kia LUU CUllLjuu ' were 
feted in Balboa park yesterday in a 
celebration sponsored by the County 
Federation of Women's clubs. The at- 
tendance at the affair, intended to be 
the cornerstone of a national Indian 
day, would have been much greater, 
according to Indian policemen and 
Interpreters, who accompanied tbeir 
charges from their mountain cabins, 
but many feared a "catch" in the in- 
vitation and refused to make the trip 
to the city. 

Features of the program were an 
address of welcome by Mayor Harry 
C. Clark; concerts by the Sherman In- 
stitute (Riverside) and naval training 
station bands; dances by the Jean 
Jurad students; songs by the massed 
chorus of the county federation, with 
Gladys Holllngsworth at the organ, 
and solo numbers by Mrs. H. W. Sam- 
mis, soprano and state chairman of 
music. 

First of Kind 
Indian day, said to be the first of 
its kind in the country, was staged 
by the federation under active leader- 
ship of Mrs. Lucy Miller of the federa- 
tion's Indian welfare department. | 
Mrs. Ida Morgan was in charge of the 
commissary and a number of other I 
clubwomen gave much of their time' 
toward the success of the event. 

Though C. L. Ellis, district super- 1 
intendent of the Indian service, was 
present as an onlooker and Frank M. 
Conser, head of Sherman institute, 
spoke from the platform, yesterday's] 
program was conducted by the club- 
women alone and was in no way 
I government affair. 

Father J. R. Purtill, Indians^ 
"Father Rlcardo," explained efforts 
now under way to recover to the In- 
dians $12,800,000 due in claims foi 
land losses under the 18 treaties ol 
1851-2. Enrollment of Indians whose 
forefathers were living in California 
at that time is still being carried on, 
so that they may participate in th< 
money that became due them nearh 
80 years ago. 

Under the original act of congress! 
this enrollment was to cease last! 
month. By recent enactment the time! 
has been extended for two years and! 
examiners again are covering all Cali- 
fornia to make sure that no Indian is| 
excluded from his rights. 

Several thousand people attended] 
the afternoon concert, at the close of 
which Mrs. Miller held an informal 
reception at the stage, introducing 
several sets of papooses and a number 
of the foremost Indian workers. Dur- 
ing the day Mrs. Ada W. Hildreth actj 
ed as mistress of ceremonies, wit 
Mrs. Esther Robinson as assitant. 

An exhibition of Indian pottery, I 
baketry and other handiwork j^s held| 
in the Indian Arts section ojAhe mu- 
seum during the program/ A morel 
extended program, wlthjftore Indian 
guests, is expected nesrt year, Mrs. I 
Miller said. 



A,;^t '''^^/^ 



^ ^i'SAIV DIEGO, CAL. TNION 

JUNE 2. 1930 



00 



M 



— <» 




R WELCOMES INDIANS TO S 

- ■ —^ — -' ' ' 1 •" 

Indians Invade City— For Outing Only 

San Dieo-o's reservation Indians were reted in Balboa park yesterday by the County 
Fed;ra;^c^ 0^ Wom^n-^ Uppor picture is a f oup of the 150 I^^-- ^^^^^^^ 
to the invitation for a concert and picnic hnich ^^^^^^l^^^^l^/,?^^^^^^^^;?^^^^^ 
the Mission Indians, Avho doesn't -knowliow old she really is. d Coleman, Campo s Indian 
policeman and interpreter, is siiown at t he ric;ht. with his son, W dliam, jr. 



Affair Is Intended as Corner- 
stone for National Redskin 
. Day CeleJDratio/ 

A little ftrnJ^isly/but with gathpr- 
ing confidence, 150 Indians from San 
Diego county reservations joined 
their white brothers yesterday in a 
program at Balboa park intended to 
be the cornerstone of a national In- 
dian day that will rank with other 
occasion's of commemoration. 

Indian policemen and interpreters, 
who RttuiiipmitifiU ' ^ini w a fc arges from 
their mountain cabins, told how many 
of their race -had feared a "catch" in 
the Invitation— such as being put to 
work— and had refused to stir from 
their homes. Next year, they said, 
the response would be double. 
INVASION PEACEFUL 

Yesterday's Indian invasion was 
peaceful— and modern. No yipping 
bucks flung their ponies madly 
through canyon and over hogback 
while squaws and papooses trailed be- 
hind, beating the outworn nags that 
drat^ged the plunder-laden travois. 

In point of fact, most of them drove 
here in their own cars. 

The old order of gaily painted and 
feathered buck, followed submissive- 
ly by drab .squaw who had acquired 
a thick layer of fat to minimize the 
kicks that came her way, obviously 
has gone the way of the tomahawk 
and the scalp knife. 

It was noticeable yesterday that a 
considerable number of the Indian 
men wore overalls or somber business 
suits of vintage. The feminine sec- 
tion blazed with all the colors of the 
spectrum. Gorgeous silks and cali- 
coes, only slightly dulled by time 
proved that the squaw ha.s robbed 
the brave of his former picturesque 
appeal to the color sense. 

Decline of the old Indian standard 
is nowhere shown more clearly, ac- 
cording to William Coleman, Campo 
interpretor, than In language. An 
occasional oldster will speak nothing 
but the Indian tongue; the middle 
generation is most at home in Span- 
ish, while the youth of the reservation 
expresses surprise by "what the heck 
do you know about that?" 
CONCERT M.\KES HIT 

That expression was heard more 
than once during the program of 
white man's music— much of it played 
by an Indian band from the Sherman 
institute at Riverside— that was 
poured into the red man's ear dur- 
inj? the afternoon pro:?ram at the 
Spreckels organ. Once recovered 
from his surprise, the red man ap- 
parently liked it. 

Some difficulty was encountered 
in persuading the Indians to attend 
the concert, as it was necessary to 
combat a widespread rumor that the 
Indians would be charged a dollnr 
for so doing. Gradually they 
straggled suspiciously in, however, 
and once there they "held down their 
chairs pretty tight," Coleman said 
Immobile during the music, they 
join with enthusiasm in tnc 








■•■:':'':-vv'<' 



,■,'.'.". *. •'',',■ 




Mm 

.•y.<y 
















S88^A«j<"'.-X'*^^''-'4^'"*'¥S'.'V.' '■•■••■■•■•'•■■'• ■'.'■/X-' ' '■ ■'•'.-vflBaBi '''^'''•"^ 9BHlt •X'X'.''.'>X'X'-;':*:-:!-tv •'•; 

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applause that followed each number 
and fev7 of them left before the final 
note despite the fact that they faced 
long drives back to the reservation. 
Only a handful of them spent Satur- 
day night in the county fair build- 
ins, where they were based and few- 
er^still remained last night. 

Indian day, said to be the first of 
its kind in the country, was staged 
by the County Federation of Women s 
ciiibs under active leadership of Mrs. 
Lucy Miller of the federation's In- 
dian welfare department. Mrs. Ida 
Morgan was in charge of the commis- 
sary and a niftnber of other club- 
women gave much of their time 
toward the success of the event. 
OIFICIALS ATTEND 

Though C. L. Ellis, district super- 
intendent cf the Indian service, was 
present as an onlooker and Frank M. 



'■■•;^^•>x•^x^•^X;<:•^;■!^^^v>^■• ■■•;•;■: i':'^ 










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iii 



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wm^ 






. ^•i^uiiiM|ii^ii^^^a^iiM.■^ 




Conser, head of Sherman Institute, 
spoke from the platform, yesterday*:, 
pj-ogram was conductetd by the club- 
women olonc and was in .-^Q M )!;^ " 



government affair. 

Durin- the morning the Indian 
reamed through the park f^nt ^^,^. 
children into ^ y^^ "ll!'!.^ 
nd and otherWli^^ milUWlUi 



m0>^^^^^mn 






l>V,««».'i>*Ml"VI»'/ 



^: 



■■t^r-.-.f(- 



■'%J 



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*Vv'>'', 


l^i^wj|: ^^^^^^hIIp^ 




'■■1'' ''4j ^^^^^^^^^^^E'" '-' 


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rr-'V*- t.^'.w '.-"/» ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^K^^ 


■ 


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■-J-. -N, 






l?.ers;?veruAtn the program began 
at To o'clock. They were welcomed 
bv Mayor Harry C. Calrk and the | 
naval training station's band and , 
heard E. Davis, honorary chief oi , 
Mcf'a Grande, describe the march 
from old Indian customs to new. 

Father J. R- Purtin, Indians 
••Father Ricardo." explained efforts 
now under way to recover to the In- 
dians $12,800,000 due in claims for 
land losses under the 18 treaties of 
1851-2 Enrollment of Indian.s whose 
I rorefathers were living in California 
pt that time is still being carried on, 
Fo that they may participate in the 
money that became due them nearly 
80 years ago. 

Vudf^v the original act of congress 
this enrollment was to ccn?^r last 



mfl 



%^m^ 



'■'%*•'','. 

^:'*^\ 



heir mountain cabins, lolci h<r.\ many 
fi th^jii* race iiad feared i' •'catch" in 
hs'aritat ion— such aft being put to 
work— ana Iiad refusecl to stir from 
their homes. Next year, they said. 
* he response would be double. 
INVASION PEACKI I L 

Yesterday's Indian invasion was 
peaceful — and modern. No yippin^ 
bucks flung their ponies madly 
through canyon and over hogback 
while squaws and papooses trailed be- 
hind, heating the outworn nngs that 
dragged the plundcr-ladon travols. 

In point of fact, most of them drove 
here in their own cars. 

The old order of gaily painted and 
feathered buck, followed submissive- 
ly by drab squaw who had acquired 
a thick layer of fat to minimize tho 
kicks that came her way. obviously 
has gone the way of the tomahawk 
and the scalp knife. 

It was noticeable yesterday that a 
considerable number of the Indian 
men wore overalls or somber busine^^s 
fruits of vintage. The feminine sec- 
tion blazed with all the colons of the 
.^spnctrum. Gorgeous silks and cali- 
coes, only slightly dulled by time, 
proved that the squaw has robbed 
the brave of his former picturesque 
appeal to the color sense. 

Decline of the old Indian standard 
is nowhere shown more clearly, ac- 
cording to William Coleman, Campo 
interpretor, than In language. An 
occasional oldster will speak nothing 
but the Indian tongue; the middle 
generation is most at home in Span- 
ish, while the youth of the reservation 
expresses surprise by "what the heck 
do you know about that?" 
CONCERT MARKS HIT 

That expression was heard more 
than once during the program of 
v/hite man's music — much of it played 
by an Indian band from the Sherman 
institute at Riverside — that was 
poured Into the red man's ear dur- 
ing the afternoon program at the 
Spreckels organ. 



Once 
the red 



recovered 
man ap- 



was encountered 

Indians to attend 

was necessary to 



from his surprise, 
parently liked it. 

Some difficulty 
in persuading the 
the concert, as it 
combat a widespread rumor that the 
Indians would be charged a dollar 
for so doing. Gradually they 
straggled suspiciously in, however, 
and once there they "held down their 
chairs pretty tight," Coleman said. 

Immobile during the music, they 
•'H Join with enthusiasm in the 




applause that followed each number 
and fev/ of them left before the final 
note despite the fact that they faced 
long drives back to the reservation. 
Only a handful of them spent Satur- 
day night in the county 



ing, where 



fair build- 
were based and few- 
er still remained last night. 

Indian day, said to be the first of 
its kind in the country, was staged 
by the County Federation of Women's 
clubs under active leadership of Mrs. 
Lucy Miller of the federation's In- 
dian welfare department. Mrs. Ida 
Morgan was in charge of the commis- 
sary and a nihnber of other club- 
women gave much of their time 
toward the success of the event. 
OI FICIALS ATTEND 

Though C. L. Ellis, district super- 
intendent of the Indian service, was 
presejit as an onlooker and Frank M. 









:•:■::••::•:•■:■•■•::■■• •■/■^•^^.^^•■•v:;-:- :•:■:•:■:■■■^^^^^^^•v>'•^••■•■■^:■:•:•:■;•:•:•^;••'^•■:•;•x^^^ 



Conser, head of Sherman Institute, 
spoke from the platform, yestei'day'r. 
program was conductetd by the\';lub- 
women alone and was iJi«a*o Vi'y 



a 



government affair, 

Durin?: the morning the Indian 
roamed through the park, 
children into a . gay 



sent thei^ 
v/hirl on th^ 






merry-go-round and otherv 
themselves until the program began 
at 10 o'clock. They were welcorned 
bv Mayor Harry C. Calrk and the 
naval training station's band and 
heard E. Davis, honorary chief oi 
Mesa Grande, describe the march 
from old Indian customs to new. 

Father J. R-- Pnrtill, Indians 
••Father Ricardo," explained efforts 
now under way to recover to the In- 
dians $12,800,000 due in claims for 
land losses under the 18 treaties of 
1B51-2. Enrollment of Indians whose 
forefathers were living in California 
at that time is still being carried on, | 
so that they may participate in the j 
money that became due them nearly ! 
80 years ago. | 

Under the original act of congress 
this enrollment was to cease last 
month. By recent enactment the time 
has been extended for two years and ; 
examiners again are covering all Call- i 
fornia to make sure that no Indian is , 
excluded from his rights, ! 

EXHIBIT HANDIWORK 

At noon a picnic lunch was served ; 
the Indians in the Pepper grove, with j 
a menu of cabbage salad, paked | 
beans, hamburger and weinie sand- 
wiches, hard-boiled eggs, cake and cof- 
fee. Indians represented the Pala, 
Campo, Mesa Grande. La Jolla. Volcan, 
Capitan Grande and Los Conejos reser- | 
vat ions. 

The afternoon musical program In- 
cluded the Jena Jurad dancers, Sher- 
man band, massed chorus of the coun- 
ty federation. Gladys Hollingsworth at 
the organ, and Mrs. H. W. Sammis, so- 
prano and state chairman of music, in 
bolo numbers. 

The Sherman band featured an In- 
strumental solo by George Walker, who, 
it was explained, several years ago 
played the youthful Jim Flatfoot, vil- 
lain of the film "Redskins." Yester- 
day he played "When You and I Were 
Young. Maggie." 

Several thousand people attended 
the afternoon concert, at the close of 
which Mrs. Miller held an informal 
reception at the stage, introducing 
several sets of papooses and a num' ^ 
of the foremost Indian workers 
ing the day Mrs. Ada W. Hi^reth 
acted as mistress of ceremoniaB. with 
Mrs. Esther Robinson as ass 

An exhibition of Indiaj/ pottery, 
basketry and other handl^jinrk was held 
in the Indian Arts section of the 
museum during the pj^ram. A more 
extended program, yfth more Indian 
guests, is expected i^xt year, Mrs. Mil- 
ler said. 



JANUARY 20. WW 

dam to 

Imt Iniian 

deathceremony of theYum ^^^ ^^^_ 

at the meeting *°o^ ^ew p^^^^j^.^n 
Hg W. Lee stuaio, i^«^-* 

way, this Friday ^/^f bhlefofthe 
Edward Davis. Whlte^^nj^^^^j 

^^^% ''H'i^f Wte t^STvaU be- the 
the Indian «?°_,, ,| x^e of the very 
speaker Mr mvl.»S one, ever wit- 
few white men w"" ^ among 

nes«ed this ce;emony_He Uvea ^^^^&_ 

the Indians for *« y^^^^i^^^en ever 
stands them as few wm ^^^ 

did. San Diego "o^nty ^^^^^ ^^^ 
of Yuman stock and c ^^^j^^i 

teachers of V'™ invaluable. 

will find the e^*^^Vlll !^ go be shown 
A moving picture wmalso^^^^ p^^_ 

°J "" '°She win u^^nclent methods 

tery. ®?®,„^"' JndlnR her clay with 
and material, grinding i ^^ 

the colled method etc^ Thl^^^^ ^^^^ 
a series of local inc» ^ ^j „ cen- 

collected by "^^jjf Tig league and is 
ter and the Indian Aitf 'eag ^ gg a 

being shown under the^[^^";Piies will 
etrsho^nTncludlng an ancient 

^XmS fhfwlde ^^X^ 

rk%riicre^wtu%rop--ti. 

P"^J!e" meeting '^^^^ X^^:^:^Z 
the usual Thursday evenh^ ^^^^ 
this week on account o^e oj 
ture. 



SAN PIIANCI8C0 CH«OiMltue 

MAY 9, 19SI 



Persons Who Burned Slow Were Bad, 
Belief of Early Imperial Valley Tribe 



People who burned rapidly in the 
cremation pit were good people, 
otherwise they were bad people, ac- 
cording to some of the primitive be- 
liefs of the Kamia Indians, who 
once occupied the Imperial valley. 

This is pointed out in a booklet 
just completed by E. W. Gifford, 
curator of the University of Cali- 
fornia Museum of Anthropology. 

Curator Gifford explains that the 
Kamia were probably of Diegueno 
origin, migrating from the coast of 
Southern California some time dur- 
ing the past four or five centuries, 
perhaps as a result of the mission- 



ary efforts of the early Spanish 
padres. The interesting part of the 
Kamia life is that although orig- 
inally coming from the Diegueno to 
the West, they had in the course of 
time taken over many customs of 
the Yuma and became more like 
the latter than like their own people. 
Most of the information upon 
which Curator Gifford based his 
description of this new scattered 
tribal group was obtained from six 
elderly survivors of the group who 
remembered the days antedating 
aggressive colonization by the white 
men. 



.■,:'?.V'-^ 



lAK DIEGC, CAT... SVS 

JUNE 23. 19:1 . 



--1- ' ^' 




I 



^ns Who Gave 














>li(i To W/ii?^ Men 



Now A7\Starving 

Los .^IPotfs Befriended General Kearny; Only 120 
Living, and Destitution Prevails In Ranks; 

Donations Ai^e Sought 

The land of plenty which sheltered Gen^StePh^^^^^^^ 
his men when they came to wm back CaM ornia :rom in 

sought and hoped in vain. 



'■ r-f■l^-'^'■ 







Government has its irony. The 
descendants ^f Indians ^ytio were 
greatly respoiBTmrTO^ir^ia 
now being a part of the United 
States today are starving at the 
very back door of San Diego. 

When Gen. Kearny and hia, 
force— the soldiers who won Call- 1 
fornia from Mexico— camped one 
day late in 1846 in a sheltered 
spot near what is now known a^k 
Warner's Hot Springs, they hkedf 
the greenness of the grass for the| 

I ^Tt 'was a nice spot compared 
with the camping places that had 
been their lot in the deserts and, 
rocky country to the east. The 
horses grew fat agam. 

The Indians were kind. Tney 
fed the soldiers. The land and its 
products were the property of the 
fnmans and the Indians weren't 
greedy. They shared things. 

Today the descendants of these 
Indians-Los Coyotes is their 
tribal name— are destitute and 



^eorge Blackwell of the tribe 
\sent to Los Angeles because he 
had found work there. Both of 
tnem drank some Jamaica ginger 
extract, suffering paralysis as a 
result. Now they are back at the 
reservation, dragging around. The 
other Indians share their food 
with them. 

"Ground squirrels and acorn 
meal is what we've been eating 
lately to eke out the donations 
Willis got us.*' Chief Chaparosa 
said in a mixture of English, 
Spanish and tribal words that 
Chutincut translated. 

"There is something to say 
about Chief Chaparosa, some- 
thing historical," Willis con- 
cluded. "His father was a boy 
when Gen. Kearny camped with 
his forces in 1846 near Warner's 
Hot Springs. The lad ran about, 
got wood, watered horses, killed 
game. His name is Juana Chanp- 
rosa and now he's 97 years/Jld 
and sometimes he sits off byinm- 
self and his lips move w^Rhout 
making any sound. He Remem- 
bers the greenness of ye grass 
for the horses. He recfjRs the old 
|ciays — but he doesn't protect. He's 
an old man." 



l^f^pu;,: 



Chief Nickolas Chaparosa, 
head of the Los Coyotes Indians 
who are destitute on their re- 
servation about six miles east of 
Warner's Hot Springs because 
of crop failure and the depres- 
sion that practically prohibits 
their obtaining outside work. 



:-,-^'~ 



hungry, laclcing proper housing, 
lacking clothing, lacking wo;:k 
Only 120 Are Left 
Chief Nickolas Chaparosa wori;^ 
ders what's going to hfPP«n if 
hard times keep on and the lot of 
his tribe— now only 120— gets 

Turl wnus, deputy county treas 
urer visited every corner of the 
Sty to visualize a huge relief 
AP he has made showing all tne 
«i'ountains, canyons,, streams and 
other physical features. 

For the last 12 years he has 
gone about the county for this 
purpose, making friends with the 
Indians. Chief Chaparosa is his 

friend 

I A year ago Willis became in- 

'terested in the welfare of his 

tribal friends. Nine weeks ago 

he began taking them food and 

'» supplies. He talked quietly with 

his white friends. 

There have been donations that 
ireve not made pubUc. The Mac- 
Marr Stores gave a 100-pound 
sack of pink beans not long ago, 
so did the Humpty-Dumpty 
stores. Leo Greenbaum has do- 
nated fruit, potatoes, onions, 
staple vegetables of many sorts. 
The Continental and Cramers 
bakeries have given bread, some- 
times in 100-loave batches. 
Public Should Know 
Willis believes now that the 
public should know about the 
condition of the Los Coyotes— 
whose reservation headquarters 
are about 6^2 miles east of Warn- 
er's Hot Springs proper. 
He doesn't want to cause a sen- 
ation, he said today; doesn't 
[ant to cre ate great gAs of sym- 

rxiJRN~TO PAGE 14, PIEASE) 



Orig 



Defe 



ive 









■f-^'-^. 



^-C¥.p^:, 



^^'^■::^P:^^M. 



m'^^ 



nrwi^r''rv7 ■ 



^. ^ 









^'K-l 





















uutva '^?^—^"'^ 



;irvTfci 



FRIENDLY TRIBE 

OF INDUNS IN 
NEEDJFHELP 

Los Coyotes Facing 

Starvation On Land 

Near San Diego 



(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 11) 



have worked occasionally at road- 
building. ^, . ^ ^ 
"But the worst thing this year 
is that the crops failed. Gophers 
and ground squirrels ate the 
seeds. The plight of the Indians 
is serious, indeed, as a result.' 
U. S. Air Is Small 



pathy. What he wants is food, 
shoes and clothing— in both chU- 
dren and adult sizes— and mate- 



rials for improving the living 

quarters of the Indians. 

Willis quoted figures today. 

**In 1852 under a treaty with all 
California Indians," he stated, 
"certain lands were allotted them. 
These were to be their lands, to 
have and to hold. But the bar- 
tering white man has so shifted 
titles and papers that now the In- 
dians in this district have been 
driven back to less desirable loca- 
tions. 

*'In the canyons of the reserva- 
tions, farming is carried on. The 
men of the tribes work as laborers 
when possible. With the depres- 
sion, the Indians find it extreme- 
ly difficult to get outside work, 
though some of the Los Coyotes 



Willis supplied some more seed 
-pumpkin chiefly— to the Los 
Coyotes, but it is doubtful if the 
crop will be successful, having a 
late start. , 

He will accept any kind of do- 
nation for the tribe at his home, 
4085 Georgia-st. Chief Chapa- 
rosa— which means humming- 
bird— and Bob Chutincut, one of 
the chief's brawniest followers, 
plan to come to town every week- 
end to take the donations back to 
the reservations. 

**There is a ^ration fee' paid by 
the government to four or five 
persons in the tribe," Willis de- 
clared. "It entitles these persons 
to $7 every month. They buy what 
they can with it and share it with 
the other members of the tnt>e. 

The government has suppUea 
Indian agents to watch over the 
various reservations. One of these 
agents has his headquarters in 
Riverside, Chief Chaparosa said, 
adding that the agent has not 
been to visit the Los Coyotes since 
he was put in office several years 

The government doctor, H. L. 
Hildreth, with headquarters at 
Julian, however, is a regular vis- 
itor to the reservations. 

Not long ago Mr. and Mrs. 



^eorge Blackwell of the tribe 
vJent to Los Angeles because he 
had found work there. Both of 
tiem drank some Jamaica ginger 
extract, suffering paralysis as a 
result. Now they are back at the 
reservation, dragging around. The 
other Indians share their food 
with them. 



*' Ground squirrels and acorn 
meal is what we've been eating 
lately to eke out the donations 
Willis got us," Chief Chaparosa 
said in a mixture of English, 
Spanish and tribal words that 
Chutincut translated. 

*'There is something to say 
about Chief Chaparosa, some- 
thing historical," Willis con- 
cluded. "His father was a boy 
when Gen. Kearny camped with 
his forces in 1846 near Warner's 
Hot Springs. The lad ran about, 
got wood, watered horses, kille 
game. His name is Juana Chan|^ 
rosa and now he's 97 years/Jld 
and sometimes he sits off byinm- 
self and his lips move jrfthout 
making any sound. He iemem- 
bers the greenness of y^ ^^rass 
for the horses. He rec^s the old 
,days — but he doesn't protest. He's 
an old man." 



I 



JUNE 29. 1931 




INJUMfGIVE 

THANKS FO 

WHITES' A 

Los Coyorea Tribe, Hit 

By Depression, Given 

Food, Clothing 

MORE HElJTs SOUGHT 




Ancestors Of Destitute 

Redmen Helped 

Gen. Kearny 




Los Coyotes TrirJinni ^8 ^^" 
tute because of crop failure and 
the business depression, gave 
thanks today on their reservation 
about six miles east of Warners 
Hot Springs for the donations of 
food, clothing and money from 
San Diegans during the last few 

days. . 1. i. „ 

Purl Willis, deputy county treas- 
urer who became interested in the 
welfare of the tribe on his back- 
country travels, is in charge of re- 
ceiving donations at his home 4085 
Georgia-st. 

Willis has been privately obtain- 
ing aid for Los Coyotes for 
the past nine weeks and Tuesday 
made a public appeal on their be- 
half through The Sun. 

Tribe Always Friendly 

The^ result of this appeal is 
gratifying, Willis said today. "The 
public has become interested in 
helping these friendly Indians 
whose ancestors supplied food and 
comforts to Gen. Stephen W. 
Kearny and his men^the soldiers 
who were mainly responsible for 
making California a part of this 
country instead of it remaining in 
Mexican hands. Every day more 
and more donations are made to 
this splendid *fund.' " 

Mary Betty Willis, young daugh- 
ter of Willis, is spending her time 
sorting the various donations. She 
speaks Spanish fluently and when 
Chief Nickolas Chaparosa and his 
braves headed by husky Bob 
Chutnicut come to town in their 
ramshackle Ford to take the do- 
nations back to the tribe, she car- 
ries on conversations. She is the 
first person who hears their 

thanks. 

Seeks Iron Pipe 

Willis now is making efforts to 
obtain about 3000 feet of second 
hand pipe so he may pipe in the 
spring on the reservation. The 
spring is already dangerously low 
because of the hot weather and 
the water must be guarded closely 
if it is to suffice through the sum- 
mer. Willis stated. 

The Indian agent appointed by 
the government has headquarters 
in Riverside and has not visited 
Los Coyqtes for a long time, 
according to Chief Chaparosa. 
Donations Listed 
The following donations were 
reported today by Willis: 
S. P. McMullen, county su- 
pervisor $5.00 

Fred Haines, deputy county 

treasurer 1.00 

Samuel I. Fox, Lion Cloth- 
ing Co Clothing and 1.00 

The Avocado Shack, 

La Mesa Vegetables 

P. E. Davis, 4083 Georgia- 
st Clothing 

Miss mV Walker, Underwood 

Tynewriting Co Clothing 

E. S." Babcock, 4062 Swift- 

av Clothing 

Young's Market Meat 

Leo Greenbaum 200 pounds 

potatoes and other vegetables 

Cramer Baking Co Bread 

Mrs. Ellis, 2189 Harrison- 

av Bread, jelly 

Mrs. H. Collins, 1226 Cy- 

press-av Clothing 

Continental Baking Co Bread 

**A11 donations are greatly a ' 
predated by the Indians. Renr ^ 
ber, anything eatable or wea^bl 
is of use,'* Willis conclude 



TBXBVJfR ■ n^ 

JVLY 5, 1981 



--rrt' 




' Conditions' found on Log^^^^yote* 
Indi an reserv ation, southeast of War- 

ful investigation of other Mission 
Indian tribes is warranted, a com- 
mittee for the county board of su- 
pervisors reported today. Supervisor 
Edgar P. Hastings, Deputes District 
Attorney Philip Smith and Purl WU- 
lis, deputy county treasurer, making 
up the special committee appointed 
Monday by the board, were accom- 
panied by C. L. Ellis, Indian agent at 
Riverside, and Dr. P. D. Mossman, 
medical director, on an inspection 
I tour beginning yesterday. 

The supervisors voted to make the 
I inspection after hearing from Hast- 
ings that "the Indian situation is de- 
plorable." Reports to the federal 
[grand Jury for this district and to the 
llndian bureau at Washington were 
Irecommended . 

Dr. Mossman is stationed at Al- 
m^erque, N. M^ and was in San Dl- 
;go county yesterday on part of his 
tour of inspection In the several west- 
ern division states under his jurisdic- 
tion. 

Ellis, who explained to the commit- 
tee plans of his office in regard to the 
ian Diego county Indians, indicated 
that much of the apparent want of 
fhe Indians is caused by their failure 
work. Money, which is taken out 
[n trade, he said, is allotted to In- 
lians too old to work. His charges, 
lowever, maintained they were un- 
ible to find employment and told of 
suffering in the winter from lack of 
)roper shelter, food and clothing. 

Several of the English-speaking 

[members of the tribe engaged in a 

hot argument with Ellis relative to 

certain allotments the agent said were 

made them, and which, they maln- 

|talned, they never received. 

Relief, at least temporary^v^as 
promised the Indian* by ElUr who 
I said he would obtain emplojpment for 
them on a proposed reserp^ion road, 
would buUd wood flooM^n their huts 
and would have a n^resentative of 
his visit them moreTOten. 



lAir i>iB«<r, cAi.ir« nn«S tUSi 

JULY 3; mi 



OFFJtlAKVISIl 
nnOLEAliN 




Agent,nVledical Director, Su- 
pervisor and Others In- 
spect Los Coyotes Tribe, 

Living conditions of the Mission 
Indians on th^ i^ ^ nnvotftg reserva- 
tion, severSinnessSTOWWt of War- 
ner's Hot Springs, were Inspected yes- 
terday by C. L. Ellis, Riverside Indian 
agent under whose Jurisdiction the 
Indians fall; Dr. P. D. Mossman, med- 
ical director for the southwestern dis- 
trict and Edgar Hastings, county su- 
pervisor; Phil Smith, deputy district 
attorney and Purl Willis, deputy 
county treasurer. 

The last three men were named by 
the county board of supervisors Mon- 
day to Investigate Indian conditions 
In this county, following a statement 
to the board by Hastings that "The 
Indian situation is deplorable.'* 

The supervisors, It was indicated 
at their last meeting wiU demand a 
thorough investigation of the alleged 
neglect if the board's committee so 
recommends. 

Only one of the several reservations 
in the county, were visited by the 
committee yesterday, and conditions 
found on that reservation, members 
of the committee said, will warrant 
careful Investigation of other reser- 
vations before a report is made to the 
board of supervisors. 

Dr. Mossman is stationed at Al- 

"* (Continued oxi Page 3) 



gi i i y Av^nwnM 



^najuaAuoa pub aiqu^jojuioo 



wooM iiva 

M/noiiMAvoa]' ; 



\ > 




^fflPHSVN 







buqi*e'rque, N. M., and was In San Di- 
ego county yesterday on part of his 
,tour of inspection in the several west- 
i<«rn division states under his jurisdic- 
tion. 

Ellis, who explained to the commit- 
tee plans of his office In regard to the 
San Dlego county Indians, indicated 
that much of the apparent want of 
the Indians Is caused by their failure 
to work. Money, which Is taken out 
In trade, he said, is allotted to In- 
dians too old to work. His charges, 
however, maintained they were un- 
able to find employment and told of 
suffering in the winter from lack of 
proper shelter, food and clothing. 

Several of the English-speaking 
members of the tribe engaged In a 
hot argument with EUls relative to 
certain allotments the agent said were 
made them, and which, they main- 
tained, they never received. 

Relief, at least temporary, was 
promised the Indians by Ellis who 
said he would obtain employment fof 
them on a proposed reservation roa^, 
would build wood floors In their Lmts 
and would have a representatl^ of 
his visit them more often. ^ 



JULY 18, 1351 



4? 




FIRSTfOyHD 



habited' Entire 
Section 



By MALCOLM J. ROGERS 

Staff Member, Natural HUtory 

Museum 

In 1542, when Juan Cabrillo, 
the first European to view the 
shores of California, landed in 
San Diego Bay, he found the 
region I n the possession of a 
group of^'lnflians Ihal iiad i!i6 
name 



nciian s xna- 

^ives, as they tea 



loosely knit into small clan groups 
by marriage. These groups, how- 
ever, did have names, taken gen- 
erally, from some place name. 
Later on, when the San Diego 
Mission was founded they were 
named by the Spanish, Dieguen os, 

a term which persists to inib flW, 
although of no ethnic signifi- 
cance. , ^ ^ * 

These Indians had not been set- 
tled in the region many hundreds 
of years before the Spanish dis- 
covery. They were immigrants 
that had gradually filtered 
through the mountains of the 
back-country from the Colorado 
Desert to the east. They were an 
off-shoot of the great Yuman 
stock which occupied the lower 
basin of the Colorado River. 

Although the Dieguenos were 
not a warlike people, they were 
made of sterner stuff than the 
average Califomian Indian and 
offered greater opposition to the 
Spanish colonization. Their 
rancherias were located mostly in 
the back-country, and except in 
the vicinity of San Diego, there 
were few coastal settlements. To 
them, the coast offered a recrea- 
tional zone, much as it does to- 
day to our back-country populace. 
It was a playground to camp on 
for a few weeks at a time, a place 
where they might pole their rush- 
rafts about on the bays, fish, 
bathe and obtain a change of 

diet . , 

Although their diet was varied 
and included the meat of game 
animals, they subsisted principally 
upon acorns and wild seeds. Be- 
cau of this diet, ethnologists 
speak of them as a "seed-gather- 
ing" people rather than a hunting 

people. 

Physically, the Diguenos were 
medium taU and quite robust. 
Their skin-color was a dark brown 
with none of the reddish pig- 
mentation of the conventional 
•'redskin" of the eastern states. 
Their descendants, which are to be 
found in greatly depleted num- 
bers upon five reservations scat- 
tered over the country, have de-^ 
teriorated physically because of 
disease and miscegenation. Today, 
they number about 700, although 
a scant 150 years ago there were 
3000 of them. 

The American aborigine is not 
an homogeneous physical type nor 
of a common temperament. Dif- 
f erent stocks varied considerably | 
both in temperament and mental 
powers. One mental character- 
istic of the Dieguenos was their 
weakly developed religious and 
ceremonial sense. They were not 
so much irreligious as religion-less. 
Medicine-men as well as chiefs, 
exercised but little power over the 
masses, and the individual did 
about as he or she pleased. 

The Dieguenos shared the north 
half of the county with the Lui- 
senos, a Shoshonean tribe who 
spoke an entirely different lan- 
guage, but whose every day life 
was much the same as that of 
their southern neighbors. In con- 
trast to the latter, the Luisenos 
were very religious and were mak- 
ers of complicated rituals. Their 
medicine-men exercised their 
symbolical powers by covering 
conspicuous rocks near the villages 
with intricate designs in red and 
black paints which are to be seen 

to this day. .^ ^ ^ ^ 

Until recent times it had been 
believed that these Indians were 
the original Calif omians, but 
archaeological research by the 
San Diego Museum has shown 
otherwise; they were, compara- 
tively speaking, newcomers in the 



^^nded heads of the Diegueno Vi- 
dians. Perhapsit is wong to call 
them Indians. They had lon8. n*f : 
row skuUs with weakly developed 
foreheads. Sometimes their skele- 
tons are found in a fossilized con- 
dition, but very few are found to 
any condition, and it is possiWe 
that they were so barbarous that 
they usually made no disposal or 

the dead. . ,,„ 

Even the Dieguenos, who dis- 
played a certain skQl in the man- 
ufacture of baskets, pottenr. ar- 
row points, woodwork and houses, 
would have considered these shell- 
fish eaters savages, for the J«ter 
possessed none of these arts. Their 
only tools were sharp flakes of 
rock, struck from the sides of 
hnnlders. But it seems that no 
Seopie can remain Indefinitely in 
such an uncultured state, and as 
the centuries rolled by. the Shell 
People made some progress. Prom 
studying the later shell heaps we 
find that they gradually improved 
their stone tools by more skillful 
flaking untU toward the end of 
their sojourn they had evolved 
them into effective knives and 

scrapers. . . 

The disappearance of these iirsL 
Califomians is as mysterious as 
their appearance. There is some 
evidence, however, that they were I 
driven into the deserts of Lower 
California by the Invasions of later 
tribes of a more warlike nature. 



I' ^*- .^9 ^^^ 




!^"m 



Si 



ir .'*f ' 



•: \t 



.1 



LO. THE POOR 
INDIAN 
California's original in- 
habitants in sad state 
on Los Coyotes res- 
ervation, San Diego 
county. — ^A. P. 




VRIBIJNB 

FEBKUARY 29. 1932 




BETWEEN 

CITY 
RIGHTS 




An agreement with the United 
States Indian bureau at Washington 
over water rights for Indians at El 
Capitan was in sight today when the 
common council forwarded to City 
Attorney C. L. Byers at the capital an 
endorsement of an amendment sub- 
mitted by telegraph late Saturday by 
T. B. Cosgrove, the city's special 
counsel on water matters. 

Byers had forwarded to the council 
and to Co3grove a telegram urging 
acceptance of a proposition submitted 
by the Indian bureau in which it 
agreed to give the city the Indian 
lands needed for reservoir purpo::es, 
provided that when moved the In- 
dians still would have the same rights 
they now have where they are located. 

Objection to this stand was taken 
by Cosgrove, who in conversation 
with Deputy City Attorney H. B. 
Daniel, declared that the city's para- 
mount rights to the river waters 
would first have to be conserved at 
all hazards. Cosgrove took exception 
to the language of the Indian bureau 
jn making its proposition and wired 
bark an additional paragraph to the 
<anuiclment which, reads: 



"Other than the right of transfer 
of place of use no provisions of this 
act and nothing done In carrying out 
its provisions shall have the effect of 
changing in any manner the rights 
of the United States of America, the 
Capitan Grande band of Indians, the 
city of San Diego, or any third party, 
in and to the use of the waters of 
the San Diego river or any of its 
tributaries as recognized by the laws 
of the state of California." 

The council was informed by Mayor 
Walter W. Austin that Cosgrove's 
purpose is to prevent any third party 
from acquiring water rights on the 
river now held by the Indians. The 
mayor also stated he doubted if the 
Indian bureau officials would accept 
Cosgrove's amendment to the act. 

Councilmen suggested that there 
would be no harm in making the ef- 
fort. Consequently, Deputy City At- 
torney Daniel was instructed to send 
Byers word that Cosgrove's amend -y 
ment was preferred and that he li 
sist it be included in the bill befjft-e 
congress to give the city more In- 
dian lands. 



•AK DIECIO, CALIF,, rrXION 50 

MARCH 1. 1832 



i 




FOR CAPIIAN m 



f Bidders to Be 
Copies; Call on 
roject Delayed. 




Pros^^ti 
Provided 
Pipeline 



The state engineer has signed El 

Capitan dam plans and they are now 

coming here in custody of Harold 

Wood, resident engineer of El Capl- 

ttan project, the council was in- 

^ formed yesterday by Fred D. Pyle, 

: acting hydraulic engineer. 

^ As soon as Wood reaches San Di- 

ycgo today, the plans and specif ica- 

:tions as signed by the engineer will 

Jbe printed and distributed among 

5 prospective bidders on the dam job. 

JBlds for the work are to be opened 

T April 11. 

t The bid call on El Capitan pipe- 
line from the dam site to Lakeside, 
! slightly more than eight miles, was 
delayed pending a number of mat- 
ters the council found It has to take 
.care of before the pipeline can be 
safely built from a legal standpoint. 
Land Agreement Favored 
Another El Capitan matter was set 
afoot when the council wired to City 
Attorney C. L. Byers in Washington 
approval of a tentative agreement 
I with the Indian office on additional 
;e1 Capitan lands. ThlsagrsfimfiJlt 
I would alJL2auiii^-i»^«J^- displaced by 
Ithe reservoir the. same water rights 
ion other parU^ol Uie xiver that they 
may happen to enjoy now at El Capi- 
tan. These rights would accrue to 
lands purchased for the Indians only 
for such time as the lands would be 
used by the Indians and then only 
to the extent that water has been 
used at the Capitan reservation. 

The council received the plans and 
specifications for El Capitan pipe- 
line, showing 2.2 miles of 36-inch 
line from Lakeside! to El Monte and 
six miles of 48-lilch line from El 
Monte to El Caplt*. The additional 
si ze is to accommidate water to be 

on all* kinds of pipe. Engineer FVle 
said. 



DECEMBBK 27. 1952 



Group of Indians 



/ 



Will Be Guests 
of Municipality 



Party of 45 From Mission 

Near San Diego to See 

Long Beach Thursday. 

Forty -five Indians from the Pala 
Chapel Mission, back of San Diego, 
will be guest of Long Beach und the 
Chamber of Commerce next Thurs- 
day. They will come here by special 
bus They wiU visit the harbor and 
the battle fleet. The Indians here- 
tofore have made annual pilgrim- 
ages to San Diego. It will be the 
first time they have been brought 
to Long Beach. 

The visit was arranged by Supe- 
rior Judge Oscar E. Houston. Judge 
and Mrs. Houston and A. A. Miller, 
publicity director of the Chamber, 
will be their escort during the day. 
They will guests of Judge, Houston 
at a luncheon in the Harvard Tea 

Room. . , , 

Father Ignatius of the chapel 
and Race Freeman, an Indian, will 
direct the party, which will arrive 
at the Chamber at 10 A. M. Mayor 
A E. Fickling and President Bruce 
Mason of the Chamber will extend 

a welcome. 

The Indians immediately wnl be 
taken to the harbor, where Port 
Mnrager James F. Collins will have 
a boat waiting for them. The trip 
to the fleet will follow. 

The chapel, known in the old days 
as the "Asistancia of San Antonio 
de Tadau de Pala," was organized 
in the early days by the Franciscan 
Fathers as an auxiliary of the San 
Luis Rey Mission. 






»*■> 






-iJSfMfft*^-. 






'^^- ^:\> ,■ 









;V^'" 



'^^•■;^r*4 


















ItFSi^Sttid-trthTlSii^n dis- 
trict under terms of the water set- 

'"'C*councll found that It would 

Ihe^nabTto call for blfs at once on 

the Dlpellne because of i^^cessity oi 

'mstrfc? approval °f Pl^f'^^ .\^; ^^l 
trlct would be called on to PaV P^" 
of the cost. Pyle estimated that the 
line as planned would cost »62OO0O 
wWch compares with an estimate of 
$460,000 on the line If It were all 36 
Inches In diameter. 

Present Plans Sufficient 
some of the councllmen sought to 
lustlfv construction of the PlPfime 
iefore the dam Is built on the theory 
that It would provide employment 
and possibly be able to take some 
diverted water from the r ver. Their 
ardor on the diversion plan cooled 
sUghtly when they were nformed 
that a diversion and pumping unit 
would cost between $25,000 and $30- 
000 and that present Pumplng plants 
and reservoirs are well able to taKe 
care of prospective demands for some 

""councilman Alexander saw » waste 
of money In building a pipeline a 
year or more before it could be used. 
He figured the loss of Interest on 
mveslld money at $30,000 and said 
there was a depreciation loss l" leav- 
ing a pipeline in the ground unused 

'VeCncIl nnauy voted to submit 
tbA nlans to the district and au- 

how the district would pay lor It^ 

'share of the pipeline <^^\'.^^^^^^^^^ 
and specifications provide for h/as 
on all kinds of pipe, Engineer ^le 
said. 



rXlESS-TKLKGH \:*1 (10) 

DECEM15EK 27. 19M 



Group of Indians 
Will Be Guests 
of Municipality 

Party of 45 From Mission 

Near San Diego to See 

Long Beach Thursday. 



Forty-five Indians from the Pala 
Chapel Mission, back of San Diego, 
will be guest of Long Beach "and the 
Chamber of Commerce next Thurs- 
day. They wUl come here by special 
b'ls They win visit the harbor and 
the battle fleet. The Indians here- 
tofore have made annual pilgrim- 
ages to San Diego. It wUi be the 
first time they have been brought 
to Long Beach. 

The Visit was arranged by Supe- 
rior Judge Oscar E. Houston. Judge 
and Mrs. Houston and A. A. Miller, 
publicity director of the Chamber 
will be theii- escort during the day. 
Tliey win guests of Judge, Houston 
at a luncheon in the Harvard Tea 

Room. , , t, 

Father Ignatius of the chapel . 
and Race Freeman, an Indian, will 
direct the party, which will arrive 
at the Chamber at 10 A. M. Mayor 
A E. Fickling and President Bruce 
Mason of the Chamber win extend 
a welcome. 

The Indians immediately wnl be 
taken to the harbor, where Port 
Mor.ager James F. Collins wiU have 
a boat waiting for them. The trip 
to the fleet will follow. 

The chapel, known in the old days 
as the "Asistancia of San Antonio 
de Tadau de Pala," was organized 
in the early days by the Franciscan 
Fathers as an auxiliary of the San 
Luis Rey Mission, > 



the coast of San Diego County 
was one of the first places in 
America tg be inhabited by man. 
As our knowledge of early man in 
America is being constantly aug- 
mented from year to yqar with 
new findings we must expect at 
any time to find our ancient Cali- 
f ornian relegated to the position 
of a parvenu, which, however, 
will not invalidate the importance 
of his position in American pre- 
history, recorded in numerous 
camp-sites which are to be found 
along the ocean front in the form 
of extensive shell-beds. Thes^ 
beds, which are the accumulated 
refuse of centuries of feasts on 
shell-fish by the aboriginees, tell 
an interesting story when the dis- 
carded and broken man-made im- 
plements which they contain are 
studied. As the shell occurs in 
overlapping layers and sometimes 
even with barren zones of soil be- 
tween layers, we know that they 
were made at different times and 
that the bottom ones are the old- 
est. The archaeologist reads such 
a record much as one would read 
the leaves of a book. 

The story imfolds without an 
Introduction nor a clue, as yet, as 
to where these first men came 
from. Their advent took place 
probably 10.000 years ago. possi- 
bly even earlier. We find them 
already scattered over a consider- 
able extent of the southern Cali- 
fornia coast, living in an astound- 
ing state of barbarism. They did 
not have the stature nor the well- 



■^-- 



^ ww;o. oAi.ir. vfn<>' « 

OCTO&SR 30. 1934 » 



; 1 



BAX BDMO. OAMF^ fnTEdV V 

NOVEMBER 2. 193i ^ 



cipo INDIAN, eo; 




^i?r>' 



FRIEND IS HELD 



Charles Holw«, 60, Indian leader, 
suffered a hemorrhage of the brain 
before his charred body was found 
in the ruins of his lonely shack || 
which burned to the ground on the 
Campo reservation Sunday night, it 
was disclosed in an autopsy per- 
formed yesterday by Dr. E. G. Col- 
by at the Erickson mortuary, in La 
Mesa. Meantime, Louis Quero, an- 
other resident of the reservation, 
who admitted to Archie Bedford, 
Jacumba constable, that he had been 
drinking with Holwa, was held in 
tlie county jail. 

"The burns suffered by the vic- 
tim are more severe than one would 
expect from the fire that destroyed 
Holwa's one-room shack," Doctor 
Colby said. He added that he could 
not determine the cause of the hem- 
orrhage. 

Continue Investigation 
"It may have been from natural 
causes or it could have resulted from 
a blow on the head," Colby said. 
"The charred condition of the skull 
prevented our establishing definite- 
ly that Holwa had suffered a blow. 
Continuing their investigation of 
the case last night, deputy sheriffs 
brought Holwa's four children, Lou- 
isa, 14; Lola, 12; Conception, 10, and 
Maria, 6, and Quero's son, Raymond, 
10 to the sheriffs office for ques- 
tioning. The case probably will be 
turned over to federal authorities 
because the death occurred upon a 
government reservation. 

Quero contended that he had left 
the shack early in the evening and 
did not return. He refused to say 
more, despite questioning by sher- 
iffs deputies and Bedford. 
Romance Disclosed 
A romance between 14-year-old 
Louisa and Quero was disclosed 
yesterday. Sheriffs men were 
rounding up neighbors and friends 
of the aged Indian, whose daughter 
was said to be a sweetheart of the 
man in custody. Quero asked the 
girl to marry him on several occa- 
sions, it was stated. 

J Allison Moore, special officer 
of the U. S. Indian service, will ar- 
rive tonight or tomorrow morning 
to assume charge of the investiga- 
tion it was reported by his wife, 
who resides at 4242 Adams ave. Mrs 
Moore said her husband was callo" 
to the case last night by the sheriifs 
office. Meantime Juan Leo, chief 
of the Indian police on local reser- 
vations, was conducting an investi- 
gation at the scene of death, it wa^ 
reported. ^ 




^bl. members chanted hymn; 

taugh.t their forefathers by earl: 

Spanish missionaries over the bod; 

of Charles Hollwah, 60, last nigh1 

in tfie Campo Indian niTssion. 

Tribesmen of the dead man, wh( 

was the victim of a torch murder| 

last Sunday, claimed his body at 
Erickson's mortuary in La Mesa 
yesterday and carried his remain 
back into the hills for burial. Catho- 
lic funeral services, interspersed 
with Indian singing, will be held at 
10 a. m. today. 

Meanwhile, Louis Quero, 39, an- 
other Indian from the Campo reser- 
vation, was held in county jail in 
lieu of $50,000 bond which was set 
Wednesday night when Quero for- 
mally was charged with murder be- 
fore U. S. Commissioner P. M. An- 
drews. 

To Present Evidence 
Evidence in the case will be pre- 
sented to the U. S. district grand 
jury in Los Angeles Wednesday by 
J. Allison Moore, special investi- 
gator for the district Indian agent. 
Moore and an interpreter ques- 
tioned Quero for more than two 
hours yesterday. 

"Quero's statements were only 
partly satisfactory," Moore said. 

Continued questioning of Holl- 
wah's four daughters and Quero's 
son, Raymond, by deputy sheriffs 
yesterday brought confirmation of 
the story originally told by the 
eldest daughter, Moore said. 
Quarrel Related 
Louisa, 14, previously told Moore 
that Quero and her father argued 
about Quero's intimacy with her 
and that Quero hit her father over 
the head with a bottle. While 
Hollwah was unconscious, Louisa is 
quoted as saying, Quero poured 
kerosene over him and set him afire. 
Moore said Conception, 10, and 
Raymond yesterday verified Lou- 
isa's story. 

If the U. S. grand jury returns 
an indictment against Quero, he 
will be returned here for arraign- 
ment before the district circuit court 
in session Nov. 16. If he pleads 
guilty, he will be sentenced imme- 
diately. If he pleads not guilty, 
trial will be set for the January 
session of court, it was reported. 



SAX DIKCO. CAUr,. tj: 



-^lEn 



I. A WES A. CAly.. 

DECEMBER 14, 1934 




fans To Move 



To Vie j as Ranch 

The \jhecking of ^IW »o^ndary 
lines of the 1,600-acre \^ie.ias ranch, 
purchased from Baron Long for the 
new Indian reservation is being 
completed this week by C. Anderson, 
government engineer, according to 
O. B. Fry, Indian agent. This is the 

\ 
last detail before tr^sfer of the 
Indians from Capitan' Grande reser- 
vation to their new settlement, and 
marks the end of the long contro- 
versy between the city of of San 
Diego and the back country over 
their removal. The Indians are 
anxious to take possession of their 
"promised land" and are awaiting 
the final word, which is expected 
this week, to begin the plowing and 
improvement of their allotments. 



ro5 






JANUARY 21. 1935 



NOVE -IBER 2.3. im 

Ini^an Dead Are 
/Moved to yiejas 

The bodies of 75 Missipn Indi- 
ans, some of them laid to^ rest 50 
years ago, were dug up frgm their 
graves on the old Capitan reserva- 
tion and re interred in the new 
Viejas^Valley reserve this week. 

The Indians wsre forced to move 
camp because their j-eservation 
was in the basin of El Capitan 
dam. When they decamped they 
took their forefathers with them 
and buried them in the new gray,e- 
yard. 




^' 



A VISIT TO INDIANS! 

6 *-/ 

Chief Special Officer Will Inspect 

Reservations 

«#„#/#"'?• ^- ^"f"*'-' '^hief special officer of the United 
!ilates Indian Service, arrived in Los Angeles yesterday for an 
inspection tour of Southern California reser/alions. hTs Ms 
first visit here m two years. 

He will be accompanied on his'-' 



tour by J. Allison Moore, special 
Indian agent in charge of the lo- 
cal office. 

"We have very little trouble 
on the California reservations," 



Mueller said. '^Through the 
vigilance of Agent Moore and 
the Indian policemen, harmony 
is the general rule." 

Tomorrow Mueller will be in 
San Diego to attend the opening 
of the trial of Louis Cuero, Cam- 
po Indian, charged with the mur- 
der last October of Charles Hol- 
lawah, tribal chief of the Campo 
clan. The murder suspect is also 
facing arson and other charge] 



TIMES- AOVOCATTIS 

FEBRUARY I. MM 



FEBRUARY 1. 19» 



7l ■> 

3re 1 



If it wife Aot for acorns gleaned 
from a rugged, unproductive sectiox) 
of Placer Count y, Indian s of tne 
Auburn reservationrT?5Tnc[ not sub- 
sist through the winter, according 
to statements made by the Indians 
themselves. L. J. McKinney, proba- 
tion officer of Placer County, has 
asked federal aid for the group, 
who, he claims, are undernourished 
and living on soil unfit for cultiva- 
tion. 



idians Show 



Uil 



Appreciation 



Among th e^Indians of the various 
reservations 9! UU ULUgusjounty the 
young and elderly men of the Riiicon 
reservation, noyth of Escondido, will 
wish President Roosevelt "many 
happy returns" on the occasion of his 
53rd birthday. 

Just how much emergency federal 
relief is being given to the Indiajis of 
the other reservations is not known 
to the writer of this item but in 
Rincon the young men are receiving a' 
little better than $10 for five days 
work per week. The elderly men ara 
not allowed to work but are gener- 
ously remembered by Uncle Sam in 
the matter of rationii;''"' • v 

This arrangement has been in effect 
in the Rincon reservation over a yetar. 
Joe Calac, well known member of the 
Rincon family of Calacs, is the fore- 
man of the young men. 

And what's of additional cause for 
thanksgiving is that all of the work 
is directed along lines of betterment 
for the reservation, such as the dig- 
ging of wells, -squirrel and gopher 
eradicatibn and the drainage of land 
where needed. 

''The wages are not so much," says 
iForenian Calac, "but it's steady work 
and sure of bringing the cash on pay 
day, att^ under existing economic 
conditions c^Tilr people are pleased with 
jUncle Sam's"* goodness." , 

The work is carried forward iiiider 
the designation "Emergency Conser- 
vation Work." • 



PRESS CLIPPING BURI 

SAN FRANCISCO 
it LOS ANGELES 
PORTLAND, ORE. , 



BSSS 



a i j^JCT 



ORLAND. CALIF. UNIT 

FEBRUARY 4, 1935 



.*u. 



Government Help PuMnlsed 
For Glenn ^County's 

Thrjjluitt Titervention of Glenn j 
county supewrisors, with the office I 
of Indian affairs at Sacramento^ the 
government has promised aid to 
Glenn county supervisors, it was 
announced last week by Mrs. Cora| 
Jenks, county relief agent. 

Single Indians will receive^ $7.50 
monthly from the government; mar- 
ried couples will get $10 monthly and 
where there are more than two in 
a family, $12 monthly will be pai< 



PRESS CUPPING BUftl 

SAN FRANCISCO 
ir LOS ANGELES 
PORTLAND, ORE. , 



nECsn: 



DRLAND. CALIF. UNIT 

FEBRUARY 4, 1935 



.•u. 



Government Help Promised 

For Glenn County's Iiuliai»| 

y / 1 "' ■ 

Thrpufffa intervention of Glenn 
county supei*visors, with the office 
of Indian affairs at Sacramento, the 
government has promised aid to 
Glenn county supervisors, it was 
announced last week by Mrs. Cora| 
Jenks, county relief agent. 

Single Indians will receive $7.50 
monthly from the government; mar- 
ried couples will get $10 monthly and 
where there are more than two in 
a family, $12 monthly will be paid. 



OROVfLLE. CALir. 
IMF.RCURY. REGISTER 

FEBRUARY 7, 1935 



r.r 






Congress Gets 
2 Indian Bill 



(Contributed) 

Congressman Collins, a member of 
the House Committee on Indian 
Affairs, has introduced a bill to au- 
thorize the Indians of California to 
be represented by attorneys of their 
own selection in their suit which is 
now pending in the court of claims 
at Washington, D. C. 

It directs that the court shall re- 
cognize such attorneys as of record 
and gives them the control of the 
suit for their clients. It authorizes 
the court to fix the amount of rea- 
sonable costs incurred or expended 
and attorneys fees, and directs the 
secretary of the treasury to pay such 
costs and fees out of the judgment 
when rendered. 

The bill also extends the jur- 
isdiction of the court for the re- 
ceipt of a new petition or amend- 
ments which will allow the inclusion 
of all Indians of California as claim- 
ants and the claims which, it is con- 
tended, were not included in the 
original petition filed by the attor- 
ney general of CaUfornia. It ex- 
tends the time for Indians to make 
application for enrollment and de- 
fines the term ^'Indians of Califor- 
nia," as used in the Jurisdictional 
Act, "to be all Indians who were 
residing in the State of California 
on June 1, 1852, and their descend- 
ants living on May 18, 1928." 

Senator FYazier of the senate 
committee on Indian Affairs has in- 
troduced a companion bill which 
carries the same provisions as the 
Collins Bill. 

The attorney general of Califor- 
nia, who was originally authorized 
to bring suit, in his petition to the 
court prayed for the recovery of 
only $12,800,000. It is now reported 
that the government's set-offs as 
tabulated total $12,174,200 which will 
leave, a balance of $6213,800. Prom 
this latter sum the state of Califor- 
nia, under the petition of its attor- 
ney general, is praying for reim- 
bursement in the amount of any 
sum that it may expend to help the 
Indians secure a settlement of their 
claims. 

One item of the government's set- 
offs claimed on account of the Per- 
ris-Riverside Indian School (Sher- 
man Institute) is $5,277,240. It is 
claimed that many items of set-offs 
can and should be shown to be er- 
roneous. In this connection it is 
claimed several million dollars of 
this sum were spent for the educa- 
tion of Indians who do not belong 
in California and the cost of whose 
education should not be charged up 
against the Indians of this state. 

It is contended that the $12,800,- 
000 for which the attorjiey general 
brought suit does not represent the 
true nor total value of the treaty 
promises which were made to the 
Indians by the federal government 
in 1851-2. The legislature of Cah- 
fornia in 1852 appraised the pro- 
posed reservation lands to be worth 
then "not less than $100,000,000." 
The just value of these lands and 
other promises, it is contended, 
should be worth today a much larg- 
er amount. ^ 



b'EBRUARY 12, i93o 




Lawmaker Asks Congress t( 
"Do Something" for 
S. Tribesmen 



^Asf^^ciatrd Press Leaned Wire) 
WASnisGTOy!, Feb. 12.— Repre- 
sentative John Stevens McGroarty, 
Democrat, California, Congressional 
sponsor of the Townsend old age pen- 
sion plan, today came to the defense 
of the American Indian. 

McGroarty told a House Indian af- 
fairs subcommittee that Congress was 

"done with stalling" and was "goinc 
right ahead during this session" with 
a comprehensive investigation of the 
bureau of Indian affairs. 

"This is a thing that has been 
boiling Inside me ever since I was 
a boy," McGroarty said. "The 
country at large knows that this 
bureau has been an infamous # 
thing. Is it still that?" 

The committee was hearing charges 
against Indian Commissioner John 
Collier, and was discussing a petition 
demanding Collier's dismissal. 

Frank Bruner, president of tlie 
American Indian Federation, charged 
that Indian delegations which had do- 
sired to testify in favor of Collier's 
dismissal had been prevented because 
the Indian bureau would not advance 
funds for the trip to Waslilngton. 

The Wheeler-Howard Indian bill of 
1934 was attacked by Alice Lee Jam- 
erson, who said she represented tj 
Seneca nation of Indians of norti>«rn 
New York state. 





■ y 



IsAN DitSiiO, CAL., rjsnejr 
FEBRUARY 8. 1»«5 



Water ,. 

* Rises Behind Capitan Dam 

'V-^M— ^ 

A six-word sentence in^ a water Pyle said. "We understand that they 



I bureau report yesterday wrote the 
final chapter of the Indian occupa- 
tion of the San Diego river territory 
[above El Capitan dam site. 

"All Indian habitations have been 
I removed," Hydraulic Engineer Pyle 
wrote the city council, as rising wa- 
ters of the San Diego river behind 
El Capitan dam, began backing over 
the site of the ancestral homes of 
the Capitan Grande Indians. 

"Many of the Indians remained 
until the last, getting out wood or 
pasturing their remaining cattle,' 



are all now at the Barona ranch 
near Ramona or at the former Bar- 
on Long ranch near Alpine, both of 
which were purchased by the In- 
dian bureau for reservation pur- 
poses." 

The city paid the government for 
the old reservation land needed for 
,E1 Capitan reservoir and the Indian 
bureau in turn arranged for removal 
of the Indians. Under the terms of 
the city's purchase of the land the 
Indians were permitted to remain, 
if they wished, until the city needed 
the land for water storage purposes, ' 






n?..*;: 








>/^^ e^ 



I 



^^^^/^'^vC '2-/^/. 




c^<^ 



..c>^^ '^^'^ 



y-z-c-^ 



I 



\ 



r~ - ' ■ „ ^ _ , 

Honey, — Since the introduction of bees to the Pacific coast the 



Indians have acquired a taste for honey. The climate being mild 
the bees increase rapidly and ma ny swarms yearly e scape to trees 



and rocks, thus giving the Indian a chance to obtain the honey. 
Some California Indians have domesticated the wild bees. In 
Southern California the Indians cut down the trees containing 
bees, put them in a sack, carry away the honey to eat and sell the 
bees for one dollar a swarm, the purchaser taking all risks of get- 
ting a queen. Bees in a sack, for sale by an Indian, are surely a 
novel article of trade. 



u 



t)- 



^^ 



M 




\^V^ - li5H 










»••*• 




Indiana from -".„«^^X in'ja!k- 

son Valley April 2^. "*;«" Marking i 

„ ..-rv" lastins; three days. .1 

* ^ . ■ „f the DigRer Indian 01 ) 
the decaion of \'"'' J;'^; ^^^ after- 
Superior California to lorev r 
Jr^s discard that name .^o' ^he ^^^^^ 
uks. an al'.egoncal burning ^^^^^^ 

of the Digger -nj^^^^^^^^^^ 

Valley. AP'-''f ' ' .^jbe The burning 
annual cry o^ ^jf ';^^3'; ,^ the public 
eeremony -f.f "crptain Charley'.*' 
'';" ^„ ackBon VaUey. three miie J 
place, m Jackso ^.^^ ^^^^,^ ^ 

''"" /"T; in tarfeathered costume 
^ar dance in tu i i j^,,^. 

around the v.ct.m. The tub ,^ 

hue dances will alsobegiven^ 






^:90 



Name 



to Celebrate at Great Rally 



-^ STOCKTON BECOKD. April 16.-The Indians 

f ACKSON OFFICE STOCKTON « ^^jj ^^^^^^ 1„ jackson 

J from aU sections of Northern '^ .^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^p^, 

'•valley, April 2*. v^hcre wlU J« hem J^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ discard that 

07 marking the decision o£ ^^/^ f ^^^^ .^j t,urning at the stake of the 

,ame tor the ^--rfirnubuf April 27^ Captain Charleys ph^e. 3 
Digger Will I'o held in P-iWA^^^ ^^„,, a war dance In full costume 
mllos from lone ^he -Memvus^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^j ^,^^ ^^ gl^^„. 






RTOCKTOK. rJ}.L. RECORD. 
APRIL 21, 1»S 



*• P' CALL 
APRfU 21, 19Ci 



S82 



'Dis§er[ Indian Now 
-^'^'m^tongs to Past 

Sp^oiftl Dispatch to The Oall. 

lONE, April 21.— Indians are leav- 
ing: for their homes in all parts of 
the state today, following impressive 
ceremonies that have been held here 
the past two days. Yesterday the 
"Digger" Indian was burned in ef- 
figy, and the California Indian will 
no longer be known under that 
name. Picturesque tribal dances 
formed part of the ceremony. 




EFFIGV; HIJED 




IMewucks, With Great Cer 
emony J Celebrate Pass- 
ing of 'Old Man Digger' 



ZONE, April 21. — Burned at th©" 
stake amid the jeers and taunts of 
hundreds of Warriors in full re- 
galia, and with their faces covered 
with war paint, an .effigy repre- 
senting the hated name of Digger 
^\ as consigned to oblivion yester- 
day afternoon at a ceremonial 
gathering of the tribesmen from a 
half uo'ssen counties of Northern 
California. 

And with the burning it was an- 
nounced that the name of Digger 
had been replaced by the more fit- 
ting title of 'Mewucks, by which 
this group of the surviving Cali- 
fornia aborigines will hereafter be 
known. 

The colorful ceremonial came as 
the climax of a three-day gather- 
ing of the Indians. As the flames 
died, down a war dance waM 
staged, followed by the.Tubil and 
loohue dances, used by the Indians 
only on the most solemn and 
fiignifirant occasions. 

The burning was staged on 
Charley's place, in Jackson valley, 
five miles from here. A largo 
throng of curious ' white people 
watched the pageant. 

Chief William -Fuller of tiie 
Tuolumne reservation presided a.=i 
master of ceremonies. Alfred < '. 
Gillis. a Wintoon Indian from 
Balrd. on McCIoud river, was thd 
orator of the occasion. Frederic? 
G. Collttt, executive officer of t'n« 
Indian board of co-operation, also 
addressed the gathering. 







r y Indian 



m 



Effigy by Tribes 



Gorgeous Indian blankets and 
conventional American "store 
clothes'* mtng-lcd today, when In- 
dians of Amador and neighboring 
counties gathered at lyne In prepa- 
ration for the solemn rue of burn- 
ing in effigry the ''Digger" Indian. 

The ceremony, which will take 
place at 2:30 o'clock tomorrow 
afternoon, is the culmination of 
successful efforts of California In- 
dians to eliminate the use of the 
term "Digger" in reference to their 
people, according to F. G. Collett, 
San Francisco executive represen- 
tative of the Indian Board of Co- 
operation, Inc. 

Before the efflgy-buming cere- 
mony, the Indians will enter their 
names in the final enrollment of 
Indians which is being compiled j 
throughout the State. 



^rnj.L 21i 1924 



APRIL 24, 192-1 



IUG6ER INDIANS 



CHANGE NAME 



The 



Q*fQ 



w on Me 



ndian is noj 
'ewuckft is tlie 



more. From db^ 

official nanie of tbe Indians of this 

part of California, ^f^^^ 

Chief William Fuller, Iffthis county, 
was master of ceremonies last Sunday; 
at the close of three days of ceremon- 
ies at Jackson Valley, near lone in 
which hundreds of painted warriors 
from Northern California took parU 
Old man ''Digger" was burned at the 
stake in effigy, representing the pass- 
ing of the hated name. 

Registration of the Indians through- 
out the State has just been completed 
so that they may obtain the share due 
them from the federal government un- 
der the old treaties a settlement that 
has long been deferred. 



Djgger Indian Is Burned At 
Stake In Effigy At Annual 
''Cry" Of Mewuks In Amador 

ON5U4n|^or5!o.), Ayril 21.— The Digger Indian is no more. 
Jeer 




I Jeer^ml macke(^y more than 600 Indians gathered at 
1 the l2nnual ^y^ of the Mewuk Indians at Captain 
Charlie's place nea^Tiere yesterday, he was burned at the stakfe 
in effigy while a picked group in full Tegalia did a war dance 
about the victim. 



The burning, while typifying ac-^ 
cording to the Indian allegory the 
culmination of a long hunt for the 
prisoner, actually marked the aban- j 
donment of the name Digger Indian | 
by all of the Indian tribes in the 
state. The Mewuks were the last 
to officially gain their tribal desig- 
nation. 

First Appeared In Ttah. 

The name Digger, the Indians 
Iclaim, first made its appearance in 
Utah. It is believed to have been 
applied by the whites because of 
the Indian custom in the early gold 
days of digging for roots. Then, as 
the migration continued westward, 
the settlers continued to use the 
same appelation for all tribes. 

The Digger in the Indian alle- 
gory came from Utah to Nevada, 
then to the Tiutes of Pit River, 
then to Modoc County, Shasta Coun- 
ty, Humboldt County and down 
into the South. Spurned by every 
tribe, he became an outcast and 
sought shelter in the territory of 
the Mewuks. Here he remained 
hidden, refusing to leave, until his 
recent capture and death yesterday 
at the stake. 

ChiefH Apply Torch. 

Chief Buckner, a former leader 



of the Mewuks, and Captain 
Charlie applied the torch. 

The Mewuk "cry," an annual 
ceremony in honor of the dead, be- 
gan Friday with Indians present 
from all parts of the state. The 
first day and night were spent 
mourning for the departed members 
of the tribe in the roundhouse. 
Emerging the next morning, the 
faces of the mourners were washed 
In accordance with a former cus- 
j tom and the Indians started a two- 
iday program of feasting and merry- 

I making. 

Speakem At 3Ieetlng. 

Among the speakers were William 
Puller, one of the emissaries to 
Washington, who spoke in the In- 
dian language. A. C. Oillis, Indian, 
told the history of the Digger In- 
dian. F. G. Collett of the Indian 
Board of Co-operation told of ef- 
forts to secure Indian rights. 

A baseball game was held yester- 
day afternoon between the lone 
and Auburn Indians. Dancing of 
the Tubll and Loohue dances, typi- 
fying happiness, concluded 1*"^ 
gathering. 






ifi 



ainorma 



Indi 



lans 



Freed of Name, Digge 



(From the Indian» Herald.) 

That iffcn^fc/queation, *'Wha.t*s In hUinlliatlng and ap'pro/l3rious. It will, 
a nani/?"fc*^sn't suggSkt^fhe pro- therefore, he rep-laced by the name 
verbial anij-xj^fr to Oa-iifoTrnia Indians, j 'Mewuk' wiilch, upon accepted eth- 
In fact, they resent so idignantly the j nological authority, is the true trib.'.l 

li designation of these India'ns." 
• Through the efforts of the Indian 



apipllcation of the nieaningless nam 
*'r)%ger" to their jpeople that an ap-. 
p^l was made to the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs to eliminate it frorti 
oflBeial use by .the Bureau. 

Thay the persistent and faithful ef- 
f ort$i ctf the^ nine delegates rfe'present- 
ing-tlile. CaUfOTnia Indians have borne 
fruit ift shown by the follcnving quo- 
tation from an order received by the 
Super^wtendeilt of the Sacramento 
Agonx^y from t|he Oommlssionor 



Boar4 of Cooperation and the nine. 
rejyreSentatives of California Indian.i, 
an apical was made early in 19 22 to 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to 
effect the eliminiation of the term 
"Digger" as erroneously applied to 
various Indian tribes throughouit the- 
Nonthwest. Dr. G, . Hart Merriam, 
one of the world's leading biologists 
ot I and a research associate at the Smith - 
a'lsonlan Institution, also worked un* 



Indian Affairs. 

**}^^reaifter the term 'Digger/ aa I tiringly to secure the discontinua-nce 
re<|>re^en(tl^g the name of a tribe of | of the name. Dr. Merriam has malde 
Indians fh- the Sacramento jurisdic-^ an exhaustive study of C^i-lifornia In- 
tlon.^oid' so appeitring: in the record* diasns, their various lang^iages and 
of this tialirea^yvwi?U be diacontiniied, * tribal customs. Years of clase as- 
o»bje!cition h^viri^ come from some of sociation with an intensive study of 
the Imdiaiha thus designated and from these people have given him an in- 
ot hers that this term is one of con- timate understanding of their ipsy- 
teTnipt and r<[garded by th^ Indians as ohology and their intense racial pride 






.•**^. 



'^^ '^ »^ 4-« ft * vy «.|i*i.ii X JL AlfKirz m 



ite^ 



Indians Hold Pow-Wow 

Th? Indiahsvof^his district met 
last week at Captaip Charlie's place 
south of town a few miles for a big* 
pow-wow and to officially rid tberp- 
selves of the old title of ••DiKjrer'' 
for the more jrenteel name of *'Me- 
wucks/' An effigy of the object- 
ionable term Digger was burned at 
the stake, and general jollifioation. 
last Sunday. Afterwards, many of 
the Mewucks jumped into their 
cars, "'stepped on it'' and were soon 
speeding toward their homes, while 
others rode behind with old Dobbin 
in the wagons, and still others 
walked. Hoyv^vier. the meeting was 
to consider imatfers of importance 
ancj flve pr sijc counties were repre- 
sented. 






i 



vi^t£)wife Indian Tribe B urns ' Vld Man Digg. 

m Bice 



99 • 





«£SEAT APttlCATIO?! 
OF ISAME D/GCEK 



Mark 



Tho upper picture shows the circle of Indians gathered around the burning effigy of ''Old Man Digger" on the lone Reservation. At the right is a close-up view 
of "Old Man Digger" himself. At the upper left is the leader of the dancers who chanted his passing. The trio of speakers at the exercises: Alfred C. Gillis (left), 
Fi'odex'ick'o. CoUett (center) and Chief William Fuller (right) appear at lower center. The other snapshots show types noted at the gathering by the Record camera man. 



Ask W lute Men to Use the 
Original and More Musi- 
cal Term "Menuk'' to 
Identify Tribe 



special to the Record 
10N15. April 2C.— Old Man Digger 
U no more. The Mewuk Indian 
^ribe ^vh.cb inhabits the tier of 
Mother Lode counties extending 
;rom Mariposa on the south to Nc- 
vada county on tho north, ana 
uliich was formerly quite numer- 
.,U8 in many of the valley counties. 
.^elebratea his pasHin^; at th« lone 
roaervali-.n last Sunday afternoor 

The Indians, to the. number of 
so-voral hundred, iiss^nibled trom 
diHUirl puinia to enroll in Ihecen- 
su.^ b«ing taken by tho j^ovcrnmeut 
in ronnfiction ^viU^ -the claims bo- 
Uy^' .pressed by ihe tribesmon 
ak'iiinst the government for coin- 
t.onFaiion for hinds which were 
vrumised them under federal treat- 
ion l>ut which were ruthlessly dis- 
regarded. A iwo-day fete was held 
in connection with the gatherum, 
cjlmiuating in a wierd ceremony at 
" SO f/clock Sunday afternoon when 
an aifigy labeled '•Digger*' and well 
fcoalied ^^ith f^-asoUne. was touched 
Mlih a li^-hted torch. A.s the flames 
»#1iot skyward, barefoot Indians with 
cheeks painted and heads decorated 
v/ith feathers, danced and chanted 
indicating joy that a hated name 
had passed. 

••Digger Indian is no more, saia 
n bronzed cheeked man from Tuol- 
umne in explainiuK the ceremony 
to a StocUton high school boy. 
"Now^ only Mr^wuk remains.*' 

Wherfcjat the grizzled old MeWuk 
V arrior who had applied tho torch 
pruntcd and remarked, "Indians is 
just liUe nigger-^want to bo called 
colored man." 

Tho torch' bearer might, have 
iM.fMi attempting a bit of light 
veined humor. But ho never smiled. 
If the fervor of the Indian orators 
who addressed the throng, both in 
woll Bpoken English and in the 
native diah^H of tho Mewuks, was 
Indicativo of tho state of minds of 
those of their people who were 
present, you may rest asaured that 
the grizzled torch bearer was not 
essaying a joke. He was very serl- 
ouyly attempting to state a solemn 
I'act in terms of common and easy 
•omprehcnslon. 
The term "Digger" as applied to 




tho Indians is deeply resented. Al- 
fred C Gillis, a highly edu-catcd 
nu'lrnber of the ^Vintoon tribe on 
McCloud river, who was one of the 
fpeakers of the day, in addressing 
the assembled throng, declared that 
the" white man on coming AVest, 
first applied the name "Digger" to 
the Piutes. ^Vhen he learned his 
mistake, ho ceased to apply the 
term intended to designate inferi- 
ority. The proud Utes of Utah 
wero^ next to throw off the hated 
name and insist on and command 
th<i respect of their white brothers. 
•Apd so," said Mr. McGiins, "Old 
Man Digger moved "West to the 
Monos and finally crossed the 
n^ountains and remained for a time 
^\ith tho Wintoons. lie even 
crossed San Franci.«<co hay and went 
down among the Mleslon tribe. The 



white man ignorantly finally as- 
signed him to a place among the 
Mcwuks. Today, we are going to 
celebrate his passing. 

"The term 'Digger* applied to the 
Mewuks or to any other tribe, is 
an inyult to the Indian. We have 
heard of Jewish people referred to 
as Shecnies. Italians as Dagoes and 
Mexicans as Greasers. AVhen you 
call an Indian a Digger, you offend 
arid insult just as surely as you do 
when you apply any of these othc 
names to other races. 

Chief 'William Fuller of Tuolumne 
presided over tho ceremonies. Fred- 
erick (j. Collett, editor Of the Cali- 
fornia Indian Herald and executive 
secretary of tho Indian board of 
co-operation, was one of the prln^ 
clpal speakers, being tho orfly white 
man on tho program* Mr, CoUett 



paid tribute to the honest traiis of 

the Indian and commended him to a 

more kindly consideration. He told 
how tho Indian hud established 
the right of citizenijhip in a recent 
supreme court decision and he 
stated that there were now over 
3000 Indian children attending the 
public schools of California. Indian 
boys, he said, had won high scholar- 
ships in the colleges, demonstrating 
that the red man is tho equal of his 
white brother. 



NDIAN HERALD 



C ^^^^SX UXH 



MEWUK INDIAN TRIBE BURNS "OLD MAN 
DIGGER" IN EFFIGY AT lONE FESTIVAL 



Gaily Bedecked Redmen Dance as Flames Ascend 
Resent Application of Name Digger 



Ask White Men to Use the Original and More 
Musical Term "Mewuk" to Identify Tribe 

Old Man Digger is no more. The Mewuk Indian 
tribe which inhabits the tier of Mother Lode coun- 
ties extending from Mariposa on the south to Ne- 
vada county on the north, and which was formerly 
quite numerous in many of the valley counties, 
celebrated his passing at the lone reservation last 
Sunday afternoon. 

The Indians, to the number of several hundred, 
assembled from distant points to enroll in the cen- 
sus being taken in conection with the claims being 
pressed by the tribesmen against the government 
for compensation for lands which were promised 
them under federal treaties but which were ruth- 
lessly disregarded. A two-day fete was held in 
connection with the gathering, culminating in a 
wierd ceremony at 2:30 o'clock Sunday afternoon 
when an effigy labeled **Digger" and well soaked 
with gasoline, was touched with a lighted torch. 
As the flames shot skyward, barefoot Indians 
with cheeks painted and heads decorated with 
feathers, danced and chanted indicating joy that 
a hated name had passed. 

*' Digger Indian is no more," said a bronzed 
cheeked man from Tuolumne in explaining the 
ceremony to a Stockton high school boy. **Now 
only Mewuk remains." 

Whereat the grizzled old Mewuk warrior who 
had applied the torch grunted and remarked, "In- 
dians is just like a nigger — want to be called 
colored man." 

The torch bearer might have been attempting a 
bit of light veined humor. But he never smiled. 
If the fervor of the Indian orators who addressed 
the throng, both in well spoken English and in 
the native dialect of the Mewuks, was indicative 
of the state of minds of those of their people who 
were present, you may rest assured that the griz- 
zled torch bearer was not essaying a joke. He 
was very seriously attempting to state a solemn 
fact in terms of common and easy comprehension. 
The term "Digger" as applied to the Indians is 
deeply resented. Alfred C. Gillis, a highly educated 
member of the Wintoon tribe on McCloud river, 
who was one of the speakers of the day, in address- 
ing the assembled throng, declared that the white 
man on coming West, first applied the name "Dig- 
ger" to the Piutes. When he learned his mistake 
he ceased to apply the term intended to designate 
inferiority. The proud Utes of Utah were next to 
throw off the hated name and insist on and com- 
mand the respect of their white brothers. "And 
so," said Mr. Gillis, "Old Man Digger moved West 
to the Monos and finally crossed the mountains 
and remained for a time with the Wintoons. He 
even crossed San Francisco bay and went down l. 
among the Mission tribe. The white man ignorant-^ 
ly finally assigned him to a place among ther^_ 




CALIFORNIA IN 



Mewukas. Today, we are going to celebrate his 
''Td'ten. 'Digger" -PPl-cJ to the Mewuks or 

to any other tribe, is an nisult to tl^«/"f ^"-^^ee. 
have heard of Jewish people referred to as bhee 
nLs! Italians as Dagoes, and Mexicans as Greas^ 
ers When you call an Indian a Digger, you 
'offend and i/sult just as surely as you do when 
vou aoplv any of these other names to other races. 
^ Chief WUliam Fuller of Tuolumne presided over 
the ceremonies. Frederick G. Collett, editor of 
t e California Indian Herald and executive secre- 
te rv of the Indian Board of Co-operation, was one 
ofThe principal speakers, being the only white man 
1 the^program.^ Mr. Collett paid tribute to the 
ones? t'rait! of the Indian and commended Ijim to 
^ mnrp kindlv consideration. He tolcl now tnc 
ndlThad eiUlished the right of citizenship in 
a recent supreme court decisim. ^"^J^^^^^^^ ^^^ 
thnt there were now over 3,l)UU inaian cniiurcu 
attending th^ public schools of California. Indian 
bovs he said, had won high scholarships m the 
coHekes! demonstrating that the red man is the 
equaf of his white brot her.-S tockton Record. 

SOME DISPOSSESSED AMERICANS 

^miAsixtv years ago the Federal Government 
neloS^i 18 treaties' with the ^-^^^^^ 
California, under the terms of which/ the tribes 
Accented \3 reservations, comprising y>""t 7,500,- 
?)^ .c;es\>f land not especially, de/ired by the 
whites anS surrendered their claim/ to their od 

ui tS'g grSinds. The Government /greed in addi- 
f^Tuf the erant of land, to prov/e schools and 
r hSs'and^;, furnish clothing ^f^f^J^^^fZ 

and the neces^ry 7P\^™^,"t!iX)^;'' But al- 
thp further vaUie of about $1,»UU,UUU. cut, ai 

SL^rXotia.^^ .he trea.ies£re never ratified 

White man Lu ♦ j ;^ result the Call- 

KflnTan" .tt^ny o,(,er tribes ,hrot;,ghout 

1" fo: tam oS^Sot 20 A al.l,o.,gh under toler- 

hl? livSL? condUions most\Indian tribes show a 
able living eoiiai^^ 4 contrary to 

'the reports o S.e snperficS observers, is strong 
the reports o i ^^^^^ extremely 

i'rofifrem'inteTt? suit'able .% 'heir environment^ 
prontient 1^^^^ teachable, as the 

;«ct or"hr:;:lssion fathers V making artisans 

»"Jem!nr it' *Tot'"?ronsisten. for a Nation 
1 • 1 ,^r >tr-rts birds and other forms of wild life 
;;'do b'r u^ti y these impoverished survivors 
^f t'^lVhuman L whichonce possessed in fee 
simple the present territories of the United btates. 
1— New York Globe. 




NnnaaNNMoiMia 



THE DEMISE OF THE "DIGGER" AS THE CAMERA CAUGHT IT 
Scenes from recent celebration at lone when the "Digger" Indian was burned in effigy. ^^*^ 



.lvJU»>W«x<>J.(i^- 3-^«-l1tH. 




THE DEMISE OF THE "DIGGER" AS THE CAMERA CAUGHT IT 
Scenes from recent celebration at lone when the "Digger" Indian was burned in effigy. ^''^^ 



l^J^Xv^^<^^^>X^^ J--^«-V12.4 



S r. CHRONICLE 
May % ^^24 



889 



jB«0<ta, May 2, 1924. 



We Can at Least Let Them 

ia(?or TKChronlole-Slr: I am 
dl8ties«ea to note that The Clironl- 
cie's corroppondent at San Andreas 
has an erroneous Idea In "«"-» t° 
the "Digger Indians." Ho stages a 
certain tribe "changed l'^^ f ^^^ 
x,amo from ^'S^»^/"*';,'*%Jt 

-DlBser" could not be a tribal name 
,for the very obvious reason that 
neither word Is of Indian orl^n 

These IndUns' tribal «a™«» ^" 
always been "Mewuk." and as they 
be^2me weary ef the ugly name 
that'aa been wished on them and 
3 generally «-d In a d'-f'-^^^^^ 
Cay by people who wish to Imply 
tat Indians are an Inferior race 
they decided to try to have their 

orrect name recognized. Kothlns 

,ore nor l-^^^^^^J ^^. 

larrls. Humboldt Co.^May2^1934. 



SAN MATEO^aC-^IMES 
October 9> 1t^— ., 




DIGGER INDIANS 



f this section 



The jfiliv 
of. Cali^ia,XU*re Diggers," many of 
whom were later convei;jbed and civi- 
lized by the Jes]|lf3a^the Francis- 
can fathers, were ^e of the lowest 
types of the American Indian. 

In an old chronicle is found the 
following description of the California 
Indian: '^Knowledge he had none; his 
religion or morals were of the crudest 
form, while all in all he was the most 
degraded of mortals. 

"He lived without labor, and existed 
for naught save his ease and pleasure. 
In physique he was unprepossessing; 
bein gendowed with mych endurance 
and strength; his features were unat- 
tractive, his hair in texture like the 
mane of the horse, and his complexion 
as dark as the Ethiop's skin. 

"His chief delight was the satisfy- 
ling of his appetite and lust, while he 
lacked CQurage enough to be warlike, 
and was devoid of that spirit of inde- 
pendence usually the principal char- 
acteristic of his race. The best por- 
tion of his life was passed in sleeping 
|and dancing, while in the temperate 
California climate the fertile valleys 
^md hillsides grew an abundance of 
Hiible seeds and wild fruits. Such 
jneans of existence being so easily 
bbtained is perhaps a reason for the 
Ivonderful disinclination of Indians to 
perform any kind of labor. 



"The aboriginal Californian's life 
was a roving one, for they had no 
fixed habitation, but roamed about 
from place to place, fishing, hunting 
and gathering supplies. Their dialects 
were as various as are those of China 
today, and the natives of San Diego 
could not understand those of Los 
Angeles or Monterey. 

"These Indians had as dwellings the 
meanest of huts, built of willows and 
thatched with rushes. They were 
small and easily warmed in winter, 
and when swarming with vermin 
could readily be reduced to ashes and 
others built in their places. 

"Polygamy was a recognized insti- 
tution among them. Chiefs generally 
possessed eleven wives, sub-chiefs 
nine, and ordinary warriors two or 
more, according to their tvealth or 
property. In times of peace they kept 
up their martial spirit, little though 
it was, by sham fights and tourna- 
ments, their women participating as 
a sanitary brigade; they followed 
their warriors and supplied them with 
provisions and attended them when 
wounded, carrying their pappooses on 
their backs at the same time." 



'=a^ 



^ :i 



\UB SIX 



THE UNION DEMOCRAT. SONORA. TUOLUMNE COUNTY. CAUFORNIA, MARCH 21. 1925. 




i« ■ ■ ■ ■ > 




TKe Diggers 

FYom California Sketches 
■ ■■ ^11-^^^^ 



t 

t 



diana. several hundred in number, ' season he is fat and flourishing. Inlnity as he squatted there in the dirt 



gerald. 

ds I 



iJfkn^l^i 
^^rhuma 



low 



humanity. He , 



is not hand- 



By llw. 

The Wggcr InJf 
place in the seal 
if not intelligentT he 
pome; he is not very brave. He 
stands near the foot of his class, and 
J fear he is not likely to go up any 
higher. It is more likely that the 
f)lac€8 that know him now will soon 
Know him no more, for the reason 
that he seems readier to adopt the 
]:>ad white man's whisky and diseases 
than the good white man's morals 
«nd religion. Ethnologically he has 
given rise to much conflicting specu- 
lation, with which I will not trouble 
the gentle reader. He has been in 
California a long time, and he does 
not know that he was ever anywhere 
clfe. His pedigree does not trouble 
him; he is more concerned about get- 
ting something to eat. It is not be- 
cause he is an agriculturist that be| 
if called a Digger, but because he 
grabbles for wild roots, and has a 
general fondness for dirt. I said he 
ivas not handsome, and when we con- 
ifider his rusty, dark-brown color, his 
heavy features, fishy black eyes, 
cQarse black hair, and clumsy gait, 
nobody will dispute the statement. 
But one Digger is uglier than an- 
other, and an old squaw caps the 
climax. 

The first Digger I ever saw was 
the best-looking. He had picked up a 
little English, and loafed around the 
mining-camps picking up a meal 
where he could get iU He called 
JihnBelf *'Captain Charley," and, like 
n true native American, was proud of | 
his title. If it was self-assumed, he 
vas still following the precedent set 
J?y a vast host of captains, majors, 
colonels, and generals, who never 
wore a uniform or hurt anybody. He 
loade his appearance at the little 
parsonage on the hill-side in Sonora 
one day, and, thrusting his bare head 
;Bto the door, he said: 

"Me Cappln Charley," tapping his 
chest complacently as he spoke. 

Returning his salutation, I waited 
for him to speak again. 

'*you got grub — coche came?** he 
i^ke^, mixing his Spanish and Eng- 

Hsh. 

iBome food was given him, which 
hD snatched rather eagerly, and be- 
gan to eat at once. It was evident 
that Captain Charley had not break- 



that looked like battle-flags that had 

been through the war, and old shoes 

jand boots of all sorts, from the high 

rubber water-proofs used by miners 



broke forth into wild wallings and! the suburbs of Sonora I came one 
howlings, the shrill soprano of the day upon a lot of squaws, who were 
women rising high above the din, as] engaged in catching grasshoppers, 
they marched around the burning i^trotched along in line, armed with 



pyre. FYesh fuel was supplied from 



thick branches of pine, they threshed 



time to time, and' all night long the | the ground in front of them as they 



flames lighted up the surrounding 
hills which echoed with the shouts 
and howls of the savages. It was a 



advanced, driving the grasshoppers 
before them in constantly-increasing 
numbers, until the air was thick 



itc the ragged slippers that had 
.idorned the feet of the lonely single 
parsons whose names are written 
above. 

'*Me take um?** asked Captain 
Charley, pointing to the treasure he 
had discovered. 

Leave was given, and Captain 
Charley lost no time in taking pos- 
session of the coveted goods. He 
chuckled to himself as one article 
after another was drawn forth from 
the pile which seemed to be almost 
Inexhaustible. When he had gotten 
all out and piled up together, It was 
a rare-looking sight. 

"Mucho bueno!" exclaimed Captain 
Charley, as he proceeded to array 
himself In a pair of trousers. Then a 
shirt, then a vest, and then a coat, 
were put on. And then another, and 
another, and yet another suit was 
donned in the same order. ' He was 
fast becoming a **big Indian** indeed. 
We looked on and smiled, sympathiz- 
ing with the evident delight of our 
visitor in his superabundant ward- 
robe. He was in full-dress, and en- 
joyed it. But he made a failure at 
cn^ point— -his feet were too large, or 
were not the right shape, for white 
men*s boots or shoes. He tried sev- 
eral pairs, but his huge flat foot 
would not enter them, and finally he 
threw down the last one tried by him 
with a Spanish exclamation not fit 
to be printed in these pages. That 
language is a musical one, but Its 
orths are very harsh in sound. A bat- 
tered "stovepipe** hat was found 
among the spoils turned over to Cap- 
tain Charley. Placing it on his head 
jauntily, he turned tp us, saying, 
Adios, and went strutting down the 
street the picture of gratified van- 
ity. His appearance on Washington 
street, the main thoroughfare of the 
place, thus gorgeously and abundant- 
ly arrayed, created a sensation. It 
was as good as a **show*' to the jolly 
miners, always ready to be amused. 
Captain Charley was known to most 



touch of pandemonium. At dawn 'with the flying insects. Their course 
there was nothing left of the dead 
chief but ashes. The mourners took 
i«p their line of march toward the 
Stanislaus River, the squaws bear- 
ing their papooses on their backs, the 
"bucks" leading the way. 

The Digger believes in a future 
life, and in future rewards and pun- 



was directed to a deep gully, or 
gulch, into which they fell exhausted. 
It was astonishing to see with what 
dexterity the squaws would gather 
them up and thrust them into a sort 
of covered basket, made of willow- 
twigs or tule-grass, while the insects 
would be trying to escape, but would 



ishments. Good Indians and bad In- fall back unable to rise above the 



dians are subjected to the same or- 
deal at death. Each one is rewarded 
according to his deeds. 

The disembodied soul comes to a 
wide turbid river, whose angry 
waters rush on to an unknown desti- 
nation, roaring and foaming. From 
high banks on either side of the 
stream Is stretched a pole, smoothe 



sides of the gulch in which they had 
been entrapped. The grasshoppers 
are dried, or cured, for winter use. 
A white man who had tried them told 
me they were pleasant eating, hav- 
ing a flavor very similar to that of a 
good shrimp. (I was content to take 
his word for it.) 
When Bishop Soule was In Cali- 



and small, over which he i» required fornia, in 1853, he paid a visit to a 



to walk. Upon the result of this post 
mortem blondinizlng his fate de 



Digger campoody (or village) In the 
Calaveras hills. He was profoundly 



on the other side a paradise, where 
the skies are cloudless, the air balmy, 
the flowers brilliant in color and 
sweet in perfume, the springs many 
and cool, and the deer plentiful and 
fat. In this fair clime there are no 
bad Indifuis, no briers, no snakes, no 
grizzly beara. Such is the paradise 
of good Diggers. 

- The Indian who was in life a mixed 
character, not all good or bad, but 
made up of both, starts across the 
fateful river, sete on very well until 
he reaches about half-way over, when 
his head become® dizzy, and he 
tumbles into the boiling flood below. 
He swims for his life. (Every Indian 
on earth can swim, and he does not 
forget the art in the world of spirits.) 
Buffeting the waters, he is carried 
swiftly down the rushing current, 
and at last makes the shore, to find a 
country which, like his former life, is 
a mixture of good and bad. Some 
days are fair, and others are rainy 
and chilly; flowers and brambles 
grow together; there are some 
springs of water, but they are few, 
and not all cool and sweet; the deer 
are few, and shy, and lean, and 



ing for the good-natured "fool Injun, 
as one of them called him in my 
hearing. 

The next Digger I noticed was of 
the gentler (but in this case not love- 



fflfltpd that morning. He was a hun- 

i^y Indian! ami when he got through Her) sex. She was an old squaw, .vho 

hla meal there was no reserve of 



pends. If he was In life a very good interested, and expressed an ardent 
Indian he goes over safely, and finds desire to be instrumental in the con- 
version of one of these poor kin. It 
was yet early in the morning when 
the Bishop and his party arrived, and 
the Diggers were not astir, save here 
and there a squaw, in primitive 
array, who slouched lazily toward a 
spring of water hard by. But soon 
the arrival of the visitors was made 
known, and the bucks, squaws, and 
papooses, swarmed forth. They cast 
curious looks upon the whole party, 
but were specially struck with the 
majestic bearing of the Bishop, as 
were the passing crowds in London, 
who stopped in the streets to gaze 
with admiration upon the great 
American preacher. The Digger chief 
did not conceal his delight. After 
looking upon the Bishop fixedly for 
some moments, he went up to him 
and tapping first his own chest and 
tlien the Bishop*s, he said: 
"Me big man — you big man!" 
It was his opinion that two great 
men had met, and that the occasion 
was a grand one. Moralizers to the 
contrary notwithstanding, greatness 
I IS not always lacking in self-con- 
seiousness. 

**I would like to go into one of 
their wigwams, or huts, and see how 
they really live,** said the Bishop. 

"You had better drop that idea,* 
said the guide, a white man who 
knew more about Digger Indians than 
vas good for his reputation and 
morals, but who was a good-hearted 



of them, and they had a kindly feel- grizzly bears roam the hills and val- 
leys. This is the limbo of the moder- 
ately-wicked Digger. 

The very bad Indian, placing his 
feet upon the attenuated bridge of 
doom, makes a few steps forward, 
stumbles, falls into the whirling 



rations in the unique repository of 
dishes and food which has been men- 
tioned heretofore in these Sketches. 
Peering about the premises. Captain 
Charley made a discovery. The 
modest little parsonage stood on a 
steep incline, the upper side resting 
on the red gravelly earth, while the 
lower side was raised three or four 
feet from the ground. The vacant 
«pace underneath had been used by 
our several baQhelor predecessors as 
a receptacle for cast-off clothing. 
Malone, Lockley, and Evans, had 
thus disposed of their discarded ap- 
;parel, and Drury Bond and one or 
two other minors had also added to 
the treasures that caught the eye of 
th# inqusitive Digger. It was 



— his dignity was equal to any test. 
He declined the grasshoppers tend- 
ered him by the chief, pleading that 
he had already breakfasted, but 
watched with peculiar sensations the 
movements of his host, as handful 
after handful of the crisp and juicy 
gryllus vulgaris were crammed Into 
his capacious mouth, and swallowed. 
What he saw and smelt, and the ab- 
seDce of fresh air, began to tell upon 
the Bishop — he became sick and pale, 
while a gentle perspiration, like unto 
that felt in the beginning of seasick- 
ness, beaded his noble forehead. 
With slow dignity, but marked em- 
phasis, he spoke: 

"Brother Bristow, I propose that 
we retire.'* 

They retired, and there is no record 
that Bishop Soule ever expressed the 
least desire to repeat his visit to the 
Interior of a Digger Indian*s abode. 

The whites had many difficulties 
with the Diggers in the early days. 
In most cases I think the whites were 
chiefly to blame. It is very hard for 
the strong to be just to the weak; 
The weakest creature, pressed hard, 
will strike back. White women and 
children were massacred in retalia- 
tion for outrages committed upon the 
Ignorant Indians by whit^ outlaws. 
Then there would be a sweeping de- 
struction of Indians by the excited 
whites, who in those days made rath- 
er light of Indian shooting. The 
shooting of a "buck** w^as about the 
same thing, whether it was a male 
Digger or a deer. 

"There is not much fight in a Dig- 
ger unless he's got the dead-wood on 
you, and then he'll make it rough tr.r 
you. But these Injuns are of no use, 
and I'd about as soon shoot one of 
them as a coyote* (ki-o-te).** 

The speaker was a very red-faced, 
sandy-haired man, with bloo/. shot 
blue eyes, whom ] met on his return 
to the Humboldt country after a visit 
to San Francisco. 

"I first went up into the Eel River 
country in '46," he answered. "They 
give us a lot of trouble in them da^s. 
They would steal cattle, and our boys 
would shoot. But we've never had 
r.vuch difficulty with them since the 
big flght we had with them in 1849. A 
good deal of devilment had been goin' 
on all roun*, and some had been kUled 
on both sides. The Injuns killed ty-o 
women on a ranch in the valley, and 
then we sot in just to wipe *em out. 
Their camp was in a bend of the 
river, near the head of the valley, 
with a deep slough on the right flank. 
There was about sixty of us, and 
Dave was our captain. He was a 



killing "bucks." I noticed that thli 
same man was very kind to an ol4 
lady who took the stage for Bloom- 
field — helping her into the vehicle, 
and looking after her baggage. Whei 
we parted, I did not care to take the 
hand that had held a pistol that 
morning when the Digger camp wad 
"wiped out." 

The scattered remnants of the Dig- 
ger tribes were gathered into a reser- 
vation in Round Valley, Mendocino 
county, north of the Bay of San Fran* 
Cisco, and were there taught a mild 
form of agricultural life, and put 
under the care of Government agents, 
contractors, and soldiers, with about 
the usual results. One agent, who 
was also a preacher, took several 
hundred of them into the Christlatt 
Church. They seemed to have mas- 
tered the leading facts of the gospel 
and attained considerable proficiency 
in the singing of hymns. Altogether, 
the results of this effort at their con- 
version showed that they wers 
human beings, and as such could be 
made recipients of the truth and 
grace of God, who is the Father of all 
the families of the earth. Their spir- 
itual guide told me he had to make 
one compromise with them — they 
would dance. Extremes meet — the 
fashionable white Christians of our 
gay capitals and the tawny Digger 
exhibit the same weakness for th<^ 
fascinating exercise that cost John 
the Baptist his head. 

There is one thing a Digger cannot 
bear, and that is the comforts and 
luxuries of civilized life. A number 
01 my friends, who had taken Digger 
children to raise, found that as they 
approached maturity they fell into a 
decline and died, in most cases of 
some pulmonary affection. The only 
war to save them was to let them 
rought it, avoiding warm bed-roomt 
«nd too much clothing. A Digger girl 
belonged to my church at Santa 
Rosa, and was a gentle, kind-hearted, 
grateful creature. She was a domes- 
tic in the family of Colonel H . Ia 



that pleasant Christian household 
she developed into a pretty fair speci- 
men of brunette young womanhoodv 
but to the last she had an aversion 
to wearing shoes. 

The Digger seems to be doomed. | 
Civilization kills him; and If H^ 
sticks to his savagery, he will go 
down before the bullets, whisky, and 
vices of his white fellow-sinners. 



a 



was in mourning. The sign of her 
grief was the black abode mud 
spread over her face. She sat all day 
motionless and speechless, gazing up 
into the sky. Her grief was caused by 
the death of a child, and her sorrow- 
ful look showed that she had a moth- 
er's heart. Poor, degraded creature! 
What were her thoughts as she sat 
there looking so pitifully up into the 
silent, for-off heavens? All the live- 
long day she gazed thus fixedly into 
the sky, taking no notice of the pass- 
ers-by, neither speakiT^.g, eating, nor 
drinking. It was a custom of the 
tribe, but its peculiai* significance is 
unknown to me. 

It was a great ni:htat an adjoin- 
ing camp when the .d chief died. It 
was made the occ:Js;)n of a fearful 

1 ^rush were gath 



waters below, and is swept down- j fellow, always ready to do a friendly 
w^ard with fearful velocity. At last, 
with desperate struggles he half 
swims, and is half washed ashore on 
the same side from which he started, 
to find a dreary land where the sun 
never shines, and the cold rains al- 
ways pour down from the dark skies, 
where the water is brackish and foul 
where no flowers ever bloom, where 
leagues may be traversed without se- 
Ing a deer, and grizzly bears abound, aperature In front just large enough 



turn, and with plenty of time on his 
hands to do It. The genius born to 
live without work will make his way 
by his wits, whether It be In the 
lobby at Washington City, or as a 
bangeron at a Digger camp. 

The Bishop Insisted on going in- 
side the chief's wigwam, which was 
a conical structure of long tule-grass 



hard rider, a dead shot, and not very 
tender-hearted. The boy<? soficr liked 
him. but kep' a sharp eye on him, 
knowin' he was so quick o :d hanny 
with a pistol. Our plan was to git to 
their c^mp and fall on 'em at day- 
break, but the sun was risin' just as 
we come in sight of it. A dog barked, 
and Dave sung out: 

"'Out with you pistols! pitch in, 
and give *em the hot lead!* 



This Is the hell of very bad Indians— 
and a very bad one It Is. 

The worst Indians of all, at death, 
are transformed Into grizzly bears. 

The Digger has a good appetite, 
and he is not particular about his 
eating. He likes grasshoppers, clov- 
er, acorns, roots, and fish. The fiesh 
cf a dead mule, horse, cow or hog. 



air-tight and weather-proof, with an ''In we galloped at full speed, and 

as the Injuns come out to see what 
was up, we let 'em have it. We shot 



forty bucks— about a dozen got away 



for a man's body in a crawling atti 

tude. Sacrificing his dignity, the 

IHshop went down on all-fours, and | oy swlmmin' the Hver. 

then a degree lower, and. following 

the chief, crawled in. The air was 

foul, the smells were strong, and the 

ilpht was dim. The chief proceeded 

to tender to his distinguished guest 

the hospitalities of the establlsh- 



>•» 



Were any of the women killed? 
"A few were knocked over. You 
can't be particular when you are in 
a hurry; and a squaw, when her 
blood Is up, will fight equal to a 
buck." 



From California Sketches 



). p. Fl^gerald. 

InJIkn^^irfds a lo 
^^^^humanlty. I^ 
^nt, he is not ban 



He 

hand- 



By l(yr.^. P. FlVsgerald. 

The Wgger 
place in the scalt 
is not intelligent^ 
90me; he is not very brave. He 
Btands near the foot of his class, and 
J fear he is not likely to go up any 
higher. It is more likely that the 
<>lac€S that know him now wUl soon 
know him no more, for the raason 
that he seems readier to adopt the 
bad white man's whisky and diseases 
than the good white man's morals 
«^nd religion. Ethnologically he has 
given rise to much conflicting specu- 
lation, with which I will not trouble 
Uie gentle reader. He has been in 
California a long time, and he does 
not know that ho was ever anywhere 
clfe. His pedigree does not trouble 
him; he is more concerned about get- 



that looked like battle-flags that had 

been through the war. and old shoes 

• and boots of all sorts, from the high 

* 

1 rubber water-proofs used by miners 
itc the ragged slippers that had 
adorned the feet of the lonely single 
parsons whose names are written 
above. 

"Me take um?" asked Captain 
Charley, pointing to the treasure he 
had discovered. 

I^ave was given, and Captain 
Charley lost no time in taking pos- 
session of the coveted goods. He 
chuckled to himself as one article 
after another was drawn forth from 
the pile which seemed to be almost 
inexhaustible. When he had gotten 
all out and piled up together, it was 
a rare-looking sight. 

*'Mucho bueno!" exclaimed Captain 
Charley, as he proceeded to array 



he had already breakfasted, but 
wotched with peculiar sensations the 



after handful of the crisp and juicy 
gryllus vulgaris were crammed into 



,ey ma 
pyre. Fresh fuel was supplied from thick branches of pine, they threshed 

time to time, and all night long the the ground in front of them as they , ^i k . v. ^# i 

flames lighted up the surrounding advanced, driving the grasshoppers movement*^ of his host, as handful 
hills whif^h echoed with the shouts j before them in constantly-increasing 

and howls of the savages. It was a' numbers, until the air was thick .u ^ ,, ^ 

touch of pandemonium. At dawn 1 with the flying Insects. Their course his^ capacious mo^ut^^ 
there was nothing left of the dead | was directed to a deep gully, or "^' "■ -.-^ - ^ . «-, 

chief but ashes. The mourners took gulch, Into which they fell exhausted. 
\.p their line of march toward the It was astonishing to see with what 
Stanislaus River, the squaws bear- dexterity the squaws would gather 
ing their papooses on their backs, the them up and thrust them Into a sort 
••bucks" leading the way. of covered basket, made of wUlow- 

twigs or tule-grass, while the Insects 

would be trying to escape, but would 

fall back unable to rise above the 

sides of the gulch In which they had 

been entrapped. The grasshoppers 

are dried, or cured, for winter use. 



The Digger believes in a future 
life, and in future rewards and pun- 
ishments. Good Indians and bad In- 
dians are subjected to the same or- 
deal at death. Each one is rewarded 
according to his deeds. 



ting something to eat It Is not b^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

ciuse he Is an agrlculturls: that be|__^ ^ _^ ^^_ ^ ^^^ 

if called a Digger, but because he 
grabbles for wild roots, and has a 
general fondness for dirt. I said he 
^vas not handsome, and when we con- 
sider his rusty, dark-brown color, his 
heavy features, fishy black eyes, 
coarse black hair, and clumsy gait, 
nobody will dispute the statement. 
But one Digger is uglier than an- 
other, and an old squaw caps the 
climax. 

The first Digger I ever saw was 
the best-looking. He had picked up a 
little English, and loafed around the 
mining-camps picking up a meal 
where he could get it* He called 
htmself "Captain Charley,'* and, like 
a true native American, was proud of 
his title. If it was self-assumed, he 
was still following the precedent set 
by a vast host of captains, majors, 
colonels, and generals, who never 
wore a uniform or hurt anybody. He 
made his appearance at the little 
parsonage on the hlU-slde In Sonora 
o»© day, and, thrusting his bare head 
;ato the door, he said: 

"Me Cappln Charley," tapping his 
chest complacently as he spoke. 

Returning his salutation, I waited 
for him to speak again. 

'•you got grub — coche came?" he 
t^lj^, mixing his Spanish and Eng- 
lish. 
jSome food was given him, which 

h« snatched rather eagerly, and be- 
gan to eat at once. It was evident 

that Captain Charley had not break- 
fasted that morning. He was a hun- 
gry Indian, and when he got through 

hl5 meal there was no reserve of 

rations in the unique repository of 

diBhes and food which has been men- 
tioned heretofore in these Sketches. 

Peering about the premises. Captain 

Charley made a discovery. The 

modest little parsonage stood on a 

steep incline, the upper side resting 

on the red gravelly earth, while the 

lower side was raised three or four 

feet from the ground. The vacant 

«pace underneath had been used by 

our several baQhelor predecessors as 

a receptacle for cast-off clothing. 

Malone. Lockley, and Evans, had 

thus disposed of their discarded ap- 

,parel, and Drury Bond and one or 

two other minors had also added to 

the treasures that caught the eye of 

the Inqusltlve Digger. It was a 

mweum of sartorial curiosities — 

seedy and ripped broadcloth coats, 

.Tests, and pants, flannel mlnlng- 

uhlrts of gay colors and of different 

degrees of wear and tear, linen shirts 



The disembodied soul comes to a A white man who had tried them told 
wide turbid river, whose angry me they were pleasant eatmg, hav- 
ing a flavor very similar to that of a 
good shrimp. (I was content to take 
his word for it.) 
When Bishop Soule was in Call- 



waters rush on to an unknown desti- 
nation, roaring and foaming. From 
high banks on either side of the 
stream Is stretched a pole, smoothe 
and small, over which he Is required fornia, in 1853, he paid a visit to a 



shirt, then a vest, and then a coat, 
were put on. And then another, and 
another, and yet another suit was 
donned In the same order. ' He was 
fast becoming a "big Indian" Indeed. 
We looked on and smiled, sympathiz- 
ing with the evident delight of our 
visitor in his superabundant ward- 
robe. He was in full-dress, and en- 
joyed it. But he made a failure at 
ca^ point — his feet were too large, or 
were not the right shape, for white 
men's boots or shoes. He tried sev- 
eral pairs, but his huge flat foot 
would not enter them, and finally he 
threw down the last one tried by him 
with a Spanish exclamation not fit 
to be printed in these pages. That 
language Is a musical one, but Its 
orths are very harsh in sound. A bat- 
tered ''stovepipe" hat was found 
among the spoils turned over to Cap- 
tain Charley. Placing It on his head 
jauntily, he turned tp us, saying, 
Adios, and went strutting down the 
street the picture of gratified van- 
ity. His appearance on Washington 
street, the main thoroughfare of the 
place, thus gorgeously and abundant- 
ly arrayed, created a sensation. It 
was as good as a *'show" to the jolly 
miners, always ready to be amused. 
Captain Charley was known to most 
of them, and they had a kindly feel- 
ing for the good-natured "fool Injun," 
as one of them called him In my 
hearing. 

The next Digger I noticed was of 
the gentler (but in this case not love- 
lier) sex. She was an old squaw, who 
was in mourning. The sign of her 
grief was the black abode mud 
spread over her face. She sat all day 
n^otionless and speechless, gazing up 
into the sky. Her grief was caused by 
the death of a child, and her sorrow- 
ful look showed that she had a moth- 
er's heart. Poor, degraded creature! 
What were her thoughts as she sat 
there looking so pitifully up into the 
silent, for-off heavens? All the live- 
long day she gazed thus fixedly into 
the sky, taking no notice of the pass- 
ers-by, neither speaking, eating, nor 
drinking. It was a custom of the 
tribe, but its peculiai- significance Is 
unknown to me. 

It was a great ni ht at an adjoin- 
ing camp when the d chief died. It 
was made the occns;)n of a fearful 
orgy. Dry wood and ^rush were gath- 
ered Into a huge pi: \ the body of the 
dead chief was plrced upon it, and 
the mass set on fi^ ?. As the flames 



to walk. Upon the result of this post- 
mortem blondlnljslng his fate de- 
pends. If he was in life a very good 
Indian he goe» over safely, and finds 
on the other side a paradise, where 
the skies are cloudless, the air balmy, 
the flowers brilliant in color and 
sweet In perfume, the springs many 
and cool, and the deer plentiful and 
fat. In this fair clime there are no 
bad Indians, no briers, no snakes, no 
grizzly bearc. Such is the paradise 
of good Diggers. 

. The Indian who was in life a mixed 
character, not all good or bad, but 
made up of both, starts across the 
fateful river, gets on very well until 
he reaches about half-way over, when 
his head become® dizzy, and he 
tumbles into the boiling flood below. 
He swims for his life. (Every Indian 
on earth can swim, and he does not 
forget the art In the world of spirits.) 
Buffeting the waters, he is carried 
swiftly down the rushing current, 
and at last makes the shore, to find a 
country which, like his former life. Is 
a mixture of good and bad. Some 
days are fair, and others are rainy 
and chilly; flowers and brambles 
grow together; there are some 
springs of water, but they are few, 
and not all cool and sweet; the deer 
are few, and shy, and lean, and 
grizzly bears roam the hills and val- 
leys. This is the limbo of the moder- 
ately-wlcked Digger. 

The very bad Indian, placing his 
feet upon the attenuated bridge of 
doom, makes a few steps forward, 
stumbles, falls Into the whirling 
waters below, and is swept down- 
ward with fearful velocity. At last, 
with desperate struggles he half 
swims, and is half washed ashore on 
the same side from which he started, 
to find a dreary land where the sun 
never shines, and the cold rains al- 
ways pour down from the dark skies, 
where the water is brackish and foul, 
where no flowers ever bloom, where 
leagues may be traversed without se- 
ing a deer, and grizzly bears abound. 
This is the hell of very bad Indians— 
and a very bad one It is. 

The worst Indians of all, at death, 
are transformed into grizzly bears. 

The Digger has a good appetite, 
and he is not particular about his 
eating. He likes grasshoppers, clov- 
er, acorns, roots, and fish. The fiesh 
of a dead mule, horse, cow or hog, 
does not come amiss to him — I mean 
the flesh of such as die natural 
deaths. He eats what he can get, and 



Digger campoody (or village) in the 
Calaveras hills. He was profoundly 



What he saw and smelt, and the ab 
seDce of fresh air, began to tell upon 
the Bishop — he became sick and pale, 
while a gentle perspiration, like unto 
that felt in the beginning of seasick- 
ness, beaded his noble forehead. 
With slow dignity, but marked em- 
phasis, he spoke: 

''Brother Brlstow, I propose that 
we retire." 

They retired, and there Is no record 
that Bishop Soule ever expressed the 
least desire to repeat his visit to the 
Interior of a Digger Indian's abode. 

The whites had many difficulties 
with the Diggers in the early days, 
[n most cases I think the whites were 
chiefly to blame. It la very hard for 
the strong to be just to the weak. 
The weakest creature, pressed hard, 



we parted, 1 did not care to take the 
hand that had held a pistol that 
morning when the Digger oanip wae 
"wiped out." 

The scattered remnants of the Dig 
ger tribes were gathered into a reaer- 
vatlon In Round Valley, Mendocino 
county, north of the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco, and were there taught a mild 
form of agricultural life, and put 
under the care of Government agents, 
contractors, and soldiers, with about 
the usual results. One agent, who 
was also a preacher, took several 
hundred of them Into the Chrlstlaa 
Church. They seemed to have mas- 
tered the leading facts of the gospel 
and attained considerable proficiency 
in the singing of hymns. Altogether, 
the results of this effort at their con- 
version showed that they wets 
human beings, and as such could b6 
made recipients of the truth and 
grace of God, who Is the Father of all 
the families of the earth. Their spir- 
itual guide told me he had to make 
one compromise with them — they 



blazed upward with a roar, the In- 1 all he can get. In the grasshopper 



desire to be instrumental in the con- 
version of one of these poor kin. It 
was yet early in the morning when 
the Bishop and his party arrived, and 
the Diggers were not astir, save here 
and there a squaw, in primitive 
array, who slouched lazily toward a 
spring of water hard by. But soon 
the arrival of the visitors was made 
known, and the bucks, squaws, and 
papooses, swarmed forth. They cast 
curious looks upon the whole party, 
but were specially struck with the 
majestic bearing of the Bishop, as 
were the passing crowds in London, 
who stopped in the streets to gaze 
with admiration upon the great 
American preacher. The Digger chief 
did not conceal his delight. After 
looking upon the Bishop fixedly for 
some moments, he went up to him 
and tapping first his own chest and 
tlien the Bishop's, he said: 
"Me big man— you big man!" 
It was his opinion that two great 
men had met, and that the occasion 
was a grand one. Moralizers to the 
cf^ntrary notwithstanding, greatness 
IS not always lacking in self-con- 
sciousness. 

"I would like to go Into one of 
their wigwams, or huts, and see how 
they really live," said the Bishop. 

"You had better drop that idea,* 
said the guide, a white man who 
knew more about Digger Indians than 
was good for his reputation and 
morals, but who was a good-hearted 
fellow, always ready to do a friendly 
turn, and with plenty of time on his 
hands to do it. The genius born to 
live without work will make his way 
by his wits, whether it be in the 
lobby at W^ashington City, or as a 
hangeron at a Digger camp. 

The Bishop insisted on going in- 
side the chief's wigwam, which was 
a conical structure of long tule-grass, 
air-tight and weather-proof, with an 
aperature in front just large enough 
for a man's body In a crawling atti- 
tude. Sacrificing his dignity, the 
iUshop went down on all-fours, and 
then a degree lower, and, following 
the chief, crawled In. The air was 
foul, the smells were strong, and the 
liixht was dim. The chief proceeded 
to tender to his distinguished guest 
the hospitalities of the establish- 
ment, by offering to share his break- 
fast with him. The bill of fare was 
grasshoppers, with acorns as a side- 
dish. The Bishop maintained his dlg- 

i 



will strike back. White women and 
rteVertld "and' expressed "an ardent | ^Wldren were massacred in retalia- 1 ^^^^^ ^^^^^ Extremes meet -the 

tion for outrages committed upon the fashionable white Christians of our 
Ignorant Indians by whlt^ outlaws. ^^^ capitals and the tawny Digger 
Then there would be a sweeping de- ^^xhibit the same weakness for the^ 
structlon of Indians by the excited fascinating exercise that cost Johtt 
whites, who in those days made rath- 
er light of Indian shooting. The 
shooting of a "buck" was about the 
same thing, whether It wa^ a tnale 
Digger or a deer. 

"There Is not much fight In a Dig- 
ger unless he's got the dead-wood on 
you, and then he'll make it rough ft^^ 
you. But these Injuns are of no use, 
and I'd about as soon shoot one of 
them as a coyote' (ki-o-te)." 

The speaker was a very red-faced, 
sandy-haired man, with bloo/. shot 
blue eyes, whom * met on his return 
to the Humboldt country after a visit 
to San Francisco. 

"I first went up into the Eel River 
country in '46," he answered. "They 
give us a lot of trouble in them daj/s. 
They would steal cattle, and our boys 
would shoot. But we've never had 
TAuch difficulty with them since the 



the Baptist his head. 

There is one thing a Digger cannot 
bear, and that is the comforts and 
luxuries of civilized life. A number 
of my friends, who had taken Digger 
children to raise, found that as ther 
approached maturity they fell Into a 
decline and died, in most cases of 
some pulmonary affection. The only 
way to save them was to let thom 
rought it, avoiding warm bed-roomt 
end too much clothing. A Digger girl 
belonged to my church at Santa 
Rosa, and was a gentle, kind-hearted, 
grateful creature. She was a dome«« 

tic In the family of Colonel H . Ift 

that pleasant Christian household 
she developed Into a pretty fair speci 
men of brunette young womanhoodv 
but to the last she had an aversion 
to wearing shoes. 



The Digger seems to be doom^. | 
big fight we had with them in 1849. A Civilization kills him; and if He 



good deal of devilment had been goln' 
on all roun', and some had been killed 
on both sides. The Injuns killed tY^ 
women on a ranch in the valley, and 
then we sot in just to wipe 'em out. 
Their camp was In a bend of the 
river, near the head of the valley, 
with a deep slough on the right flank. 
There was aliout sixty of us, and 

Dave was our captain. Fe was a 

hard rider, a dead shot, anJ not very 
tender-hearted. The boy*? sor.er liked 
him. but kep' a sharp eye on him, 
knowin' he was so quick a :d hanny 
with a pistol. Our p!an was to git to 
their c^mp and fall on 'em at day- 
break, but the sun was risin' jusi as 
we come in sight of it. A dog barked, 
and Dave sung out: 

*"Out with you pistols! pitch in, 
and give 'em the hot lead!' 

"In we galloped at full speed, and 
as the Injuns come out to see what 
was up, we let 'em have it. We shot 
forty bucks—about a dozen got away 
oy swimmin' the river.' 
*'Were any of the women killed?" 
"A few were knocked over. You 
can't be particular when you are in 
a hurry; and a squaw, when her 
blood is up, will fight equal to a 

buck." 

The fellow spoke with evident 
pride, feeling that he was detailing a 
heroic affair, having no Idea that he 
had done any thing wrong in merely 



sticks to his savagery, he will go 
down before the bullets, whisky, and 
vices of his white fellow-sinners. 




eOLOFULD, NEV.— TRinUNB 
JANUARY 25, iy-'» 

"Digger"~lndian» 

jrs' was a name shen to a 
of iribes of North American 
Jn tCallfornia. Oregon. Idaho 
Nevada and Arizona, whicli 
speak wid/y different languages and 
comprise a number of distinct ilneuis 
tic stocks. The name is u.sed L; 
clall, to designate the Bonnoclj, Piute 
and „u.er Shoshonean tribes known to 
u^ roots extendvely for food and 
Who are hence 'diggers" (in E„g„sJ"' 
f>n It s a coincidence that the termi' 
nal syllables "dika" and "tlka" ire 



'\ ,. **- 



^msm 



^n^BB^ 



EPTTTTT^ICAN 

AUGUST 6, 1934 



CALIP. 



LEGENDS OF THE DIGGER INi 



TTearlyda 



eCa 



..I 



I 




eriing ofCloverdale 

Hopland Highway 
Revives Ancient Lore 

History of 'Squealing Charlie/ 'Whisky Jennie/ 
Lovelorn Maiden's Leap to Death Retold 

By^RANK L. PERKINS 

IN THOSE wonderful chains of improved roads which 
compose the highway system of California, the first links 
forged in mountainous country avoided so far as possible 
the natural obstacles interposed, for cost was a factor of 
major importance; but with a*— 



tremendous growth of traffic 
a\id a proportionate increase 

ia tho funds availOiljlc for con- 
struction, onginecrinp: science has 
HUlisequontly been cTevoted largely 
to shoilening distances between 
given points and making? grades 
less difficult to ascend and de- 
scc^nd, therefore les« dangerous. 

Attainment of those objectives- 
reducing", distance and gradients- 
has unquestionably brought the 
greatest good to the largest num- 
ber; nevertheless it has at times 
(been accompanied by certain dis- 
advantages, especially from scenic 
jand historic angles, of which many 
motorists ,are acutely "conscious. 
Inspirational so9ncs revealing na- 
ture in her various moods, fi'om 
the merely beautiful and captivat- 
ing- to the majestic, the sublime, 
are frequently denied to the driver 
\vho cHngs slavishly to the smooth 
X>a,vement. Places famed through 
association with state or national 
eveats. objects or localities em- 
(balmed in the aromatic atmosphere 
of tradition— often these remain 
hidden from him who shrinks from 
dust or mud and the rough going 
-qsually encoimtered on deviating 
from a paved or oiled liigrhway. 

PICTURESQUE AREA 

3»robably the larger number of 
t*liese interesting spots on present 
lk)y-roads will be off the beaten 
track for generations to come, en- 
joyed only by those in whom a 
healthy sense of scenic or cultural 
values fathers a willingness to un- 
dergo temporarily more or les« 
bodily discomfort. Yet, with tbe 
expansion and betterment of mod- 
ern highways, some encbanting 
district is occasionally being mado 
more easily accessiil)le. At least 
one salient project, now bappily 
Hn aecomplishment, Avhicli has been 
urged by a few public-spirited 
ritizphs for more than two de- 
cades, marks a reversal of the 
r\Ue— shortening a route bas thrown 
open a picturesque realm of his- 
toric in forest. 

On this August day the state 
Highway (Commission has finally 
eliminated from general usage the 
steep, toi-tuous and otherwise ex- 
ecrail>le road running through the 
mountains west of Russian river, 
between Clovcrdalc and Hopland, 
on which there have been many 
deplorable accidents, ineluding: sev- 
eral fatalities. In.stead the old toll 
road of much gentler grades par- 
rJleling that stream on the east 
side has become an integral part 
of the Redwood Highway. Unique 
among its alluring features is one 
of the most inuu'essive natural 
memorials on the Pacific Slopc- 
a monument towering into the 
heavens grim and sray, tradition- 
ally sacred to tbe memory of a 
love-lorn Indian 
sought surcease of 
untimely death. 



northward. from Cloverdale to 
Hopland, ITkiah, Willits and other 
markets in lumber- wagons drawn 
by four-, six-, and even eight- 
and ten -horse teams. From tho 
pinnacle of the huge rock auto- 
mobiles on the gravelly road, which 
with modern improvement will add 
in generous uu^asure to the enjoy- 
ment of all motorists, and especial- 
ly of vacationists bowling through 
the Hedwood Einpire, look like 
midget models and horses resemble 
Shetland axmies. 

During tbe i)ioneer period stage- 
drivers on this road handled tho 
reins under continual mental tens- 
ion, expecting momentarily in lo- 
calities favorable to road-agent ac- 
tivities the stern command to 
"Halt! Throw up your hands!' 
Bandits "playing solo," such as 
Black > Bart, and outlaw gang,s 
such as tho one that included 
Brown, Carr, Gaunce and Billings 
were perniciously in evidence in 
I.ake, Mendocino and northern So- 
noma counties, and shipments of 
cash or bullion were customarily 
guarded by shotgun messengers. 
Old Jim Miller, a veteran driver, 
once raced a bullet-riddled stage to 
the nearest village and safety; 
thereafter he proudly carried a 
watch of the diameter of a saucer 
attached to a chain of commen- 
surable size, both made from silver 
bullion he had saved, which were 
I)resented to him by a grateful ex- 
y>ross comy)any. 
MARKS TRAGIC SPOT 

J^'ar jind near the titanic sentinel, 
which in all likeliliood kept frown- 
ing vigil over the mountain pass 
when Paleozoic man was dra.wing 
or carving crude inuiges of animals 
on tb(> walls of caves and the 
faces of cliffs, is known as 
*Tx)vers J/eap," or prosaically and 
less (Mi[)honiously, as "Squaw 
Rock." It marks the scene of one 
most tragic and pathetic 
recorded by Indian tradi- 



of tbe 
evcMits 
tion. 



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"Whisky Jennie," with her little daughter and male papoose. 
She earned her nickname by her capacity for fire water. The men- 
tality of this squaw was far above the average of the members of 
Digger tribes. 




"Squealing Charlie" Brown, notorious Indian bully of the Ukiah 
alley, who met death in a drunken affray at the hands of fellow 
t'ibesmen. He is here shown in the costume of a Poma (or Pomo) 
cancer. 



"Lover's Leap," the enormous rock tunneled through by the 
Northwestern Pacific railway near Pieta in Mendocino county, which 
according to Indian tradition perpetuates the memory of a maiden 
who leaped from its lofty summit to her death on the boulders of 
Russian river when she discovered the faithlessness of the brave to 
whom she was betrothed. 



mai<len, 
sorrow 



who 
in an 



ON THE JASVj of the North- 
western Pacific llailway in 
Mendocino county, not far from 
tbe little station of TMeta, stands 
this colossal rock, mai'kin^ some 
cataclysmie iij)h<'a\'al of the foree^ 



to the coming of 
white man and for many 
years afterward the Pij;f?er In- 
dians of the rep:ion to the north 
of San l«*raneisco bay were divided 
into tribes living in villages or 
hamlets; since the day of the 
early Sviani^h aettlera these have 
been known as rancherias. Until 
18!>0. or thereabout, several ranch- 
erias in IVlendocino county were 
situated near Russian river; at 
that time three or four triba.1 
units patlierod together in a set- 
tlement flanking- the present Red- 
wood llij^hway, ai)i)roximately one 
and one-half miles north of Ukiah, 
which received the name of Pin- 
oleville. A few other rancherias 
are still in existence, notably one 
near Hopland. but many descend- 
ants of the Russian river Diggers 
make their liomes on the govern- 
ment reservation in Round Valley. 
The names of certain tribes have 
l)cen pi'cserved for posterity, l)ut 
the native designations of others 
have faded into "the dark back- 
ward and abysm of time.'* 

P,()ra an<l narcMi in iTkiah, tlie 
name of tliis city bring a corj-ui>t 
form nf thrit f»r f)|d Chir-f A'okMva. 



changed somewhat when repeated 
by the same person a few weeks 
later. The degree of variance seem- 
ed to depend primarily on how 
much fire-water was in storage 
irnder tho narrator's belt. In tho 
main their versions of ancestral 
deeds, achievements and experi- 
ences were never contradictory. 

NOTORIOUS BULLY 

Outstanding among these con- 
servators of Indian tradition was 
a notorious bully on whom towns- 
])eoplo had bestowed the name of 
Charlie Brown, but who was best 
known by his sobriquet of "Squeal- 
ing Charlie,"" humorously given to 
him by reason of his squeaJvy, fal- 
setto voice — a striking, peculiarity 
in a man more than six feet tall, 
weighing about 230 pounds. When 
scber, which could hardly have 
been regarded as his normal state, 
"Squealing Charlie" was harmless 
and even good-natured; when only 
half drunk he was quarrelsome; 
when "saturated" he was danger- 
ous—the "bad Injun" of the valley 
hated and feared by the members 
of0 every tribe, irrespective of age 
or sex. 

Eventually he was stabbed to 
death in ^a drunken brawl. After 
his burial his relatives imited in 
observing a period of puiblic 
mourning in accordance with racial 
religious custom. The keening was 
so vociferous and prolonged that 
Newt Cleveland, a noted humorist 
of the county, remarked rather un- 
charitably: "They evidently want 
to escort his spirit so far into 
eternity that there'll be no danger 
of its finding the way back." 

"Whisky Jennie,'" siwuso of 
"Whisky Jack," both characters 
being well known to the whites of 
the valley, was another excellent 
source of legendary lore. She wash- 
ed soiled clothing weekly for sev- 
eral families in Ukiah and spent 
the most of her hard-earned money 
for booze, which she always shared 
with her husband. Jack was seldom 
interested in anythinpr except get- 
^ng a bottle of whisky, brandy or 
gin; his bottle was shared with 



»» 



early- day photographer of V) 
whose paintings, including that 
the papoose, "Uttle Mendocino, 
and other Indian characters, have 
evoked the unstinted admiration 
and praise of her professional con- 
temporaries. She supplied the il- 
lustrative pictures from files left 
by her father; they could have 
been obtained from no other per- 
son. Her husband, Br. J. W. Hud- 
son, is recognized as an authority 
on the life and customs of 
Diggers. 



tc^vaaiWy masked her emo- 



I 



LEADER IN CONTESTS 

IN THE HILiLiS east of Russian 
river, less than a mile from the 
towering rock, lived the power- 
ful tribe of the Miyokamas. Among, 
its braves Tokumwah (Panther 
Claw), son of the medlcinc-man,^ 
was ungrudgingly admitted to be 
the leader in contests of skill, 
speed and strength, and far less 
cheerfully w£us acknowledged b^' 
his unmated brethren a.s favored 
suitor for the hand of Wakoonaji 
(Water Lily), the only child oif' 
Ohokah the venerable chief. 

Ohokah was Jwell plfcased to 
observe the evidence of nimua 
traction between his beloved daugh- 
ter and the son of the influential 
medicine-man. To vision the des- 
cent of his high office to one who 
he was confident would worthily 
perpetuate the honor and glory of 
the tribe— ah, the Great Spirit wa*? 
indeed beneficent in His attitude 
toward the lowly creatures grovel- 
ing in the dust at His feet! 

Civil aftairs were not burden- 
some to the aged sachem.; in 
truth he derived keen enjoyment 
from the knowledge that his peo- 
ple were contented and loyal. Tne 
tribe had been at peace with all 
others in the mountain area lor 
many years, but Ohokah well knew 
that at any time some slight in- 
cident might lead to (bitterness of 
feeling and finally to active hos- 
tilities. In the event of intertribal 
warfare, he clearly foresaw, the 
head-fir(\ss of chief must ^ie don- 



e minds of the tribesmen were 

filled with wonder and vague con- 

jetetVire. Among the squaws, espe- 

clW^y, there was much surmise — 

feminine tendency to gossip 

s to have no limitations of 

, race or geography — but none 

Ifi suggest a plausible explana- 

in other than a lovers' quarrel. 

ope sprang anew in the breasts 

Qi' certain ambitious young braves, 

thchuith an eye single to wearing the 

e:igle feathers oif chief, and many 

a youthful **mahala" was secretly 

delighted by the thought that 

;>)[:ter all she might be the one to 

gf-ace the tepee of the son of 

tie medicine- man. 




OLLOWED BY WOMAN 

NE clear, cool night in waning 

summer, as a gibbous moon was 

J)ing a)>ove the mountain ciest, 

lathing tho countryside in a flood 

mellow light, Tokumwah stole 

[om his tepee ancT with lynx-like 

oad took the path that led to 

river. No sound broke the 

-like stillness of the night as 

arily made his way through 

iha 1[tm imtil he had covered 
the distance to the stream, 
from tl\e brushy side of a 
^' came the call o^f a coyote 
s mate. As its shoi-t, shar-p 
merged into a mournful 
a^nd gradually died away, 
np^ nothing to disturb the de- 
basing silence, a premonition of 
11 caused the redskin to lay his 
hand on the haft of the flint 

• * /I ^^ ^^^ *^^^^' ^"^ ^^ paused 
1^ ^tio shadoAv of a madrona to 
P|er searchinply about. Failing to 
afscem anything of a suspicious 
nuure, he felt reassured and walk- 
e<S. rapidly onward. 
fr. A ,^^"«e Of security was ill- 
founded; the eyes of 'love when 
il^ «"^^ has been aroused are 
Ib^rT^I?'^ watchful! A fow rods 
'^enmu him a woman slipped along 

silently as the wild- 

From 

I'ock, from tree to "copse 



aj lightly and 

Ji^^^^^^^^^ling upon its prey. 



the shallows was scarcely more 
than a rivulet at this season, To- 
kumwah again stopped and looked 
carefully around. In the light of 
the moon the stream mirrored like 
polished silver the stately oaks 
and the drooping willows bordering 
its bank, but the Indian's thoughit^ 
were not of the beauties olG moon- 
lit scenery. Perceiving nothing to 
cause uneasiness, he leaped from 
one pai-tly submerged rock to an- 
other, then to a mass of driftwood 
and reached the opposite bank; 
withouit the necessity of removing 
his moccasins and wading. 
DID NOT HEAR SOBS 

Ascending the mountain by a 
zigzag path, the brave, panting 
from his exertion, halted momen- 
tarilv on the ridge to regain his 
l)rcath; his tall, muscular form, 
was silhouetted against the sky 
as he gazed down the western in- 
cline Howard a flat on which the 
dying embers of a bonfire in the 
village of an allied tribe were still 
visil)le. Thus engrossed he did 
not hear the half-suppressed sob 
that came from a manzanita 
thicket through which he had just 
passed— it was the involuntary cry 
^^f-ftr.-mH>k«n heait. Only a zephyr 
heard and sighed in plaintive sym- 
pathy. . , , ,u 

Tokumwah staHted down the 

western slope with a quick, eager 
step soon arriving at a glade a 
short distance above the Indian 
community, where he seated him- 
seljf on the fallen trunk of a large 
oak blasted and buiTit near its 
base by a stroke of lightning. Ho 
listened intently; the silence was 
unbroken save by the sepulchral 
call of a hoot-owl, answered by 
its mate on the opposite R*^]^ />( 
thQ clearing. Then he whistled 
shrilly at brief intervals three 

^'Tn^a few'minutes the rustling of 
drv loaves underfoot ami the 
snapping of a dead twig showed 
that the evident signal had been 
hotrd and that somebody was 
coming from the direction of .the 
vSe He sprang forward with 
VroMlnfX arms as a comely girl 
st"n .1 into tlio open spaco; with 



enraged animal caused him to 
whirl half round with cat-like 
switness and instinctively to raise 
his arm as if to ward off an at- 
tack. The needle-pointed dagger 
fashioned from the leg bone of a 
black bear that had been aimed 
at the heai-t of the maid he was 
caressing bit viciously into his 
forearm. 

GIRL FLEES SCENE 

WITH a cry of liaffled rage in 
which there was a note o^' 
auiguish Wakoonah dropped her 
weapK^n, turned and was off with 
the speed of a frightened deer. 
Her faithless lover sto<Kl momen- 
tarily dazed and speechless from 
the shock of the unexpected as- 
sault made in such jealous fury. 
His rising anger was quickly 
throttled by a recurrence of the 
presentiment of trouble which had 
come to him with the weird howl- 
ing of the coyote. A mixture of 
shame, contrition and foreboding 
overwh(dmed him 
without any well 
he bounded aftei 



quickly!) The only answer was 
a peal of mocking, insane laugh- 
ter. 
LEAPS TO DEATH 

Now her voice had risen, gasip- 
ingly, in the somber death chant 
of her people: '*0, Great Spirit, 
guide my feet to the Happy Hunt- 
ing Cf round! There may I dwell 



when Jlnally, 

defined reason, 

his betrothed — 

but many precious seconds had 

I been lost. 

The girl's course lay back alon^ 
the ridge down which she had 
vengefully dogged the fooltwteps 
of Tokumwah. but she kept on 
past the point where tho trail di- 
verged and l(>d down to the river, 
on and up. with the speed of the 
wind, to where the ridge con- 
verged with others in the comi>ar- 
atlvely level itop. abutting on the 
prodigious rock.' She was head- 
ing direictly toward the brink of 
the precipice, where yawned the 
deep gorge of the river! 

As the awful purpose of the 
maiden flashed into Tokumwah's 
consciousness the horror- striclum 
brave strained every muscle, evcr>' 
sinew, every nei"ve to overtake 
her, for the ifi-enzied daughter of 
his chief ^^'as almost holding her 
own with the fleetest runner of 
the tribe. He was gaining, slowly 
_he foresaw, agonizingly, too 
slowly! 

\Vakoonah was witliin a hundi<'<l 
feet of tlv« fatal chasm and hei 



in peace with my forefathers ever- 
more! Grant. I pray — " The pit- 
eous appeal was silenced abruptly 
. . . Wakoonah* s body had hurtled 
inito space! 

Tobum wall's knees weakened, he 
staggered and mutely raising* his 
liands in a gesture of i^esignation 
to tbe will of Him to whom, the 
tortured ]>rince.ss had, made her 
piuycr pitched forward, face down- 
ward. Prono and motionless, in 
a.lvject despair he sprawled, while 
a minute passed — two, three! Then, 
lifting his head, ho loibbed his 
eyes 'to maJ<e sure it was not all 
a hideous dream. 

C*r<vwling to the c<}i::o of the 
cliiff. he looked down, shudderlngly. 
Averse to viewing the tragic scene,! 
the moon had drawn a fleecy | 
cloud acro«s her face and the 
abyss wa« filled with shadows. 
No sound came to his straining | 
sars but tho faint murmur of tbe 
waters, far below, intermingled 
with the whispering sadness of the 



■'.■yf r, lit -M .' 



^j■^■J 



AUGUST 6. 1934 



CALIP. 



•-r^:/.| 



LEGENDS OF THE DIGGER INB 

Opening ofCloverdale 



: : EAR 



■^r 



'm^m 






To Hopland Highway 
Revives Ancient Lore 

History of 'Squealing Charlie/ 'Whisky Jennie,' 
Lovelorn Maiden's Leap to Death Retold 

By^RANK L. PERKINS 

IN THOSE wonderful chains of improved roads which 
compose the highway system of California, the first links 
forged in mountainous country avoided so far as possible 
the natural obstacles interposed, for cost was a factor of 
major importance; but with a* 









tremendous growth of traffic 
arid a proportionate increase 

ia Xho funds available for con- 
^trviction, enginocrinp: science has 
??ul>soquontly been cTevoted largely 
to Hhoilcning distances between 
given i>oinls and maUin^ grades 
less difficult to ascend and de- 
Kccnil, therefore less dangerous. 

Attainment of these objortivos— 
reducing; distance and gradients- 
has unquestionably brought tlie 
greatest good to the larg-cst num- 
ber; nevertheless it has at times 
ibeen accompanied by certain dis- 
advantap^es, especially from scenic 
and historic angles, of which many 
Vnotorists are acutely ' conscious. 
Inspirational sc9nes revealing na- 
ture in her various moods, from 
the merely beautiful and CcHptivat- 
Ing to the majestic, the sublime, 
are frequently denied to the driver 
\vho clings slavishly to the smooth 
pavement. 'Places famed through 
association ^vith state or national 
events, objects or localities em- 
(balmed in the aromatic atmosphere 
of tradition— often these remain 
hidden from him who shrinks from 
dust or mud and the rough going 
i|sually encountered on deviating 
from a paved or oiled hig^lnvay. 

PICTURESQUE AREA 

Probably the larger number of 



t'hese interesting spots on present 
lt)y-roads will be ofjt: the beaten 
track for generations to come, en- 
joyed only by those in whom a. 
healthy sense of scenic or cultiu'al 
values fathers a Aviliingness to un- 
dergo temporarily more or less 
bodily discomfort. Yet, with the 
expansion and betterment of mod- 
ern highways, some enchanting 
district is occasionally being made 
more easily accessiible. At least 
one salient ])roject, now hapi)ily 
tn accomplishment, which has been 
urged by a few iMiblic-spirited 
riti'/chs for more than two de- 
cades, mark« a reversal of the 
j.'iij^.—ahortening a route has thrown 
oi>on <i i)ictures(iuc realm of his- 
toric interest. 

On this August day the state. 
Highway ronuuission has finally 
eliminated from general usage the 
steep, tortuous and otherwise ex- 
ecraible road running through the 
mountains west of liu.ssian river, 
between Clovcrdalc and Hopland, 
on which there have been many 
deplorable accidents, including: sev- 
nral fatalities. Instead the old toll 
road of much gentler grades par- 
Uloling that stream on the east 
r.ide has become an integral part 
of the Redwood Highway. Unique 
among its alhu'ing features is one 
of the most impressive natiu'al 
memorials on the Pacific Sloix^ - 
a monument towering into tlu^ 
heavens grim and gray, tradition- 
ally sacred to the memory of a 
love-lorn Indian nuiiden, who 
.sought surcease of sorrow in an 
imtimely death. 

ONT THE JASi: of the NoKh- 
western Pacific; Pail way in 
Mendocino county, not far from 
the little station of T'ic^ta., stands 
this colossal rock, marking serine 
cataclysmic ni)hca\al of tli<' loi'ces 



northward. from Clovcrdalc to 
Hopland, ITkiah, Willits and other 
markets in Imn^bor-w^agons drawn 
by foiu'-. six-, and even eight- 
and ten-hors(^ teams. From the 
pinnacle of the huge rock auto- 
mobiles on the gravelly road, which 
with modern improvement will add 
in generous measure to the enjoy- 
nu^nt of all motorists, and especial- 
ly of vacationists bowling through 
the P.edwood ]<]nipire, look like 
inidgct models and horses resemble 
Shetland ii>onies. 

During the pioneer period stage- 
drivers on this road handled the 
reins under continual mental tens- 
ion, expecting momentarily in lo- 
calities favorable to road-agent ac- 
tivities the stern command to 
"Halt! Throw up your hands!' 
Bandits ''playing solo," such as 
P.lack • Bart, and outlaw gangs 
such as the one that included 
Brown, Carr, Gaunce and Billings 
were perniciously in evidence in 
Pake, Mendocino and northern So- 
noma covmties, and shipments of 
cash or bullion were customarily 
guarded by shotgun messengers. 
Old Jim Miller, a veteran driver, 
once raced a bullet-riddled stage to 
the nearest village and safety; 
thereafter he proudly carried a 
watch of the diameter of a saucer 
attached to a chain of commen- 
surable size, both made from silver 
bullion he had saved, which were 
prc^sented to him by a grateful ex- 
press company. 
MARKS TRAGIC SPOT 

J'^ar and near the titanic sentinel, 
which in all likelihood kept frown- 
ing vigil over the nu)untain pass 
when Pal(M)zoic nuui was drawing 
or carving crude inulg(^s of aninuils 
on the walls of caves and the 
fares of cliffs, is known as 
"Lover's Jieai)," or prosaically and 
less rn])honi()nsly, as "Squaw 
Pock." It marks the scene of one 
of the most tiagic and pathetic 
jccorded by Indian tradi- 



e vents 
tion. 



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"Whisky Jennie," with her little daughter and male papoose. 
She earned her nickname by her capacity for fire water. The men- 
tality of this squ9w was far above the average of the members of 
Digger tribes. 





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Squealing Charlie" Brown, notorious Indian bully of the Ukiah 
alley, who met death in a drunken affray at the hands of fellow 
ibesmen. He is here shown in the costume of a Poma (or Pomo) 
anoer. 



Pb:\ lorSIA' .to the coming of 
the white man and for many 
years afterward the Digger In- 
dians of the region to the north 
of San Francisco bay were divided 
into tribes living in villages or 
hamlets; since the day of the 
early Spanish settlers the.sc haA-r- 
h^on known as rancherias. Until 
18J)0. or thereabout, several ranch- 
eria.s in ]\lendocino county were 
situated near Kussian river; at 
that time three or four triba.l 
units gathered together in a set- 
tlement flanking the present Red- 
wood Highway, approximately one 
and one-half miles north of Ukiah, 
which received the name of Pin- 
oUville. A few other rancherias 
are still in exi.stence, notably one 
near Hopland, but many descend- 
ants of the Russian river Diggers 
make their homes on the govern- 
ment res(>rvation in Round Valley. 
The names of certain tribes have 
been preserved for i)osterity, but 
the native designations of others 
have faded into "the dark back- 
ward and abysm of time.'' 

Porn and rcare(i in Ifkiah. the 
name of tliis city being a coiM-ui)t 
foini f^f t^-'t Mf olfl Chier \'cl<!»yn. 






changed somewhat when repeated 
by the same person a few weeks 
later. The degree of variance seem- 
ed to depend primarily on how 
much fire-water was in storage 
imder the narrator's belt. In the 
main their versions of ancestral 
deeds, achievements and experi- 
ences were never contradictory. 

NOTORIOUS BULLY 

Outstanding among these con- 
servators of Indian tradition was 
a notorious bully on whom towns- 
))eople had bestowed the name of 
Charlie Brown, but who was best 
known by his sobriquet of "Squeal- 
ing Charlie," humorously given to 
liim by reason of his squeaky, fal- 
setto voice — a striking, peculiarity 
in a man more than six feet tall, 
weighing: about 230 pounds. When 
sober, which could hardly have 
)>ccn regarded as his normal state, 
"Squealing Charlie" was harmless 
and even good-natured; when only 
half drunk he was quarrelsome; 
when "saturated" he was danger- 
ous — the "bad InJun" of the valley 
hatred and feared by the members 
o.^ every tribe, irrespective of age 
or sex. 

Eventually he was stabbed to 
death in /i drxmken brawl. After 
his burial his relatives united in 
observing a period of public 
mourning in accordance with racial 
religious custom. The keening was 
so vociferous and prolonged that 
Newt Cleveland, a noted humorist 
of the county, remarked rather un- 
charitably: "They evidently want 
to escort his spirit so far into 
eternity that there'll be no danger 
of its finding the way back." 

"Whisky Jennie," spouse of 
"^Vhisky Jack," both characters 
being well known to the whites of 
the valley, was another excellent 
source of legendary lore. She wash- 
ed soiled clothing weekly for sev- 
eral families in Ukiah and spent 
the most of her hard-earned money 
for booze, which she always shared 
with her husband, .lack was seldom 
interested in anything except get- 
yng a l)ottle of whisky, brandy or 
gin; Ills bottle w.is shared with 



♦» 



early-day photographer of V 
whose paintings, including that 
the papoose, ''Little Mendocino, 
and other Indian characters, have 
evoked the unstinted admiration 
and praise of her professional con- 
temporaries. She supplied the il- 
lustrative pictures from filesi left 
by her father; they could have 
been obtained from no other per- 
son. Her husband, Dr. J. W. Hud- 
son, is recognized as an authority 
on the life and customs of the 
Diggers. 



her emo- 



I 



LEADER IN CONTESTS 
N THE HII4DS east of Russian 

river, less than a mile from the 
towering rock, lived the power- 
ful tribe of the Miyokamat^. Among, 
its braves Tokumwah (Panther 
Claw), son of the medicine-man, \ 
was ungrudgingly admitted to be 
the leader in contests of skill, 
speed and strength, and far less 
cheerfully was acknowledged b^* 
his unmated brethren as favored 
suitor for the hand of Wakoonab 
(Water Lily), the only child df" 
Ohokah the venerable chief. 

Ohokah was ^vellpjfcased to 
c>bserve the evidence of rrtutueCl 



^ually masked 

e rnind^ of the tribesmen were 

fiU4d with wonder and vague con- 

jcjctVire. Among the squaws, espe- 

y, there was much s-urmise — 
feminine tendency to gossii) 
seenjiS' to have no limitations of 
t^nrid, race or geography — but none 
ctl^uln suggest a plausible explana- 
tibn other than a lovers' quarrel. 
IHJope sprang^ anew in the breasts 
ol' certain ambitious young braves, 
l^nth an eye single to wearing the 
e:igle feathers oif chief, and many 
a, youthful <*mahala" was secretly 
djplighted by the thought that 
j^jfter all she might be the one to 
•ace the tepee of the son of 



tie medicine- man. 






fcvvTft^?. 






traction between his beloved daugh- 
ter and the son of the inOucntial 
medicine-man. To vision the des- 
cent of his high office to one who 
he was confident would worthily 
T>erpetuate the honor and glory of 
the tribe— ah, the Great Spirit \va^ 
indeed beneficent in His attitude 
toward the lowly creatures grovei- 
ing in the dust at His feet! 

Civil anairs were not burden- 
some to the aged sacheni; m 
truth he derived keen enjoyment 
from the knowledge that his peo- 
ple were contented and loyal. The 
tribe had been at peace with all 
others in the mountain area tor 
many years, but Ohokah well knew 
that at any time some slight in- 
cident might lead to (bitterness of 
feeling and finally to active hos- 
tilities. In the event of intertribal 
warfare, he clearly foresaw, the 
bond -dress of chief must -l.e don- 



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OLLOWED BY WOMAN 

NE clear, cool night in waning 
summer, as a gibbous moon was 
ming above the mountain crest, 
IfUhing the countryside in a flood 
mellow light, Tokumwah stole 
pm his tepee amT with lynx-like 
ead took the path that led to 
river. No sound broke the 
-like stillness of the night as 
arily made his way through 
• '^i > r aJa^ \4^lAg^e>^€i nd 

the trail imtil he had covered 
the distance to the stream, 
from the brushy side of a 
f> came the call oif a coyote 
s mate. As its short, sharp 
^ merged into a mournful 
and gradually ftied away, 
_ ng^ nothing to disturb the de- 
basing .silence, a premonition of 
e/il caused the redskin to lay his 
hand on the haft of the flint 

^ ih ^^ ^^^ *^^^^' ^"^ ^^ paused 
ij ^^^ shadow of a madrona to 
Wer searehingly about. Failing to 
djscern anything of a suspicious 
nuure, he felt reassured and walk- 
ed rapidly onward. 

^n 1 .^^""^ <^f securitv was ill- 
tounded; the eyes of love when 
imiousy has been aroused are 
JH?r^I?'^ watchful! A few rods 
«• 1- u ''^^ a woman slipped, along 
^f f ^' ^^^^ silently as the wild- 
f-ou^f ''^^ UDon its prey. Fiom 
WK To roei<, from tree to <'Opse 



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"Lover's Leap/' the enormous rock tunneled through by the 
Northwestern Pacific railway near Pieta in Mendocino county, which 
according to Indian tradition perpetuates the nyemoty of a maiden 
who leaped from its lofty summit to her death on the boulders of 
Russian river when she discovered the faithlessness of the brave to 
whom she was betrothed. 



the shallows w^as scarcely more 
than a rivulet at this season, To- 
kumiwah again stopped and looked 
carefully around. In the light of 
the moon the stream mirrored like 
polished silver the stately oaks 
a.nd the drooping willows bordering 
its bank, hut the Indian's thoughit^ 
were not of the beauties oifi moon- 
lit scenery. Perceiving nothing to 
cause uneasiness, he leaped from 
one partly submerged i-ock to an- 
oUier, then to a ma.ss of driftwood 
and reached the opposite bank; 
withouit the necessity of removing 
his moccasin.s and wading. 
DID NOT HEAR SOBS 

Ascending the mountain by a 
/.igzag path, the brave, panting 
from his exertion, halted niomen- 
tarilv on the ridge to regain his 
breath; his tall, muscular form 
was silhouetted against the sky 
as he gazed down the westei-n in- 
cline Howard a flat on which the 
dying embers of a bonfire in the 
village of an allied tribe were still 
visible. Thus engrossed he did 
not hear the half-suppressed sob 
that came from a manzanita 
thicket through which he had just 
passed— it was the involuntary cry 
c^C^r^^^M^^n hea^'t. Only a zophyr 
heard and sighed hi plaintive sym- 

^*\okumwah stai^ted down the 
western sloi>e with a. quick, eager 
step soon arriving at a glade a 
short distance above the Indian 
community, where he seated him- 
selif on the fallen trunk of a large 
oak blasted and bunit near its 
base bv a stroke of lightning. He 
listened intently; the silence was 
unbroken save by the sepulchral 
call of a hoot-owl, answered by 
its mate on the opposite si^]<> />f 
the clearing. Then he whis led 
shrilly at brief intervals three 

^'Tn'^a few minutes the ru.stling of 
drv leaves underfoot and the 
Planning of a dead twig showed 
H at he evident signal had been 
hoard and that somebody was 
'oming'from the ^^re^tion of^tiie 
village. He sprang for^^aT( with 
we leoruing arms .'!>* a comely girl 
d into tlie open space; with 



enraged animal caused him to 
whirl half round with cat-like 
switness and instinctively to raise 

his arm as if to ward off an at- 
tack. The needle-ijointed dagger 
fashioned from the le^g bone of a 
black bear that had been aimed 
at the heai-t of the maid he was 
caressing bit viciously into his 
forearm. 

GIRL FLEES SCENE 

WITH a cry of baffled rage in 
which there was a note of 
anguish Wakoonab ilropperf her 
wea.rK)n, turned and was off with 
the speed of a frightened deer. 
Hcv faithless lover stood momen- 
tarily dazed and speechless from 
the shock of the unexpected as- 
sault made in sueli jealous fury. 
His rising anger was quickly 
throttled by a recurrence of the 
presentiment of trouble which had. 
come to him with tlie weird howl- 
ing of the eoyote. A mixture of 
shnme. (contrition and foreboding 
overwhf^lmed him when finally, 
without any well defined reason, 
he l)Ounded after his betrothed— 
but many precious seconds had 

been lost. 

The girl's course, lay back along 
the ridges down whieh she had 
vengefully dogged the fooll steps 
of Tokumwah, luit she kept on 
past the point wh(Me the trail di- 
verged and led down to the i-iver, 
on and up. with the speed of the 
wind, to where the ridge eon- 
verged with others in the compar- 
atively level top abutting on the 
prodigious roek. She was head- 
ing direictly toward the brink of 
the precipice, where yawned the 
deepi gorge of the river! 

As the awful purpose of the 
maiden fla,shed into Tokumwah's 
consciousness the horror-stricken 
brave strained every muscle, every 
sinew, every nei-ve to overtakf^ 
her, for the ifi-enzied daughter of 
his chief ^^''as almost holding her 
own with the fleetest runner of 
the tribe. H<' was gaining, .slowly 
—he foresaw, agonizingly, too 
slowly! 

Wakoonab was within a hundred 
ford, of tlv fatal ehasm and her 



quickly!) The only answer was 
a peal of mocking, insane laugh- 
ter. 
LEAPS TO DEATH 

Now her voice hiul risen, gasip- 
ingly, in the somber death chant 
of her people: **0, Grc^t Spirit, 
guide my feet to the Happy Hunt- 
ing Ground! There may I dwell 
in ])eacc with my forefathers ever- 
more! Grant. I pray — *' The pit- 
eous apreal was silenced abruptly 
. . . Wakoonah's body had hurtled 
inito space! 

Tobumwah's knees weakened, he 
staggered and mutely raising his 
hands in a gesture of resignation 
to the will of Him to whom the 
tortured ]>]im!ess had, made her 
])rayer pitched forward, face down- 
ward. Prone and motionle^js, in 
a.l>j(^ct despair he sprawled, while 
a minute parsed — two, three! Then, 
lifting his head, ho njbbed his 
eyes 'to make sure it was not all 
a hideous dream. 

Crawling to the edge of the 
cliUf. he looked down, sbudderlngly. 
Averse to viewing the tragic scene, I 
the moon had drawn a fleecy! 
cloud across her face and the 
abyss was filled with shadows. 
No sound came to his straining | 
ears but the faint murmur of the 
^'ater.s, far below, intermingled 
with the whispering sadness ol the I 



^SaES^SL 



thi'Hi' intiTestinu: spois on jjiisriit 
by-roads ^viU ]h^ ofj: thn boatoii 
truck for generations to come, en- 
joyed only by those in whom a. 
healthy sense of scenie or cultural 
values fathers a willinKncss to un- 
Uerg:o tem|>orarily more or less 
boilily discomfort. Yet, with thn 
expansion and l»etterment of mod- 
ern highways, some enchant ini; 
ilistriot is occasionally hcinK" mad<! 
more easily accessiihle. At least 
one Halient project, now happily 
tn accomplishment, which has been 
lirRc'd by a few T>u])lic-spirited 
ritizehs for more than two de- 
cades, marks a reversal of the 
nUe— shortening' a route has thrown 
o)>en a picturesciue realm of his- 
toric interest. 

On this August day the state. 
} Ugh way Commission has tinally 
clin;iftated from general usage the 
steep; tortuous and otherwise ex^- 
ccraibje road running- through t|ie 
mountains west of Hussian river, 
between Clovcrdale and Hopland, 
on which there have been many 
deplorable accidents, including: sev- 
nral fatalities. Instead the old toll 
road of much gentler grades par- 
Uleling that stream on the east 
side has become an integral 7>art 
of the Redwood Highway. Unique 
among its alluring features is one 
of the most impressive natural 
memorials on the I'acific Slope — 
a monument towering into the 
heavens grim and gray, tradition* 
ally sacred to the memory of a 
love-lorn Indian maiden, who 
sought surcease of sorrow in an 
untimely death. 

ON THB LINE of the NoHh- 
we.stern I'acific Railway in 
Mendocino county, not far from 
the little station of Pieta, stands 
this eolos.sal rock, marking some 
cataclysmic ui)heaval of the forces 
of nature ages ago. Winning its 
summit by way of the mountain 
which it buttresses, one may gazo 
almost vertically down to where 
in stormy season the waters of 
Russian river lash themselves into 
spumous fury f)n the boulders 
scatterd along its base Iiundreds 
of fe^t below. 
HOLDUPS FREQUENT 

Across the river to the east, like 
a ^tan-colored rii])bon, winds the 
old turnpike on which tolls were 
<'olIected in the day when dust- 
eating travf^lers Rot a tast*^ of 
in?irtyrdom riding in churning 
tlio,r()ugh -brace stages, when 
frf7ig:ht was arduously hauled first 
Aom Santa Rosa, and later, after 
the railroad had been extended 



I 1 1 < I ' I ' 



bull inn he had save<l. which were 
presented to him by a grateful ex- 
]>ress compMiu'. 
MARKS TRAGIC SPOT 

J''ar .ind ne.ir the titanic sr^ntinel, 
which in all likelihood ke],t frown- 
ing vigil over the mountain pass 
when Pab'ozoic man was drawing 
or carving cru<h; images of anim:ils 
on tin walls of caves and the 
fac(\s of cliffs, is known as 
*'F>over s J>^ap," or prosaically and 
less etiphoniously, as 'Squaw 
Ixock." It nuirks the scene of one 
of the most tragic and pathetic 
evrnts ri'corded by Indian tradi- 
tion. 

PREVTOi;SL.Y,to the coming of 
the white man and for many 
years afterward the Digger In- 
dians of the region to the north 
of Han Krancisco bay were divided 
into trijbos living- in villages or 
hamlets; since the day of the 
early ffpanish settlers these haA'e 
been known as rancherlas. Until 
1890, or thereabout, several ranch- 
erlas in Mendocino county were 
situated near Russian river; at 
that time three or four tribal 
units gathered together in a set- 
tlement flanking the present Red- 
wood Highway, approximately one 
and one-half miles north of Ukiah, 
which received the name of Pin- 
oleville. A few other rancherias 
are still in existence, notably one 
near Hopland, but many descend- 
ants of the Russian river Diggers 
make their homes on the govern- 
ment reservation in Round Valley. 
The names of certain tribes have 
been preserved for posterity, but 
the native designations of others 
have faded into "the dark back- 
ward and abysm of time.'' 

Born and reared in Ukiah, the 
name of tliis city being a corrupt 
form of that of old Chief Yokaya 
(or Yokayo), the Avriter as a youth 
was keenly interested in Digger 
tradition, and whenever the op- 
rwrtunity offered would induce the 
older hombres and mahalas of 
JMnoleville to recount thein tribal 
legends. These were of necessity 
obtained i)iecemeal, inasmuch as 
the Indians were in divers ways as 
temperamental as a prima donna 
or a, motion-pi(!ture star. They 
would sometimes break off ni the 
middle of an engaging recital and 
stalk away without apparent lea- 
son, and invariably would take 
offense if :i finery was interjected. 
Oftener than oth(M'wise one wo.dd 
disagree with another as to cer- 
tain details of a story; sometimes 
a tale as told initially would be 



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y.-yjC' 

.V, 






This restful domestic scene is typical of what might have been 
l»«en at Pinoleville In the '90's. The native woman in the checkered 
Idress is **Sally," who was a washerwoman for white families of 
lUkiah. Unlike most early-day Indians, she was of a cheerful nature 
land inclined to be talkative. 



<( 



deeds, aclncvenunts and e^ix-ri- 
ences were ni'ver Cx>ntradict( ry. 

NOTORIOUS BULLY 

Outstanding anion,^ tbjse con- 
servators of Indian tittUltlon was 
a notorious bully on whom towns- 
j)eople had bestowed the name of 
Charlie Brown, but who was best 
known by his .sobriquet of *\SqueaU 
ing Charlie," humorou.sly given to 
him by reason of his squeaky, fal- 
setto voice — a striking, peculiarity 
in a man more than six feet tall, 
weighing about 230 pounds. When 
soh<^r, . which could hardly have 
been regarded as his normal state, 
•'Squealing Charlie" was harmless 
and even good-natured; when only 
h»lf drunk he was quarrelsome; 
when "saturated" he was danger- 
ous—the **bad Injun" of the valley 
hatred and feared by the members 

oU every tribe, irrespective of age 
or sex. 

Eventually he was stabbed to 
death \n jx drxmken brawl. After 
his burial his relatives united in 
observing a period of puiblic 
mourning in accordance with racial 
religious custom. The keening was 
so vociferous and prolonged that 
Newt Cleveland, a noted humorist 
of the county, remarked rather un- 
charitably: ''They evidently want 
to escort his spirit so far into 
eternity that there'll he no danger 
of its finding the way back." 

"Whisky Jennie,"* spouse of 
Whisky Jack," hoth characters 
being well known to the whites of 
the valley, was another excellent 
source of leg,endary lore. She wash- 
ed soiled clothing weekly for sev- 
eral families in Ukiah and spent 
the most of her hard-earned money 
for booze, which she always shared 
with her husband. Jack was seldom 
interested in anything except get- 
ting a hottle of whisky, brandy or 
gin; his bottle was shared with 
nobody.. Jennie could drink as much 
"hard liquor" as her lord and mas- 
ter and handled her potions much 
better than he, but she was an 
aiboriginal hell-cat if provoked 
when she was intoxicated. Owing 
to- her frequent association wfth 
the whites, her command of Eng- 
lish was superior to that of most 
of the Indians of the district. Now 
and then there was reason to sus- 
pect that , she Was •'romancing" a. 
bit in the endeavor to make her 
narratives more interesting. 
VOCABULARY LIMITED 

Another good informant available 
to the writer was a sturdy but half 
blind old hombrc called "Ish-wahn- 
hee'' >lD<fccause of his voluble repeti- 
tion of those words or syllables 
when iinnoyed by the town hood- 
lums. He was a veritable store- 
house of folklore, hut his English 
vocabulary w^as so limited as usual- 
ly to make it difficult fully to 
grasp his meaning. The gift of a 
dime or some knickknack was re- 
quired to get him to talk, for his 
disposition had been soured by the 
badgering to which he was so fre- 
quently suhjected. 

A middle-aged squaw named 
"Sally" knew several legends and 
if approached tactfully while she 
was washing clothing for white 
families would relate them. Once 
started she was rather talkative; 
this was a noteworthy trait, .for 
mo55t of the Diggers were .taciturn 
unless in their cups. 

Another exception to the 
was t'Old Dutch," whose grin 
perennial; he seemed to enjoy 
versation with the whites at 
time. Nothing he said, however, 
could be accepted as factual with- 
out corroboration, for Baron Mun- 
chausen had little on "Old Dutch" 
when it came to spinning yarns 
about anything,, either current or 
prehistoric. 

"Lover's - Leap'* was obtained 
from three sources, the versions all 
agreeing- with resi>ect to the main 
thread of the legend, though there 
were differences in non-essentials: 
as to these variances the writer 
has uniformly adopted the one 
which appealed to him as the most 
intriguing. It should be added that 
so far as his knowledge goes this 
gripping story of love, treachery, 
jealousy arid despair, with its 
tragic ending, which has come 
down from father to son through 
many generations, has never been 
accorded more than passing; refer- 
ence in book or magazine, al- 



nde 
was 
con- 
any 



though it deserves indubitably to tepee were 'l>eco«ming less and 1 



rank 9^ a Digger classic. 

The author wishes here to 
knowledge his indebtedness and ex- 



press his gratitude to Mrs. Grace joined in the trilxal dances 



Carpenter Hudson, talented daugh 



s. She supplied thf Jlj 
pictures from fil^'^,^^'^: 



ana praise oi nei* protest 

temi)oraries 

lustrative pi^v«*^« *.w 

by her father; they couUl *^^^ 
been obtained from no other per- 
son. Her husband. Dr. J. AV- H"/*' 
son, is recognized aa an authoruy 
on the life and customs of tuc 
Diggers. , 



LEADER IN CONTESTS 

N THE HIIJ^S east of RUHSiaii 

mile from the 



I 



river, less than a 
towering rock, lived the power- 
ful tribe of the Miyokamae. Among, 
its braves Tokumwah (Panther 
Claw), son of the medicine-man^ 
was ungrudgingly admitted 
the leader in contests of 
speed and strength, and far 
cheerfully was 



to he 

skill, 

less 

acknowledged h^' 
his unmated brethren as favorea 
suitor for the hand of Wakoonah 
CWater Lily), the only » child 
Ohokah the venerable ckief. ' 

Ohokah was ;weU pJmmmuI- ^^ 
observe the evidence of mutuolTa, 
traction between his beloved daugh- 
ter and the son of the influential 
medicine-man. To vision the dei$- 
oent of his high office to one who 
he was confident would worthiljyr 
(perpetuate the honor and glory of 
the tribe — ah, the Great Spirit wae 
indeed beneficent in His attitude 
toward the lowly creatures grovel- 
ing in the dust at His feet! 

Civil aftairs were not burden- 
some to the aged sachom,; in 
truth he derived keen enjoyment 
from the knowledge that his peo- 
ple were contented and loyal. The 
tribe had been at peace with all 
others in the mountain area for 
many years, but Ohokah well knew 
that at any time some slight in- 
cident might lead to (bitterness of 
feeling and finally to active hos- 
tilities. In the event of intertribal 
warfare, he clearly foresaw, the 
head-dress of chjef must he don- 
ned tby youth and stren^h. And 
was not Tokumwah the s^trongest 
arid fleetest, the mightiest hunter 
of the Miyokamas? \ '' 

At nightfall Tokumwalv woul, 
pften. repair to the teepee i of h 
prospective fathfer-in-law, I whe 
the elders of the tribe woujd di 
cuss affairs in which Ohokah 
sought advice, welcome with due 
solemnity visitors froni other vil;- 
lages and oedasional'ly Exchange 
reminiscences of the heroic deedfe 
of their forefathers. He would sit 
in respectful silence, for it wa,s 
not meet that youth should be 
obtrusive in the presence of age. 
Wakoonah would sit shyly in a 
secluded nook and mend moccasins 
or sew bright- colored beads on 
garments of doeskin. Her down- 
cast eyelids would flicker upward 
at intervals and her pulse quicken 
as she met the ardent gaze of her 
lover. 

WERE VERY HAPPY 

By and iby her father and* his 
counselors would on soine pretex?t 
or other discreetly retire to a 
near-by tepee and leave the two 
young persons to entertain each 
other. FYom time immemorial 
lovers in such circums^nces have 
experienced little diffic'bHj^. Thus 
the days sped by, each suc^^ding 
sun bringing to the Indian mai 
and her stalwart suitor nothing^ 
but happiness and the promise of 
good things for the future. 

In early spring, when the trees 
were burgeoning and! grass was 
cai*peting the vales in emerald, the 
betrothal of Tokumwah and his 
winsome sweetheart was an- 
nounced by old Ohakah at a coun- 
cil of the elders, (Soon afterward 
the rumor gained currency that 
the wedding was to take place in 
the near future. Hints that the 
union was expected on the day 
before the next full moon caused 
the bashful girl nervously to fin- 
ger the bracelet of wampum worn 
on her left wrist as she lowered 
her head in embarrassment, but 
she would! neither affirm nor deny 
the truth of the report. He would 
have been 'bold, indeed reckless, 
who durst mention so personal a 
matter in the presenee of the grave 
and reserved Toltumwahi 

But the moon waxed to its full 
and waned, and agaiit and again. 
Summer followed spring and the 
grass grew sere and yellow. Yet 
no announcement of a weddi 
date came from Ohokah. Now 
was whispered that the visits 
Wakoonah's wooer at the chief 



y to gossip 
5)*€'iMis to have no limitations of 
t*nnii i-aee or geography— but none 
' Vull suggest a plausible explana- 
I on other thjui a lovers' quarrel. 
1 ope sprang: anew in the breast.s 
(-r certain ambitious voung braves 
vjith an oye single to wearing th*' 
eigrie feathers oif chief and many 
fi. youthful *'mahala" was secn^Uv 
(1|?lighted by the thought that 
.iter all she might be the one to 
prace the tepee of the son of 
tie medicine-man. 

FOLLOWED BY WOIVIAN 

U^NE clear, cool nig-ht in waning 
}l/summer, as a gibbous moon was 
ijpng above the mountain crest, 
Klthing the countryside in a flood 
mellow light, Tokumwah stole 
his te«pee and with lynx-like 
ead took the path that led to 
river. No sound broke the 
-like stillness of the ni^ht as 
[varily made his way through 
„_^^,__ -of- -^H©— r+Hatge aft^ 
the trail until he had covered 
the distance to the stream, 
from the brushy side of a 
fi came the call o>f a coyote 
s mate. As its short, sharp 
mergfid into a mournful 
and gradually died away, 
ng nothing to disturb the de- 
,^^ing silence, a premonition of 
e ril caused tlie redskin to lay his 
hand on the haft of the flint 
Iqaife at his belt, and he paused 
i^^ the shadow of a madrona to 
p|er searchingly about. Failing to 
discern anything of a suspieious 
niture, he felt reassured and walk- 
ed rapidly onward. 

(His sense of security was ill- 
fdunded; the eyes of love when 
.i0alousy has been aroused are 
keen — and watchful! A few rods 
hihind him a woman slipped, along 
a^ lightly and silently as the wild- 
cat stealing upon its prey. From 
rcjok to rock, fi'om tree to (copse 
she glided, keeping in the shadow 
wlierever possible, except when a 
bJrjd in the trail hid her from 
tit sight of him whom she wus 
fojlowing. 



frequent. The once radiant face^ 
ac- the princess was growing 
and careworn and, she sel 



aiui llu' Uiuupiiig Willows liorvitiing 
its l>iin»v, but the Indian's thought,s 
were not of the beauties of moon- 
lit scenery. Perceiving nothing to 
cause uneitsiness, he leape<l from 
one partly submerged rock to an- 
oUier, then to a mass of driftwood 
and reached the opposite bank 
withouit the necessity of removing 
his moccasins and waging. 
DID NOT HEAR SOBS 

Ascenrling- the mountain by a, 
zigzag path, the tbrave, panting 
from his exertion, halted momen- 
taiily on the lidge to regain his 
lireath; his tall, muscular form 
was silhouetted against the sky 
as he gazed, down the western in- 
cline itoward a flat on which the 



dying embers of a bonfii-e in 



the 

still 

did 

sob 



>m\i^ "to the riiver, which in 



village of an allied trilK' were 
visible. Thus engrossed he 
not hear the half- .suppressed 
that came from a inanzanita 
thicket through which he had just 
passed — it was the involuntary cry 
of a b^rok-on heai-t. Only a jsophyr 
heard and sighed in plaintive sym- 
pathy. 

Tokumwah stailted down the 
western slope with a quick, eager 
step, soon arriving at a g-lade a 
short distance above the Indian 
community, where he seated him- 
selifl on the fallen trunk of a large 
oak hlasted and humt near its 
base by a stroke of lightning. He 
listened inteMly; the silence was 
unbroken save by the sepulchral 
call of a hoot-owl, answered by 
its mate on the opposite side of 
the clearing. Then he whistled 
shrilly at brief intervals three 
times. 

In a few minutes the rustling of 
dry leaves underfoot and the 
snapping of a dead twig" showed 
that the evident signal had heen 
heard and that somebody was 
coming from the direction of *the 
village. He sprang forward w^ith 
w^elcoming arms as a co'mely girl 
hastened into the open space; with 
an aJlPectionate greeting she sank 
in(Lo his embrace. 

Drawing- her close, Tokumwah 

lowered his head and pressed his 

cheek tenderly against hers, when 

an inarticulate snarl as of some 



^*K .. Ill li.«u I»ttil tUUlt'll 

at the heait of the maid he w.'is 
caressing bit viciously into his 
forearm. 

GIRL FLEES SCENE 

WITH a cry of baffled rage in 
which there was a note (j«f 
autf^^uish AV'akoonah <lropped her 
weaiv)n. turned and was off with 
the sT)eed of a frightened deer. 
Her faithless lover sIikkI momen- 
tarily dazed and speechless from 
the sluxk of the unexpectcfl as- 
.sault made in such jealous fury. 
His rising anger was ciuickly 
throttled by a recurrence of the 
presentiment of trouble which had 
come to him with the weird howl- 
\x\^ of the coyote. A mixture of 
shame, contrition and foreboding 
overwhelmed him when finally, 
without any well defined leason, 
he lK)unded after his betrothed — 
but many precious seconds liad 
been lost. 

The* girl's course lay back alonft 
the ridg(» down which she had 
vengefully dogged the foolt steps 
of Tokumwah, but she kept on 
past the point where the trail di- 
verged and led down to the river, 
on and up, with the speed of the 
wind, to where the ridge con- 
verged with others in the comixir- 
atively level top. abutting on the 
prodigious rock. She was head- 
ing direK?tly toward the brink of 
the precipice, where yawned the 
dee.pi gorge o*f the river! 

As the awful purpose of the 
maiden flashed into Tokumwah's 
consciousness the horror-stricken 
brave strained every muscle, every 
sinew, every ner-ve to overtake 
her, for the ifli-enzied daughter of 
his chief w'as almost holding her 
own with the fleetest runner of 
the tribe. He was gaining, slowly 
— he foresaw, agonizingly, too 
slowly! 

Wakoonah was within a hundred 
feet of the fatal chasm and her 
P'ursu(M- ; Mrely half that distance 
behind when he made a final su- 
preme effoi-t to catch her and 
drawing a deep breath shouted 
frantically: *'OnuIto muh, helhoom 
cooee!" (Precious one, come back 



< > , 



uide my feet to the Happ^ Hunt- 
ing (;round! There may L dwell 
in peace with my forefathers ever- 
more! C.rant. i pniy—" The pit- 
eous apreal was silenced abruptly 
. . , AN'akoonah's body had hurtled 
inito spiU'c! 

Tobumwah's knees weakened, ho 
staggered and mutely raising* his 
hands in a gesture of it>siprnation 
to the will of Him to whom the 
tortured piim^ss had made her 
prayer pitched forward, face down- 
ward. Prone and motionless, in 
abject ilespair he si)raAvled, while 
a minute i)iussed — two, throe! Then, 
lifting his head, ho loibbed his 
eyes <to mal<e sure it was not all 
a hideous dream. 

Crawling to the c<lge of the 
eliirf. he looked down, shudderinglv. 
Averse to viewing: the tragic scene,! 
the moon had drawn a fleecy 
cloud acro«s her face and the! 
abyss was filled with shadows. 
No sound came to his strainingl 
^ars but the faint murmur of the 
^-aters, far below, intermingled 
,with the whispering sadness of the 



Qriginal Defective 






V^ 



*l-.\> '. 



with the stoicism whirl 



ter of the late A. O. Carpenter, an I heritage of the cotppen 










[\'\£\or\ca 



I 



11^) - 19SH 



I 







( 




i 




^m^ 






DIARY OF 




New Light Thrown On Early 
State History by Finding 
Narrative of First Voyage 
to Its Shores by Spaniard 



Old Archives On Seville and 
Madrid Yield New Knowl- 
edge of Myth Period of Cali- 
fornia and Western Coast 



I 



AT.AMrsOA. M>iy 5. — Out of the ^ 
f?u*;ty archives of ihn centuries a ; 
Ion:; forROtton meTiior>* of the Golden ', 
Rtato has wakened ag:ain, and th<> j 
voice of Cabrillo. early Spanish na\ i- ' 
srator in California, has spoken 
throt:g:h his ancient diary, unearthed 
by a modern Callfomian. The man 
"Who has brougrht to light this old- 
time document and others throwing 
a new light upon early California 
history that have lain hidden in the 
the Native Son California History 
Research Fellowship to Spain, who 
has just returned to his home in Ala- 
meda. 

Aiton brought with him more than 
two thousand closely typewritten 
pages of material concerning th^ 
California of other days, passages of 
history tht have lain hidden in the 
archives of Seville. Madrid and Paris. 
For the last eight months Aiton and 
J. L. Meacham of San Bernardino, 
the other holder of the 1920 fellow- 
.ship, have been investigating the 
archives of those cities in search of 
material w^hich will throw some light 
upon the dim bei?innings of Califor- 
nia. Not only have Aiton and his 
companion unearthed considerable 
valuable material along this line, but 
they have also opened up new ave- 
nues into the masses of material stiP 
remaining. 

CABUIl^X^'S DT VUY 
FOUND IN SPAIN. 

Aiton's particular field was an in- 
vestigation of that period of Cali- 
fornia history embraced in the period 
of Cabrillo and the earliest Spanish 
navigators. Tie succeeded in finding a 
diary of Cabrlllo's trip, a document 
that has lain untouched through the 
vears, and which is said to contain 
practically all that can be found 
out abotit'the voyage of the discover- 
er of California. Interesting food for 
speculation as to appreciation. or 
lack of appreciation, of values, is 
furnished by the legend someone had 
-written on* the bacJk of the document: 
•♦No import." which translated 
means, **Not Important." 

"T was certainly not of that opin- 
ion after having read it," said Aiton 
today. "T cannot understand the rea- 
son for the notation. The document 
wa? absolutely authentic. While look- 
ing for material on Cabrillo I also 
unearthed the diary of a hitherto un- 
known explorer of T^wer Califr-Ma, 
a man named Bolanos, who mii | 2 
trip up the outer coast in the v a.riy 
part of the sixteenth century. I have 
Ms diary complete. We also un- 
earthed some interesting mission 
ptuff, especially relating to the early 
davs of San Diego, and a diary of a 
trip taken by one of the padres into 
the north." 

NFAV lilC^HT ON 
AKI/iONA H1STX)RA'. 

Meacham, who was working on 
Arizona and southwest material par- 
ticularly, unearthed a complete list 
of the governors of Neuva Viscaya. 
,is all that counto' '^'as originally 
Vnown. Vp to the present there has 
oTilv been a very incomplete list in 
exi.vtence. Meacham not only has 
this list but the commissions and 
. records of each governor. I was also 
fortunate in being able to locate and 
secure a copy of the testament of 
Krj^ncisco prescindo and its diary of 
T'lloa's trip in whi^h the name of 
ralifornia is first ni^ntioned ■ 



,r^ 




Cabrillo Diary, Just Fo«n<J' 
Tells oijtat^ Discovery 

(Contmued from Page 1 ) 



ings occurred ^^1^ ^^ ^^'" *" 

^^Sarcelona --^,,rt'--rrenct 

riotings are ©^ .^'^t^TJined out elec- 
At one time strikers turnea ^^^^ 

trie lights and if it na ^^^^ 

Ifor the troops they ^" , xhis 

turned oft the water supply- ^^^^^ 
(condition existed for tn^ ^^ ^^ 

^^^J, ^^ y.uttha^ Spain is on the 
question hut tnai oi- 

verge of a fr^^^^^^^^ned by Alton 
The scholarships nue ^^^ 

and Meacham are the ^^^ 

operative since the jwax^2,^_^^=^^^ 



f essor Henry Morse J^^^^^l^.^ZT 
largely responsible fo^ ^Jf "^ Bolton, 
tion and Professor Herbert 

his successor, '^ In^^pea""!^ ^nced, 
of the work and It IS ann ^^^^_ 

hopes in a ,^hort f^e^o se^ ^^ ^^,, 
ships, established tor ^j^^g^ips are 
helf by pJoUnd Vandergrift and 
Ralph Kuykendail ^^^^j. 

Next fall Alton 13 to go j^ 

gan "n'^^/^^/ncan hfstory. He will 
^[nn'o'ntlnr S his California r- 
searches, however. 






: iv^!>Ar^>sif^^^y^ 






?7^^ 



J J. 




vyr •' 



>- 

^ 



hisiory tht liavc lain hidden tn th^ j 
nivhlvrs of Sevillo. Madrid and Paris. 
For the last eipht months Alton and 
J. T.. .\Tea'"hani of ^an T>ornardino. 
the other holder of the 1920 fellow- 
.shlp. have been invest igatinp the 
archives of those cities in Fcarch of 
material which will throw some HkIu 
upon the dim bei^inningrs of Califor- 
nia. Not only have Aiton and h\B 
companion imearthod ronsiderahlc 
\Mluable material alonj; this line. Injt 
they have also opened up new ave- 
nues into the masses of material stiP 
remaining. 

CABHILJiO'S Df \nV 
JX>rND IN SPAIN. 

Alton's particular field was an in- 
>'est1f:ation of that period of Cali- 
fornia history embraced in the period 
of Cabrillo and the earliest Spanish 
navigators. Tie succeeded in finding a 
diary- of Cabrillo's trip, a document 
that has lain untouched through the 
> ears, and which is said to contain 
practically all that can be found 
out Abobt'the voyage of the discover- 
er of California. Interesting food for 
speculation as to appreciation. or 
laek of appreciation, of values, is 
furnished by the legend someone had 
written on* the bacik of the document: 
"No import." which translated 
means, **Not Important." 

"T was certainly not of that opin- 
ion after having read it," said Alton 
today. '*T cannot understand the rea- 
son for the notation. The document 
was absolutely authentic. While look- 
ing for material on Cabrillo 1 also 
unearthed the diary of a hitherto un- 
known explorer of Tx>wer Calif^j-^ia, 
a man named Bolanos, who mii | 2 
trip up the outer coast in the ^ciriy 
part of the sixteenth century. I have 
Ms diary complete. We also un- 
earthed some interesting mission 
stuff, especially relating to the early 
davs of San Diego, and a diary of a 
trip taken by one of the padres into 
the north." 

NKW I^IGHT ON 
AKIZONA HIvSTORY. 

Meacham, who was working on 
Arizona and southwest material par- 
ticularly, unearthed a complete list 
of the governors of Neuva Viscaya, 
as all that country' was originally 
known. Up to the present there has 
only been a very incomplete list in 
existence. Meacham not only has 
this list but the commissions and 
. records of each governor. I was also 
fortunate in being able to locate and 
secure a copy of the testament of 
Francisco Presciado and its diary of 
ITlloa's trip in whieh the name of 
California is first mentioned." 

Tn Seville the work of the two 
researchers was in the general arc- 
hives of the Indes where they pro- 
rtired material of California history 
and investigated the general field for 
the Bancroft library. In Madrid they 
had the run of the national library 
and the Munoz collection. From 
Spain thev journeyed to Paris to se- 
cure material upon the French inHu- 
ence in California. In Spain the gov- 
ernment is co-operating to the full- 
est extent, according to Aiton, and 
there is hopes of the establishment 
soon of an American center for 
furthering the study of American 
history and influence. The mass of 
material collected by Aiton will be 
ready for publication by the end of 

the year. 

The research work was greatly 
hampered because of the lack of 
proper catalogues, Aiton declared. 

ASSAYS MABK OF 
lilTERARY MINKS 

'•Tt was like working a gold mine,** 
said Aiton. "We ^ would wade 
through reams and reams of hand- 
written script of the fifteenth, six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries and 
then suddenlly we would run right 
into something bearing upon Cali- 
fornia. Kvery time it gave a thrill 
and made us ready at the finish for 
more reams and reams of copy." 

"FJverywhere we went we were 
most hospitably received," he con- 
tinued. "Spain, however, is like a 
volcano .lust about to erupt. If it 
were not for the guardia civile, 
which I think is the iBost efficient 
police force ixi the world, revolution 
would sweep the country. Twice we 
were close to bomb mixups. We 
were in Madrid when T^rime Minister 
Dato was assassinated. The deed 
was Clone by three men in a motor- 
cycle side car. and if it had not been 
for the fact that no license numbers 
are required in Spain they would 
have been captured within a few 
minutes qr a couple of hours at the 
latest. We were only three hundred 
yards from the palace of the Arch- 
bishop of Seville when it was 
bombed. The door waj knocked in 
and from the roar and explosions we 
thought that a big battle had 
started. We rushed to the housetop, 
^'hich was fiat, and saw the people 
scurrying away in all directions; 
Smoke and wreckage filled the front 

of the palace. Three times bomb- 

( Continued on Page 2, Col 2) 



\^9^^ ' 



. T-,!t . 



:<?>. 



i,-.Wv.^\:..?.'//y-i5; 






':>Hi:tit'hit' 



Cab 



rillo Diary, Just Found, 
i ells ofState^ Discovery 

(Continued from Page I ) 



in^s^occurred w.hlle we were in 

At r,^t\- ^ "^ frequent occurrence 

for thf trooD« fh" ^""^ "°t l»een 
tumirt «ff ?u *^®y would have 

[ While we were'lhere Th.'r. V"^ 

iQtieBtion but that %n=,i^ ■ ® ** "° 

verse of a greal^rev^o'lt.? '" *"^ ^'^^ 

^,^^^^^^ y^^Tt^ltte P?o^ 



farTeIy«rSn^.°,ir tofZ'ltr- ^^^ 

n^ T^^^^essoi, js Increasing thp «or»r^t> 
Or the work «nH if ; '"^ '-"6 scope 

J^opes in a short f '^ announced, 

Ships estabHshed fo^ V^v"^" ^""^^- 
as Spain. The 1021 f^n''''''',.^^ ^ell 

[\eiai>y Ro{l"nd'\Vn'Srfr^''^ 
Halph Kuykendall ' ^''^^^^^^^^t and 

^an 'universif;'^to ^^s'um^e' l^ ^l^^^" 
of Latin American hfct^® the chair 

still continil^^'^wUh his clnfnr^f ^^^^ ; 
searches, however. California re- 









'•,.f •, ---I -. ' f*^-^, 



8AJPTA AXA.CAI,.. nKGISTER 49 
« ^. ~- ^ 

MARCH 12, 1D20 

l^i&Xpf orangeWMy 

PROGRm IS RECOUNTED IN 
TAIJCS BEFORE U ONS CLUB 

, i..irtrVijLtwl of CaBfoniia and Orange county was presented by 
T. E. Stenhenso4 nrcndent of Santa Ana Rotary, and the financial ride 
of Orange county 'history was revealed by W. Cj Jerome, audkor of Or- 
ange county, in a program in celelwation of the thirty-seventh anni- 
Iversary of the foun^ng of Orange county, given at the meeting, yester- 
ly, of the Santa Ana Lions chib, with W. K. HiHyard, county surveyor, 
.d chairman. The enabKng act, creating this county out of a porhon 
rf Los Angeles county, was passed March 11, 1889, HiHyard announced, 
ind he explained the necessity for creating the county as that <rf the wide 
laference in the conditions existing in thU end of what was then Los 
ngeles county. 

Stephenson began his Interest-*^ 



ns recital of historic events in 

lalifornia with the Indian period, 

ouchingr briefly on successive 

eriods in which Spanish dons 

^ nd Americans played their part 

in the founding and development 

f the state. Asserting that the 

[California Indians we re the lo w- 

les l uf mu f i ' tyiJtf. ■< y wrtt^qi#^gH*'fReir 
isolation from other tribes and 
the ease with which they got 
food, the speaker said the time 
was when estimates placed the 
number of redskins in California 
at from 70,000 to 200,000, with 
probably 2000 in this county be- 
fore the Spanish came. 

Pointing out that it was an 
easy thing to get a living here 
by reason of the abundance of 
fish along the coast, and partic- 
ularly shell fish. Stephenson said 
that the Indians here were not 
as . ambitious or as active as 
tribes which lived in the interior, 
which had to hunt and work to 
get meat. He asserted that many 
piles of shells, found along the 
county sealine, particularly in the 
vicinity of Laguna Beach and 
south, were accumulations left by 
the early inhabitants. 

Period of Missions 
The period of the missions fol- 
lowed and he recounted how 
Spain held the lands of Califor- 
nia to prevent them falling to 
Great Britain or Russia- Santa 
Ana, he said, at one time was 
part of the lands controlled by 
the mission at Capistrano. Dur- 
ing the mission period 20 land 
grants, each having an' area of 
approximately 12 square miles, 
were issued by the Spanish gov- 
ernment in California. 

He declared it an error to re- 
fer to the period of the dons as 
the period of romance in Califor- 
nia, for, instead of romance, there 
was instability and revolution. 
Around 1828, he said, Mexicans 
closed in on the missions and by 
the time of the arrival of Ameri- 
cans, in 1847, more than 600 
grants had been made, with most 
grants embracing territory of 30 
to 40 square miles. 

Following the don period came 
the American period and adjust- 
ments. Grants either were sold 
by the dons or were lost to them 
on debts, and many were subdivid- 
ed and sold in small parcels. He 
declared that the drouth of 1862 
was largely responsible for the 
big Stearns r'ancho, covering vast 
territory in the western and 
northern parts of the county, be- 
ing sold in small tracts. It waa 
about this time that the Yorba 
heirs sold off their large holdings, 
the site for Santa Ana being 
purchased from one of the heirs. 
Sketches Hard Timet 
The speaker sketched the start- 
ing of Anaheim, Orange, Santa 
Ana and Tustin, and carried his 
auditors through the period of 
adversity experienced here by 
early settlers when the grape vine 
disease killed off the vineyards; 
the scale wiping out, almost com- 
pletely the citrus industry; the 
result of the boom period of 
1886-87, and the final stabilizing, 
in the late '90s, of the citrus 
industry by the organization of 
fruit growers' associations. 

He closed by raising the ques- 
tion as to whether this section 
was not now entering upon an- 
other period of turning its back 



Water company and the Santa 
Ana Valley Irrigation company as 
the first co-operative efforts of 
the county residents, and the 
fruit and other produce associa- 
tions that followed and which are 
operating successfully today. 

Directing attention to the first 
meeting of the Orange county 
board of supervisors, held on Au- 
gust 4, 1889, and remarking that 
he had noted, on the minutes of 
the supervisors, provision for a 
visit to Contra Costa county, to 
get pointers on how to operate 
business of a county, Jerome said 
that the first full year's business 
of Orange county was that of 1890, 
when receipts from all sources 
was $231,086.30 and expenditures 
$227,000. Of the latter amount, 
$64,000 was paid to the state for 
taxes collected. In that year, one- 
half the income was spent on 
education. 

The auditor made the interesting 
observation that the first warrant 
drawn on Orange county and 
made payable to a man who still 
Is living, was in favor of J. P. 
Greeley, of Balboa, who was 
county school superintendent. It 
was warrant No. 8. The fifty- 
ninth warrant was made to B. F. 
Waite, of this city, who is a 
deputy assessor, working each 
year during the assessing period. 
His work is confined to a portion 
of Santa Ana. 

Compares Valuation 

The assessed valuation of the 
county, in 1911, he said. was 
$30,000,000, with receipts totaling 
$1,200,000. He compared this with 
valuations, last year, of $154,000,- 
000, exclusive of operative prop- 
erty, which brought the grand 
total to $173,000,000. Receipts last 
year were $7,000,000 and all the 
money was spent. 

Pointing out that in school 
buildings, courthouse, county hos- 
pital, detention home, road equip- 
ment, parks and real estate, the 
county had t^ssets of $9,576,000, ex- 
clusive of county highways, the I 
auditor emphasized the fact that 
county officials had nothing to 
do with the creation of taxes. He 
stressed the fact that the greater 
portion of expenditures, in the 
counfffu and in the state, was 
voted by the people. 

"Good roads and high class edu- 
cational facilities have gone hand 
in hand in making California what 
it is today." the auditor com- 
mented, in pointing out that Cali- 
fornia has more high school pu- 
pils than any state in the union, 
and that Orange county has more 
high school pupils, per 1000 pop- 
ulation, than any county in the 

Union. 

Places Tax Burden 

Placing the burden of increased 
directly on the shoulders of the 
people, Jerome said that it was 
for the voters themselves to de- 
cide whether the state and the 
county should continue to go 
ahead in providing the good things 
they enjoy or whether there 
should be a halt in expenditures, 
with the units stepping backward. 

** After we have gotten what 
we want, and have gotten dollar 
for dollar, let's be happy and 
quit complaining," the speaker 
said, in concluding his talk. 

Preliminary to the program, 
Harold Wahlberg, president, an- 
nounced that telegrams had been 



on agriculture, which • has made 
the county what it is today, and 
centralizing efforts on the devel- 
opment of industrials. 

Jerome stressed the point that 
Orange county has been advanced 
to her position today strictly by 
the sweat and labor of those who 
have tilled the soils. He em- 
phasized the fact that the county 
has not had the assistance of men 
of large finance to bring about 
success through the shear force 
of their dollars. 

"Co-operation of the people has 

been the story of the remarkable 

success in development of this 

I county," the auditor said, and he 

[pointed to the Anaheim Union 



received from the Atlantic sea- 
board, the east and middle west- 
ern states, complimenting the 
program given over KHJ recent- 
ly by the Orange County Council 
of Lions clubs. 

Tom Willits and Dr. Merrill 
HoUlngsworth. members of the 
program committee, introduced a 
debating stunt on the question: 
"Resolved: . That .Orange County 
Should Spend Some of Its Money 
in Lengthening the African Pig- 
mies." By lot, Fred Merker and 
John Henderson were chosen to 
take the affirmative, and Burr 
Rhafer and Mark Lacy, the nega- 
tive. The latter side was accor" 
ed the honors. 



OH^JkiUM^ Sci^>V&t.l<|,tri4 




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bell Speaker Recounts 
Romance of El Camino Rea 

J^l By EOLINE ALDRICH 

The romance of El Camino Real, 4. plained that it is to provide fundi 



which was trod in the long ago by 
sandal-shod padres as they wended 
their leisurely way from mission to 
mission, was simply but effectively 
revived by Mrs. A. S. C. Forbes on 
Friday at the Woman's City club at 
the request of Mrs. J. W. Allison, 
who was in charge of the program, 
the speaker recounting the manner 
in which she and her husband 
helped arouse public sentiment to 
the need of good roads to the his- 
torical chapels and churches. 

When they first came here from 

[Pennsylvania and decided to visit 

U the missions, their trips were 

Imade In a horse-drawn buggy, or 

n horseback, and the speaker said 

he and her husband often had to 

alk considerable distances, as 

ome of the roads used by the 

adres had been entirely obliter- 

ted by the ruthless hand- of time. 

rs. Forbes told with commendable 

odesty the story of how she came 

o originate the design of the iron 

tandards, topped by a' replica of 

he mission bell, which now mark 

he long trail of the padres from 

|San Diego to the farthest mission 
n Northern California, stating that 

1430 of the markers have been placed 

[Since the first one was posted by 
he old plaza church in Los An- 
cles on August 15, 1906. 

Related Historio Facts 

Mrs. Forbes, who is Los Angeles 

istrict chairman of history and 

[landmarks and has been doing work 

along this line with the California 

Federation of Women's clubs since 

11903, came to Long Beach on Fri- 

ay to speak on behalf of Califor- 

ia Indians. In doing this she pre- 

ented their case with impelling 

loquence, reading extracts from 

he land grants to these first Amer- 

cans from the Spanish kings, told 

f the Guadalupe Hidalgo treaties 

nd explained the greed of the 

lexicans and later of the Ameri- 

ans, which finally resulted In the 

resent plight of the mission In- 

iiuiia and their progeny. 

The speaker told of the movement 

have the statues of Juan Rod- 
iquez Cabrillo, discoverer of Call- 
omia, and John C. Fremont, who 
eceived the surrender of the Mexi- 
can army in 1847, placed in the 

all of Fame at the national capi- 

01 in the space reserved for the 
olden state, which is now empty, 
he Intensified Interest in this 

project by reading a letter from 
Mrs. Fremont, written at Long 
Beach under date of March 30, 1897, 
to H. N. Rust anent the desire of 
General Fremont to have a worthy 
man appointed as Indian agent at 
one of the Montana reservations. ' 
Mrs. Forbest asked if anyone In 
the audience knew the cottage oc- 
cupied temporarily by the Fre- 
monts, which at other periods was 
used by the Lyons faimly of Red- 
lands, and she was much pleased to 
find that Mrs. A. J. Swingle knew 
the latter family and thought the 
house could be accurately located. 
Mrs. Forbes hopes that it may be 
preserved and marked in an appro- 
priate manner. 

Two Bills Favored 

Mrs. Louis J. Gillespie had the 
pleasure of introducing Mrs. Forbes 
and closed the afternoon program 
by giving much Illuminating infor- 
mation about her own work as state 
and district chairman of Indian 
welfare, inc luding the reasons why 

uHw5?T5en are asked to work for 
the passage of Swing-Johnson Sen- 
ate bill No. 3020 and House bill No. 
8821. At the conclusion of Mrs. 
Gillespie's talk, Mrs. J. W. Allison, 
who Is the club's chairman of In- 
dian welfare. Introduced a motion 
favoring the bills, which the club 
unanimously adopted. 

The text of bill No. 9497, spon- 
sored by Mrs. Florence Kahn, sen- 
ator from the northern district, was 
read by Mrs. Gillespie, who ex- 



for returning to the California In| 
dians lands of which they were un^ 
justly deprived. She stated that Vi\ 
Mariana Bertola, president of tli< 
California Federation of Women'j 
clubs, had wired her to start work- 
ing in support of Mrs. Kahn's bill 
and assuring her of the federation's 
active help. 

Music for the program featun 
the Indian theme, Mrs. Florenct 
Perkins sihging "The Land of thi 
Sky Blue Water" (Cadman). "In- 
dian Love Calls" from the open 
"Rose Marie," and "Waters of Mln- 
netonka" (Lleuiance), accompanIe< 
by Mrs. Arthur J. Keltic. Mrs. 
Perkins has recently come to thel 
city from Miami, Fla., and she was 
accorded an enthusiastic reception 
on account of her lovely soprano 
voice, which Is of good range and 
of limpid purity. She sang the two 
old favorites with an artistry that| 
imbued them with a fresh beauty. 
The singer was Introduced by Mrs. 
J. Oliver Brlson, music chairman of 
the club. 






-fit 




:_--'-1:'i^ 



NEWS. •^*«-»F. 



i -^AN. 3,15)80 



IN0IAN HISTORY 
STUDYPLANNED 

Berkeley School Teachers to 
Get Unique Course 



History, arts, customs and culture 
or the American Indian will be the 
eubject of a novel course t6 be of- 
fered to Berkeley school teachers by 
the University of CaUfomla Exten- 
sion Division. 

Howard Otis Welty ^U direct the 
course, which will begin the latter 
part of the month. 

'Thl American Indian has made 
contributions to the economic wel- 
fare of the world that are invalu- 
able," declared Welty. 

He believes that some plan should 
ba worked out to give the California 
inalaa. social and economic inde- 
pendence. 



YREKA, CAt. NEWS 

JAN. 23, 1930 



.ttmt Mm- 



Wants 




Wars 



-r^ 



^ With Early Indian Tribes 

i IBhasta 



per pan and existed on the Pit or 
McCloud in the Indian country. The 
camp was surprised by Indians and 
only two Chinese survived. One got 
into the brush and after much suf- 
fering managed to reach the Pit 
river camp, where the alarm was 
given and a company of whites or- 
ganized. The other survivar man- 



county has organ- or tribes. Applegate and Rogue '^'T' u. .'^^"^'^ J"^'^'^^'' '"»'^- 

..nni.t.v fnr th. riv.r «,Pr. ,. Z L ° , ^«^^ ^ ^.de m a big hollOW Oak 



I ized a historical society for the 
j purpose of compiling pioneer his- 
j tory and marking historical sites, 



A party of 19 settlers also had a 
brush with Indian stock raiders who 



river were to be overrun. i ^ u 

rr.u^ of* 1 • «. 1 . 1^^^ ^^ was there when the aveng- 

The attack m Siskiyou was to be- 1 • ^.- a-v^ns 

rrir, of T^TT7ff» r. " ^^^ expedition arrlved. His com- 

gin at DeWitt s Ferry then to take ' 

and since the early history of the I Cottonwood and raid' Shasta and ^ ^^""'"""i'v, . ^^^"^ butchered all 

two counties of Shasta and Siski-j Scott valleys. The Indians v^ereT'"'! ' ^^ ^^ ^^^ '''''^^ ^^^* 

you, and all of the northern end of i confident of their ability to sweep | wTter ^^^^^^ ^^ "^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
the state for that matter, m so in-; out the whites. 

tertwined and interlocked, Daily! Indians Come to Feed .^ , fv, x .- . 

Siskiyou News feels it a proposition < n-u^ ^ ^ ^ .^ 1 ^^^^^'^ ^^^^ Indian stock raiders who 

to supply some early data. l^l '''^T '''' Tl Klamath had raided Hooper's place on Oak 

'^^^ beached to prevent it from be- j run. Thev baceed nin^ biirk«: nn 
March 4, 1853, advices from ine do^trovpri «nH r>,inprc «r«v^ nr.r. l^. ragged nine bucks on 

Yreka to Shasta town by Pony Ex- i e't^ d 'o Ife^ ITtonw^^^^^ '"^ ''''^'^ "' '''' ^"^" 

press Rider Jack HoLley gave ^ Si' y^^^^^^^ A fight occurred on 

alarmine news of an Indian imri. , • announced a clover creek and the Indians be- 

i' T^sk^^^^^^ in Scott vane;^''^'''' ^'''''^' "^^ '^'''^ on every Honged to the Whitossa band. 
Airr in Siskiyou. In Scott valley ^lan in the country who had weap- 

i and Cottonwood the reds had been ' ens cf any kind to get their guns 

I unusually bold and the hills about ni crder and be prepared to use 

; Yreka were aglow with the war sig- them at a moment's notice. 



nals. The Indians were in force at 



The whites went up the river and 



their headquarters, called the ^^^ --^^- ;-- "^ -^- ^^vei ana 

'^-QTv." r.r. fv,^ xri .^ .u • caught an Indian spearing salmon, 

v^ave, on the Klamath river, pre- „ -,., .. , ^, ,.: 

r^ovir,^ f^„ « 1 ,.^,.:„.^„ . ^^ didn't hear them until too late 

to get away. They filled him up 
with grub and firewater and sent 



paring for a general uprising. 
Negro Reveals Plans 

Cottonwood miners arrested a him to his camp to invite the rest 
colored man who was known to of the tribe to a big feast. The In- 
have visited the cave. They put a dians all came and mighty few got 
rope around his neck and were away. Some jumped into the river, 
about to string him up when he ; but most of them were killed or, be- 
confessed that he had gone to thejing wounded, sank in the stream, 
cave to try and get money that had 1 February 24, 1854, there was a 
been stolen from murdered whites I fight between Captain Johnson's 
and hidden there. On pretense of j rangers and the McCloud Indians 
buying powder from the Indians he i and 22 bucks were made good In- 
planned to get this money for his j dians and three others came pretty 
dwn use, but the Indians had al-Jnear being sent to the happy hunt- 
ready spent it and had several 
flour sacks full of powder in cans 
as well as caps and bullets and 



ing grounds. Many of the killed 
Indians were wearing the clothing 
of Chinese, as a party of the "pig- 
about 45 army rifles that had been j tails" had been attacked on the Mc- 
obtained by squaws of the Kanakas 'cloud. 



living along the Klamath. 

The Scott Valleys were to join 
with the Klamaths and the Modocs 
were to assist. The Indians were 
making great quantities of arrows. 
The plan was to attack in divisions 



Chinese Butchered 

A company of Chinese with two 
whites for guides came over from 
the Copper City country on Pit 
river in search of the rich diggings 
that it had been rumored paid $1000 



'•■•.%>'li»'-: 



mA.i>i,mz ^,v; r- *-"-^-^ *jr- 



v>*- 



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ostensibly on a scientific errand but, from the 
records left by captain, the scientist Chamisso 
and the artist Choris, there are many reasons 
^^md 

tha^^iaiin>^Tpos^5^^uia^iie 
occupation and determine whether or not it 
was strong enough to challenge any Russian 
plans. Adelbert von Chamisso, writer and 
botanist, who was on board, left some fasci- 
nating observations while those of Captain von 
Kotzebue were more guarded. These records, 
with the writing of the painter Login Choris 
make up the most of the book and are filled 
with incident and comment on San Francisco 
in the davs when it Avas not more than a set- 
tlement around a mission. "It seems to me,'' 
writes ]Mahr, "that it was one of the principal 
objects of the Rurik expedition to investigate 
how much power of resistance there was left 
in the dying organism of the Spanish colonial 
empire; or, to express it in other terms, to 
what degree the defiance of Spanish rights 
could be carried with impunity." The historic 
importance of the work may be inferred from 
the fact this is the first time the Spanish docu- 
ments of the Rurik visit have been published. 
The originals were destroyed in the fire of 
190G, but forisunately the historian Bancroft 
had had most of them copied. They are printed 
in the book along with the Russian accounts. 



As Chamisso Saw Us 



IN THIS AVORK we may read from the pen 
A of Chamisso that : "On the afternoon of the 
2nd of October, ISIG, at four o'clock, we sailed 
into the harbor of San Francisco. A great deal 
of movement in the fort at the southern en- 
trance of the channel was apparent. They 
hoisted their flag; we hoisted ours, which did 
not seem to be recognized, and saluted the 
Spanish by firing seven times. This saluta- 
tion was returned by the same number of shots, 
less two according to the Spanish custom." A 
pretty complication followed for Captam 
Kitzebue was determined not to land until the 
Governor had boarded the ship to deliver a 
greeting and the Governor stood upon his dig- 
nity ashore. A compromise was finally ef- 
fected and the Russians were royally enter- 
tained by hosts who could ill afford the luxury. 
On shore was drawn a document which may 
have been one of the main objects of the visit. 
Tt pledged the Spanish not to disturb the Rus- 
sian colony at Bodega, though as Chamisso 
says, "even if the valiant Don Pablo Vicente 
had not given his solemn promise, he Avould 
scarcely have begun hostilities, and undertaken 
an exi)edition against the Russian settlement 
at Bodega." That settlement was Fort Ross 
but nowhere in the negotiations does Kotzebue 
admit there was a fort. When the sliip left 
Chnmisso noted: "The waters of the harbor 
of Sau Francisco was phosphorescent, through 
its whole extent, with luminous paths of light. 
The waves rolled up on the beach of the shore 
beyond the boat, perceptibly shimmering with 
fire." He made an examination of the water 
under a microscope but "found in it exceed- 
iii-lv snijill infusoria in no great abundance, 
to which, however, I hesitate to ascribe a par- 
ticular connection with the luminescence." 



Of the Indians 



OF THE INDIANS who were here in 1816 
Captain Kotzebue writes with little en- 
thusiasm : "The coast of California is inhabited 
bv so manv tribes, that there are frequently in 
the ^Mission, Indians of more than ten different 

I races, each of which has its own language. As 
we were leaving the Mission we were surprised 
by two groups of Indians, which were also 
composed of different nations. They came in 
military array; that is, quite naked, and 
painted with gay colours; the heads of most 
were adorned Avith feathers and other finery; 



IS inclines 

with what has been a favorite yarn. Excerpts 
from the letter of one who is an authority fol- 
low : "During my five years of research T have 

the Bancroft Library, as well as in the archives 
of Mexico, England, France and Spain, spe- 
cially in the Vallejo papers which he gave to 
H. H. Bancroft. But in all my investigations, 
nowhere have I come across that most romantic 
little story. Perhaps I may have missed it but 
it seems to me such a momentous event as a 
royal visit to the Pacific Coast would have 
been mentioned by many people in their writ-l 
ings. ... In the first place, just to point out 
a few inaccuracies, Russian princesses were not 
in the habit and, you may be sure, not allowed 
to make 10,000-mile jaunts to the most remote 
part of the world just for the fun of it. You 
must remember that in those days such a trip 
would take over two years to accomplish and 
the hardships were such tliat often even the 
hardiest men did not survive. What then would 
a tender, sheltered Russian princess, -without 
a proper escorting party and altogether unan- 
nounced, be doing here in the wilds of Fort 
Ross? Again, in 1831 Vallejo was just over 22 
years of age, having been born in 1808, and was 
only a second lieutenant stationed at San Fran- 
cisco. His superior officer at the time was 
Lieut. Don Tgnacio Martinez. At that time 
Vallejo had not been across the Bay and it was 
not until May, 1833, that he went to Fort Ross 
for the first time in command of an exploring 
party sent out by General Jose Figuerva. I 
have these facts and Vallejo-s confidential re- 
port of his explorations before me at this mo- 
ment. 



Why Russians Quit 







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y^A 



■Aiii." 



CONTINUING, my correspondent says : ^'Ati 
that time Vallejo did not know Chief So-' 
lano and, also, that chief never had 75,000 In- 
dians as there were not that many in the neigh- 
borhood. Professor Kroeber, our greatest au- 
thority on the California Indians, places the 
figures at not more than 200,000 for the whole 
State. At the most there may have been some 
15,000 or 20,000 Indians in what are now Napa 
and Sonoma counties. Vallejo did not go to 
Sonoma permanently until the end of 1834 
when he was appointed commissioner to secu- 
larize Mission San Francisco Solano, and hcj 
did not begin to found tlie town until lSo5j 
Also in 1831, Salvador Vallejo Avas only 3^ 
years old, since he was born in 1814, and more- 
over he never was on good terms with the In- 
dians. Perhaps the Russians did name Mt. Sti 
Helena after a Russian Princess but I am quite 
certain that she was not at the top of the moun- 
tain at the tin;ie. Climbing Mt. St. Helena 
would be quite a job for any princess even in 
this day and age. It would have taken her 
party several days to make the trip to the 
mountains and had they been menaced by hos- 
tile Indians it would have taken about a week 
before Vallejo could have arrived to the rescue 
since he would have to cross from San Fran- 
cisco where he was stationed. Besides, he 
would have had to secure permission from the 
Governor to make the expedition. Besides, 
Vallejo did not receive the title of General until 
1836 when he was appointed Commandante 
General by Governor Alvarado. . . . The real 
reason why Russia abandoned Fort Ross in 
1841 is given in a letter from the Russian com- 
mander at Ross, Rotchef, to Governor Alva- 
rado. He said that due to the insistence of 
Great Britain^that Russia live up to their 
treaty of 1824, to retire north of 5440, the Rus- 
sian Government had been forced to abandon 
its California posts.''— G. T. 



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meiits of the Riirik visit have been published. 
The ori^nnals were destreyed in the fire of 
IdOCu l)iit fortunately the historian Bancroft 
liad had most of them copied. They are printed 
in the book ahuij: with the Knssian accounts. 



As Chamisso Saw Us 



is THIS WOKK we may read from the pen 
1 of Chamisso that : ^'On the afternoon of the 
^ 2nd of October, 1816, at four o^clock, we sailed 
into the harbor of San Francisco. A great deal 
of movement in the fort at the southern en- 
trance of the channel was apparent. They 
hoisted their flag; we hoisted ours, which did 
not seem to be recognized, and saluted the 
Spanish by firing seven times. This saluta- 
tion was returned by the same number of shots, 
less two according to the Spanish custom." A 
pretty complication followed for Captain 
Kitzebue was determined not to land until the 
Governor had boarded the ship to deliver a 
«n'eeting and the Governor stood upon his dig- 
nitv ashore. A compromise was finally ef- 

t. 

fected and the Russians wc^re royally enter- 
tained by hosts who could ill afford the luxury. 
On shore was drawn a document which may 
have been one of the main objects of the visit. 
T t pledged the Spanish not to disturb the Rus- 
sian colony at Bodega, though as Chamisso 
says, "even if the valiant Don Pablo Vicente 
had not given his solemn promise, he Avould 
scarcely have begun hostilities, and undertaken 
an ex])edition against the Russian settlement 
at Bodega.'' That settlement was Fort Ross 
but nowhere in the negotiations does Kotzebue 
admit there was a fort. When the sliip left 
Chamisso noted: "The waters oi the harbor 
of San Francisco was phosphorescent, through 
its whole extent, Avith luminous paths of light. 
The waves rolled up on the beach of the shore 
beyond the boat, perceptibly shimmering with 
fire." lie made an examination of the water 
under a microscope but "found in it exceed- 
ingly small infusoria in no great abundance, 
to\ hich, however, I hesitate to ascribe a par- 
ticular connection with the luminescence." 



Of the Indians 



OF THE INDIANS who were here in 1816 
Captain Kotzebue writes with little en- 
thusiasm : "The coast of California is inhabited 
by so many tribes, that there are frequently in 
the :Mission, Indians of more than ten different 

T^es, each of which has its own language. As 
we were leaving the Mission we were surprised 
by two groups of Indians, which were also 
composed of different nations. They came in 
military array; that is, quite naked, and 
painted with gay colours; the heads of most 
were adorned with feathers and other finery; 
some of them, however, had their long hair 
covered with down, and their faces daubed in 
mosh frightful manner. "The captain remarks 
the Indians were ugly and stupid and there 
was "nothing remarkable in their war dance." 
He tells of a fi^^ht between a bull and bear, 
arranged in the honor of the Russians ; "the 
combat between these two animals was re- 
markable, and though the bull often tossed 
his raging antagonist on his horns into the 
iur, he was obliged to yield." Camisso thought 
the' same spectacle disgusting. Another picture 
of San Francisco in 1816 i'S given by the artist 
Choris: "Two leagues to the southeast of the 
presidio and on the southern shore of the har- 
bour is the Mission of San Francisco, which 
makes a fair-sized village. The mission church 
is large and is connected with the house of the 
missionaries, which is plain and reasonably 
clean and well kept. The mission always has 
a guard of three or four soldiers from the 
presidio. The village is inhabited by fifteen 
hundred Indians; there they are given protec- 
tion, clothing and an abundance of food. In 
return they cultivate the land for the commun- 
ity. By authority of the superior, a general 
cooking of food takes place, at a given hour 
each day, in the large square in the middle of 
the village; each family comes there for its 
rations which is apportioned with regard to 
the number of its members." Choris describes 
the Indians, their games and songs and gives 
a list of the tribes as he could learn t hem diir- 
ing the short stay. 






:: i'J^im- 




'(Sjj2iu.J^dJL> TVf^ i^^f 




THE STORY of the visit of a niece of the 
Czar of Russia to California, back in 1831, 
has brought The Knave an interesting letter 
from a research writer who, with most others, 
is Inclined to think that romance ran away 
with what has been a favorite yarn. Excerpts 
from the letter of one who is an authority fol- 
low : "During my five years of research I have 
examined manuscripts here in California, at 
the Bancroft Library, as well as in the archives 
of Mexico, England, France and Spain, spe- 
cially in the Vallejo papers which he gave to 
H. H. Bancroft. But in all my investigations, 
nowhere have I come across that most romantic 
little story. Perhaps I may have missed it but 
it seems to me such a momentous event as a 
royal visit to the Pacific Coast would ha\c 
been mentioned by many people in their Avrit^ 
ings. ... In the first place, just to point out 
a few inaccuracies, Russian princesses were not 
in the habit and, you may be sure, not allowed 
to make 10,000-mile jaunts to the most remote 
part of the world just for the fun of it. You 
must remember that in those days such a trip 
would take over two years to accomplish and 
the hardships were such tliat often even the 
hardiest men did not survive. What then would 
a tender, sheltered Russian princess, -without 
a proper escorting party and altogether unan- 
nounced, be doing here in the wilds of Fort 
Ross? Again, in 1831 Vallejo was just over 22 
years of age, having been born in 1808, and wafi 
only a second lieutenant stationed at San Fran- 
cisco. His superior officer at the time was 
Lieut. Don Tgnacio Martinez. At that time 
Vallejo had not been across the Bay and it was 
not until May, 1833, that he went to Fort Ros?^ 
for the first time in command of an exploring 
party sent out by General Jose Figuerva. I 
have these facts and Vallejo's confidential re- 
port of his explorations before me at this mo- 
ment. 



Why Russians Quit 












-■''I 



.f^' 



' ; - - - - r^ _ 



CONTINUING, my correspondent says : ^'Ati 
that time Vallejo did not know Chief So- 
lano and, also, that chief never had 75,000 In- 
dians as there were not that many in the neigh- 
borhood. Professor Kroeber, our greatest au- 
thority on the California Indians, places the 
figures at not more than 200,000 for the whole 
State. At the most there may have been some 
15,000 or 20,000 Indians in what are now Napa 
and Sonoma counties. Vallejo did not go to 
Sonoma permanently until the end of 1834 
when he was appointed commissioner to secu- 
larize Mission San Francisco Solano, and hc| 
did not begin to found the town until 3S35j 
Also in 1831, Salvador Vallejo was only 1^ 
years old, since he was born in 1814, and more- 
over he never was on good terms with the In- 
dians. Perhaps the Kussians did name Mt. Sti 
Helena after a Russian Princess but I am quite 
certain that she was not at the top of the moun- 
tain at the tin^e. Climbing Mt. St. Helena 
w^ould be quite a job for any princess even in 
this day and age. It would have taken her 
party several days to make the trip to the 
mountains and had they been menaced by hos- 
tile Indians it would have taken about a week 
before Vallejo could have arrived to the rescue 
since he would have to cross from San Fran- 
cisco where he was stationed. Besides, he 
would have had to secure permission from the 
Governor to make the expedition. Besides, 
Vallejo did not receive the title of General until 
1836 when he was appointed Commandante 
General by Governor AlvaradQ. . . . The real 
reason why Russia abandoned Fort Koss in 
1841 is given in a letter from the Russian com- 
mander at Ross, Rotchef, to Governor Alva- 
rado. He said that due to the insistence of 
Great Britain that Russia liV'e_up„to their 
treaty of 1824, to retire north of 54-40, the Rus- 
sian Government had been forced to abandon 
its California posts.-'— G. T. 




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aor mere 

— Bf MAY CASE — 



Jas. H. Carsott then makes this 
unusual report of the Indians of Cal- 
ifornia in 1852, biased by the fact 
that his partner had been killed by 



is covered with bark and grasff,. 
then covered over with earth about V 
two feet deep, with an apperturel 
left in the side of this just large [ 



J the Indians a short time previously enough to admit the body of a man.- 

Some Early California Indian to the writing of this story and ms - — - - 



History 



^'\ 



hatred of the Red man crops up 

fEroiighout the report, and his knowl 

edge of the Indians was scant. He 

^- * ^ - 1 says: "Indians habits and customs: 

Excerpts from-Tnaau^cript owned ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^ l,as been ex- 

by D. W. Tulloch bf Oakdale, lee- piored man has been found inhabit- 
turer, written by James H. Carson, ling it wherever it would afford him 

^^iXSTCoC Pre- subsi-^tauce. Columbus discovered 

I ,, a new world, navigators after him 

mont s company. , ., ^ , 4.-^^„fc 

' ^ *^ discovered islands, and contments, 

Written for the Republican, Stock,-. 



ion, California, and published Jan; 
and g^eb^ 1852: Carson takes up 



and always they met their own 
kind in thousands who were little 
above the beasts of the field and of 



the his7ory of l^ilare^plains in the | all human specimens yet discover- 



first part of his series of articles 
stating that he is trying to give a 
true account of this part of Califor- 
nia, which he states, remains a hid- 
den mystery to nine-tenths of the 
l^eople of California. 

Carson gives a detailed accour^c 
lof its location, being 300 miles in 
length with an average width of 60 

[miles. 

The climate, as Col. Fremont re- 
[marks, is Uke that of Italy. 

He also makes a report of its riv- 
lers, and naming many of them as 
Inavigable at that time that are now 
[dry or have been until this winter. 

Carson gives his own experience 
lin niaKing trips by boat in many 
Istreams and also notes the tine oaK 
Itorests that cover the plains even 

■ * * 

to the shores of Tulare Lake. Car- 
lson when visiting the hills to t|ae 
east of Tulare Lake reports that ^t 
|j:as feet on th^ jftount on which he 
m standing '^^t the grass has been 
[trampled dow?i and the smokes pt 
inxmense ftres have scarcely di^d 



ed none were found who approached 
so near the brute as the Digger In- 
dian found west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains of the United States. 

The Indians of Tulare Valley num- 
ber 6^0QQ^ about .one^ half of this 
number inhabit the mountains and 
are fair specimens of the Digger In- 
dians. The other portion inhabit 
the plains along the rivers and 
lakes — a great number of these old 
Mission Indians who have introduc- 
ed many traits of civilization into 
their different tribes, the Notgnote^ 
and several different tribes of the 
Ataches, and among the most ad- 
vanced in many respects in the 
means of covering their nakedness 
and procuring food such as human 
beings subsist on. These tribes 
that have intermixed with the mi- 
ners in the different mining districts 



These huts are built without regu- 
larity or uniformity, to suit the size 
of each family. The captain of the 
tribe has his hole generally in the 
center of of the village and is gen- 
erally much larger than the others. 

In inspecting one of these holes it 
seems hardly possible human beings 
can live 6. day under such conditions 
at' the Indians are unclothed, under- 
fed, and packed into such small 
space as to often prevent them 
lying down and niany of these holes 
house a dozen pepple where there is 
only room for three. 

Government of the Indians: Each 
tribe or rancheria has a captain 
(chief). Several tribes usually com- 
bine and have one captain that holds 
despotic sway over his inferiors. 
The captain's commands are the 
law. The right to rule is hereditary; 
in the male line, the oldest son taki 
ihg tifil captaincy occasioned by the 
demise of tlie father, but at times 
these captain^ are dethroned and a 
chief captain is appointed by the 
tribe. 

Religion: As regards a Supreme 
Being the Digger Indian has no 
knowledge. They hold in high rev- 
erence anyone possessed of the 
power of doing sleight of hand tricks. 
Necromancy is the only faith they 
worship and incantation and mys- 
terious acts are universally, practic- 
ed by them. 



have to a great degree laid aside I The partly civilized tribes that 



their old modes of life and in a 
measure adopted, that of the whites, 
at least so far a^ rascality extends.. 
Between the Digger Indians of the 
Sierra Nevada and the grizzly bear 
there is but slight difference exist- 
ijng which amounts to the bear be- 
ing brave and ther Indian is not. 
llie Indian's superiority over the 
bear is that lie knoWs how to talk 



?iway,^ lyhel^r «^ ^^^S® encampmex^t I ^^ ^^^^ ^r^g otherwise they live 
had &^1^«^"Yes, it is the laiejon the same food j^d ith^r habita 
%nn ot the'lndian^ommissionerl' |are similar. Between th^pe two.hos. 
camp ot: tne^^xnaian , ^^ioto. When the bear is at- 






j^' 



^ ^™v I tility exists. Wljen the bear is 9.1; 

Sflie^Twere i%t tr^y fires wnerei ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 



"^-^ X itackeG ne wiii otteu ruu »w€»jr *^^v 

^ have been mkHing treaties I ^^^^^^^^^ ^ ggl^^ and then there^ 

m^ beasts of tTtf^ f l^ld ^ humafa|ig ati Indian less., Many IndiaM 
IL^timdinjr on J^ border ot are thus destroy^. The great com-. 



^^^e^^"^ le fashes whici ! Petition is in the acorn b^iness^ as{ 
^ the spot\??srhere^nce stood Imf 
|se buildings '^ecteij at great ex!| 




to the U. S.^ g^yernment, ther^ 

are within ii tweivcj hUlocks o|^ 

Jhj^ >re the grave^ 

i&f» countryi, 



were former Mission Indians believe 

in a Supreme Being. 

» ^Marriage: When these Indians 

want a squaw for life (or rather a 

« 

slaye) the hombre, after watching 
those who are unmarried for a lit- 
tle whil^, selects the one he thinks 
most capable in gathering acorns 
and roots, and can pack the great- 
est load in her basket. After mak- 
ing l]ds choice he asks the captain 
•fbi^' her and is iiArariiMy gi^ai^ed hiar 
consent. When the girl is informecC 
if she refuses^ the offer she thea 
subjects herself to become common 
property of th#:.male and becomes 
an outcast of the tribe^ They mar- 
ry young, The tribes do not increase 
greatly on account of the mode of 



fci'i.ie* 



both 4>artly subirtst on the 'acorn. j nvjng which causes so many deaths 
The tjkbits and custonis of tSe t)ig- among the babies, and because, af- 
ger Indian is that of ^^^^^J^^^J^, lier the birth of a child, the tfxAh aid 
most primitive state. TflQr 'hkve ^onaan do not cohabit for ; a teriii of 
no article of covering for tl^etr bod- three or four years when the child 
ies aiid go naked as they ca»^ ^to ^ ^y>W to take care of itself." 
the world. Their halltaftons durr j . ^ ^( Continued next issue.) 



kS,. . V..V:.** 



t^ 



Z'-i?' 




^es^ smoking ru 



k 



%:er the jfrt^es ^ <^*| 



■ ''•'••*■■.'" 'I,'."'' 

''VM\-: ' ■:' 




SSSdiary and 



• ■ ^ 



ling over it A lirtoie <>g ifetey 



ing the sumnoer seas6n are conH 
struct^ of the bpughs qf, tx:^^]plac4 
ed in it^ circle on the jgroufi^^jvyil^^ 
J/^^^ tjMfi|the tops drawn together and fon^ 

Ifd co^jM?^^^ V^ Ld into a ccaae 6f Wicker %^ 

snds of llife to^unissionenl . ^^ ^v9 a f*^J^ ^^^L.Y^JhL ^^ 
*9^^^^W ' r~^ ^ ! winter haMtitfens "arii faaar By aig- 

.d in f?ie|ia?Wp *ese of "^J^^ ^^ hoje in Umt ground m4 pMiC- 

I mv^fdcrer of outfl* *» ^ ,^ .ii:.*^*:*^*-.^: ^ .ikiu-rUmtXkf 

'^IM^,W^-^^ of the, 
wMU m« to the best portion of tW« 
<,eslr»We spot. Can these treaUea 
stand t WIU the settlers of <|»Wor 
uia Twrtm»*t to it? 



yiit,r*¥ '-^ v-r-M 



y/ • '• •• ' 



•».'••. 



Mbi l'<ooft Mnott( 

L8 Kreen- 




Ihls feet on the mount on which he 

un ijtanaing t|iat the grsma has been 

Lrampled down and the smokes ot 



there is but slight aiiference exist- 
ing which amounts to the bear be- 
ing brave and the Indi&n is not. 



immense fires have scarcely dieaC^'^® Indian's supertority over the 

^ , Ibear is that he knows how to talk 

1 9 way, where a large encampment 



had just left. ^'Yes, it is the late 

t 
camp of the ^Indian Commissioner/ 

"These ' were ih^ treaty tires where 

tL^ have been^ xinlSBLking treaties 

nt^ th/^ beasts of the jfi<eld in humah 

^tU^ — standing on t^e border of 

tjm camp ii^. a tine of ashes whiclk 

airk the 8pot\wbei*e^nce stood Imi- 

le buildings erected at great exit 

to the U. S* gf^yemment, ther^ 

are within it twelvci hillocks ojf 

Th^ jeLr<5 the gravest 

^ of ^ur j^lfdered country fr 

i^Z'^S^^f Meafe" "'iBmoklng rufj 

over vie gn^yta of outi 

^"^ |Jf, ^ have Vb^' 




j.L--"^ 



**-*-V^tJc' 



COi 




and make fires otherwise they live 
on the same food and their habits 
are similar. Between these two hos- 
tility exists. When the bear is at- 
tacked he will often run away but 
sometimesf he flg;hts and then there 
iS an Indian less. Many Indiana 
are thus destroyed. The great com-, 
petition is in the aoom business as| 
both 4>artly subsist on the 'acorn. 
The habits and customs of tSe Olg- 
ger Indian is that of man in his 
moBt primitive state. TBeJr hfave 
no artjicle of covering for ifyeir bod- 
ies and go naked as they caixf^ into 
the world. Their habitations dur- 
ing the summer deas6n are con-j 
structejd of the bpu^^hii of/tr^,jpla^; 
ed in jit^ circle on the jgrouh^ ^ 



^f^ijds of ;i^ ^i^omissioneni 
la, f^dsliip tiiese of th4 



the tops drawn together and form- 



slave) the hombre, after watching 
those who are unmarried for a lit- 
tle while, selects^ the one he thinks 
most capable in gathering acorns 
and roots, and can pack the great- 
est load in her basket. After mak- 
ing his choice he asks the captain 
'for her and is invariably granted his 
consent. When the girl is informed, 
if she refuses the offer she then 
subjects herself to become common 
property of thf> male and becomes 
an outcast of the tribe. They mar- 
ry young. The tribes do not increase 
greaUy on account of the mod<e of 
living which causes so many deaths 
among the babies, and because, af- 
t^r the birth of a child, the ttito and 
woman do not cohabit for a teha of 
three or four years when the child 
is able' to take care of itself." 
(Oontinued next issue.) 



• .,.> 



.:? 'A 



vl!''"'.>? 



V I : V • 



.» .V ..• . 



ed lnt9 a cc«ie of wicker 



I winter hab^abns 'W 




..fThWr 

% atg. 



SSS^ and t^ of ou«|jig^J<^|^ tkr ground «d p^e- J 



VVss1i^^n'iig^e4>i^y to tbe ^JS-. 
^|u 1(b3^iibB, ail the rights of tbe| 
white miA to the liest porttoD of tbi« 
clealral:)lc spot. Can these treaties; 
standi Will the «ettlers of-O^Ww- 



iNune of 'libfe8.> Whii 



• -•-•.-•i:- »"- ~ ' 



nihEr^ivftimit to it? Nbr l-ook iMii< 

er than J^lie^resj;-^t is poor old 
Woods' grave, be^ Ws my company 
iln, /Wether we had explored the| 
pjains aromnd where the foot o) 
white man had never trod. He waj 
J]^' first settler on Pouir Creeks. Hel 
was killed by the Indians." 

fulare Lake is laid down douWej 
\M size it is today by Fremont i: 
1842. Tulare is 50 niUes long and| 
SO miles wide. 

In speaking of Tulare and Buena 
Vista LAke. Carson states that Col. 
Fremont gave as his opinion that 
Walker's pass was the only practi- 
cal way to the coast. Carson said, 
**If the iron horse ever snuffs the 
balmy air of California it will be, 
Fremont imagines, from the hills of 
Buena Vista." 

Carson then reports the trip of 
Lieut. Hamilton of the U. S. army by 
boat on Tulare coming in from 
King's river. 

A description of the agricultural 
possibilities follows: Among other 
crops he mentions that rice could be 
raised and recommends that the 
Chinese, numbering several thous- 
and, become citizens and take up 
this work and that of growing tea. 
Also states that there 4s ^'plenty of 
timber for plank or railroad ties, if 
a railroad is ever built in California. 
**It is but for the American people to 
say it shall be and presto, change — 
it is done! Things go slowly now 
between the two oceans, and unless 
gome genii of the Universal Yankee 

tribe invents '^n aerial road and 
some day come skimming it thru 
the air. the railroad will be built." 

In the vicinity of Tulare Lake 
thousands 'Of wild horses , roamed. 

Carson then refers to the mineral 
resources and predicts that this re- 
gion would be peopled with thous- 
ands of miners for a hundred years. 
At that time the miaers received 
their supplies from Stockton. 









> J": r - 



,:t. . " 



t'^'-^^'-'^Jl. 






Ji.v'-.. ■ . , '. .' 'vry 






o 



riginal Defective 






tidKi^.'vT'' 






•; ?(>>-■:•>■.■ 






'K::fy';J^^'^^-W:.^'t'^_^-yii ''n 







f 



CLOVIS CAU. INBEPCNDENT 



:!Ar M9S2 



Here 



_ BV MAY CASE — 

Some Early California Indian 



History 



(Continued from last week 
^'Burial — The tribes who were Ander 
the constraint of the Mission Indians 
bury their, squaws in a sitting posi- 
tion. The men in most instances, 




Atach^ribes of the Tulares, appear 
to be \ distinct race from the Digger 
Indians and the Notonotoes declare 
themselves to be the remnants of a 

great people. 

In 1847, the Notonotoes and the 
Ataches, having ascertained that the 
government of California had passed 
into the hand of the Americans, has- 
tened to make treaties with Colonel 
Mason, military governor of Califor- 
nia. At that time, the stipulation of 
these treaties only bound them to re- 



are burned, with the exception of the ^^^ American flag and people 

more civilized tribes around the i' ^.«po with the whites 



lakes who bury their dead and adorn 
the graves for a season with feathers 
and all fancy articles of which they 
are possessed. Before burial takes 
place the whole tribe spends a length 
of time howling in a piteous strain 
over the deceased who is finally con- 
signed to the earth amid incantations 
and presents from the survivors of 
his people. !?Vmong the tribes of low- 
ex- Diggers in their natural state, their 
dead are burned, men, women and 
children, as they have no tools of any 
kind, not even a knife with which to 
dig. I have witnessed many of these 
funerals of both sexes, from the 
withered and aged whose flesh has 
become dried and wrinkled, down to 
the infant which has fallen from its 
mother's arms, dead, and I will never 



and to be at peace with the whites 
for which the American armies were 
to give them protection. No broad 
or fertile lands were asked for or giv- 
en. 

"These Indians inhabit the shores 
of the lakes and north of Kings and 
cultivate corn and vegetables. They 
also catch fi^, kill wild horses and 
jerk the flesh and generally have 
plenty to eat. A great portion of 
them go to the settlements and 
towns during the summer and work 
for which they get well paid. They 
then purchase blankets and clothing 
and very few of them go naked in 
v/inter. Their habitations approach 
more toward civilazation being made 
of mats woven from Tules and flags 
v^hich are stretched on poles similar 



be able to erase this scene from my to the lodges of our eastern Indians 



mind. The first funeral I witnessed 
was on the Consume river and the 
rancheria on which the departed liv- 
ed, was situated on the beautiful bot- 
toms from which arose tall pines 
whose boughs formed a canopy above 
and around it rose the high and rug- 
ged hills tipped with everlasting 
snows and at our feet there murmur- 
ed the crystal waters of a fine creek. 
The scene was beautiful 

*'On a cleared piece of ground a 



These lodges are also furnished with 
many of these mats to sleep on. I 
have been in many rancheries of the 
Notonotoes and have partaken of 
their hospitality. The rancheries ot 
the Notonotoes are situated at the 
point of land formed by the junction 
of Kern river with Tule Lake. Thest 
Indians are intelligent, hospitable 



probability as it points to a phenom- 
ena in nature that we can see as be- 
ing possible. They say that many 
moons ago their tribe was large and 
powerful men. That they had large 
cities and inhabited all the lands. 
That in those days all the great val- 
leys of the Sacramtnto and the San 
Joaquin and Santa Clara were one 
sea that had no outlet where it now 
has San Francisco but that the wa- 
ters from it rushed into the sea near 
Monterey thru where the Pajara riv- 
er now runs but when their people 
were great and powerful the moun- 
tains melted and burned up, and in 
the flames their people were mosUy 
destroyed and while the mountaina 
continued to burn, the earth shook 
and the hills fell down and the waters 
rushed over them into the sea where 
it now does at San Francisco and left 
these valleys dry. This tradition is 
also related by the remnant left of 
the Santa Cruz Indians and from the 
rormation of the country to which it 
relates, it bears a likelihood of truth. 
On these Tulare plains there is to be 
found in the low hills seventy five 
feet above the level of the plain im- 
bedded in sand stone and gravel. The 
formation of the earth in the valley 
and hills is a great field for the geolo- 

gist " 

Carson then warns against the 

treachery of the Indians to people 
coming to California. 
He then gives a story of wild horses 
in California stating that they roamed 
the country in great droves of from 
200 to 3.000. Their range extended, 
from Mt. Diablo to Tulare Lake. He; 
stated that the plains were coveredl 
with them and that from an eminence 



iild see them by the thousand34 
and great friends of the white manlcne co ^^^^.^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ newspaper! 

and the only Indians in California I J- ^j^ animals an<i 



-On a clearea piece oi S-u.. <. ' ^^^.^^ „j ^^^ t history of 
short distance from the bushes a va^tl ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^ 

heap of dried wood was Pf <i "P J^ L^y ^f reckoning time by cutting 
which the departed was to be laid] J ^^ ^^_ 



and the only Indians in California, I .^.^^ to the wild animals and 

perhaps, who have traditions -^^J.^^^^^/^^^f ^Cr^cta^^tion of tul^ 

ands. 



and consumed. Curiosity lead our 
men to the spot. The sun has set 
and. night was drawing her sable 
mantle over the earth when the whole 
tribe was chanting unearthly incan- 
tations around the fires of their huts 
until darkness competely enveloped 



notches on a stick. This log or his- 
tci*y, is kept by the very old men who 
appear to have highest respect paidj 
them by members of their tribes. ^ 
Each notch in these sticks has a le- 
gend or traditionary tale of the time 
in which it was made. I would rec- 



until darKness compe.«.> -73:-|on,n,end the antiquarian to visit these 
fbP scene Then arose a wild shriek I ^"""^ ^ , ^^ ^. , 

the scene, ineu ^ .^^.^. .y,^. Indians and study these sticks, 

from out the hut of the departed that I 



was answered by every one in camp 
—torches were lighted— and by their 
glare the corpse was borne to the fu- 
neral pyre. The body was placed on 
it apd more fuel was piled around it 
— t^en commenced the wild chant — 
ai- incantation for the dead and mu- 
sic , for the funeral dance. The chief 
dpp'lied the first torch to the pile and 
in an instant it blazed forth in a hun- 
dred places. The screams of all com- 
bined arose wild and the unearthly 
forked flames that enveloped the body 
shot high up among th tall pines 
and lighted up the wild spot around. 
When the body has become charred 
b> the fire sharp poles ^ere repeated- 
ly thrust thru it, to aid the flames 
in their work of destruction and 
amidst the howling of these people, 
the dance continued until the body 
was consumed. The funeral of a 
captain is attended by more ceremo- 
ny and the wailings are kept up for 

of 



^^e could not understand their 
omputations of time as carried on 
:i this way. They have no other 
umerals than ten. Among the ma- 
y legends which they have is one 
r'hich bears with it some shade of 









ine creel 



The scene was beautiful 

•*On a cleared piece of ground a 
short distance from the bushes, a vast 
heap of dried wood was piled up on 
which the departed was to be laid 
and consumed. Curiosity lead our 
men to the spot. The sun has set 
and night was drawing her sable 
mantle over the earth when the whole 
tribe was chanting unearthly incan- 
tations around the fires of their huts 
until darkness competely enveloped 
the scene. Then arose a wild shriek 
from out the hut of the departed thac 
was answered by every one in camp 
— torches were lighted — and by their 
glare the corpse was borne to the fu- 
neral pyre. The body was placed on 
it apd more fuel was piled around it 
— t^en commenced the wild chant — 
ai- incantation for the dead and mu- 
sic^or the funeral dance. The chief 
Applied the first torch to the pile and 
in an instant it blazed forth in a hun- 
dred places. The screams of all com- 
bined arose wild and the unearthly 
forked flames that enveloped the body 
shot high up among tb tall pines 
and lighted up the wild spot around. 
When the body has become charred 
b> the fire sharp poles ^ere repeated- 
ly thrust thru it, to aid the flames 
in their work of destruction and 
amidst the howling of these people, 
the ci^,nce continued until the body 
was consumed. The funeral of a 
captain is attended by more ceremo- 
ny and the wailings are kept up for 
several days. The only marks of 
niourning for the departed are worn 
by the squaws on the death of a hus- l 
band. The squaws daub their fore- | 
beads, cheeks and breasts with a mix- 
ture of pitch and coals from the fu- 
neral pyre beaten together. During 
the time of wearing this mixture the 
squaw is held sacred and is exempt 
from all work. 

Mode of subslstance: in r n e 
spring of the year the Digger Indian 
lives on a specie of clover, which cov- 
ers the valleys and mountains, com- 
ing up about April 1st. This grass 
is fine and soft and lasts until the ex, 
treme dry weather. The squaws 
gather a few edible roots and seeds 
from imerent weeds, young tule 
shoolC bugs, worms, frogs, snakes 
many kinds of small roots are 
as food until the rivers reach 
low stages of water. The rivers are 
filled with the finest fish in the world 
and when the waters are low the In- 
dians catch them by hand and some- 
times they use spears and shoot them 
with arrows. During the fish season 
the Indians fare splendidly and eat 
until they become torpid. In the fall 
the acorn is hailed jubilantly and 
during the first part of the acorn 
season, the Indians hold their annual 
feast composed of fish and acorns 
and sometimes if a horse or buUock 
can be secured it is barbecued in a 
way peculiar to the Digger. 

* 'During the winter when the rains 
have rotted the seeds and the acorns 
are all eaten, the seeds of the white 
pine and such insects and small ani- 
n\als as they can kill constitutes their 
food. Many must annually die of 
starvation. Many of the Mission In- 
dians plftce their winter acorns high 
in the trees and but of reach of the 
grizzly bear, and thus have food most 
of the winter months. The squaws 
gather the food stuffs and work from 
early morning until night, but no 
provision is made for tomorrow. 

Tradition of the Notqpotos: ^As I 
remaAed before, the Notonotos and 



^'^rfSjVvMV'^r 




■vi^^y: 



^ Jousands. 

. Indians in California. J The remainder of this newspaper 

perhaps, who have traditions andj^tory relates to the wild animals and 
recollections of the past history of I game and the reclamation of tuh 
their race or country. They have a {lands, 
way of reckoning time by cutting 
notches on a stick. This log or his- 
tcry, is kept by the very old men who 
appear to have highest respect paid 
them by members of their tribes. 
Each notch in these sticks has a le- 
gend or traditionary tale of the time 
in which it was made. I would rec- 
ommend the antiquarian to visit these 
Indians and study these sticks. ^^m, 1^^^^^ .; >^^L:^r;v:'-.. -h-^s^^^^m '. 

"We could not understand their 
computations of time as carried on 
in this way. They have no other 
numerals than ten. Among the ma- 
ny legends which they have is one 
which bears with it some shade of 



'♦?> 






^^' •> 






'-t:- 






% 



K% 






OAKLAND. CALir.-- -TRffeUNE 

FEBRUARY 11, 1934 



Holt Mill Indian Battle 



■*«-^ 



UP IN GRASS VALLEY Edmund Kinyon 
is seeking information as to the exact 
location of the Holt Brothers saw mill which 
was attacked by Indians in 1850. Story has 
it, it was "four miles below Grass Valley" 
and Kinyon's best guess is that it was on 
Randolph Flat on the Rough and Ready 
Road. The sawmill attack was a vicious one 
while it lasted. A drunken white man had 
acted in ways to arouse the ire of Chief 
Wemeh and his tribe and it is reported that 
following a dance and ceremonies the Indians, 
a large number, attacked the mills. Samuel 
and George Holt, and James Walsh were 
there and, also, an invaluable dog named 
"Brutus/*' It was Brutus who did most to 
hold off the attack which quieted down after 
Samuel Holt had been killed by arrows. 
Beans Directory, published in 1867, says 
"Brutus for his courage and watchfulness 
was worth five men; he would seize an Indian 
by the throat who had been too obtrusive, 
and in divers ways evinced that he was the 
dog for the occasion." The Indians haying 
been avenged, they allowed George Holtv 
badly wounded, and Walsh to depart. Next; 
day came soldiers from Gamp Far West and 
a great number of miners. In two days the 
Indians had been killed or run away. Chief 
Wemeh and from sixty tb one hundred of 
the tribe were deported to a reservation at 
Laytonville, Mendocino County, where they 
were held for a number of years before being 
permitted to drift back to their old hunting 
grounds. On the subject,. the same region is 
taking interest in a plan to designate Storms 
Ranch as a historic landmark. There is noth- 
ing there now, save a depression in the 
ground, to mark the place, "where, by all 
accounts, stirring events once took place and 
from which high revelry was no stranger." 
In the older documents th^re are few; men- 
tions of Storms Ranch. Perhaps some of the 
older readers will be able to adci tb'thestory^ 



Yount at Yountville 

Perhaps it is not impertinent to ask how 
many know even a little of the history of 
George 0. Yount, after whom Yountville was 
named? A tribute paid him by the Daughters 
of the War of 1812 brings up the subject and 
the facts set forth in connection supply infor- 
mation concerning a sturdy figure of the fron- 
tier days in the Napa and Sonoma country. 
Yount, who had been an Indian fighter, arrived 
in the Napa W'alley in 1831 and engaged in 
trapping. He found the place a wilderness to de- 
light the soul of an adventurer, for there were 
Indians there in numbers, grizzly bear, ana 
all kinds of "varmints." Making friends with 
the Indians, this man who had fought other 
tribes established himself securely. In 1836 he 
built the first log house and raised the first 
chimney ever erected by an American in Cali- 
fornia, or at least that is the way the story has 
it. That log house was also a fort and the scene 
of many exciting affairs. Yount wrote of the 
bears: "They were everywhere on the plains, 
in the valleys and on the mountains, venturing 
within the camping grounds so that I have often 
killed as many as five or six in one day, and 
it was not unusual to see fifty or sixty within 
twenty-four hours." At Sonoma the Index- 
Tribune^ telling the story, adds : "Such was the 
colorful life of this grand old figure of early 
days. He was born in North Carolina in 1794 
and died at Yountville in 1865. Large land 
grants made to him by the Mexican government 
and later confirmed by the United States made 
him a wealthy man. He is credited with having 
erected the first flour and saw mill in the State 
of California. His war record before coming 
to California and his brave campaigns with the 
sons of Daniel Boone inspired the Daughters 
of the War of 1812 to revive his memory and 
erect the marker he so richly deserves^ 



■ •?;;->'.:,- 



\A;,i^^M 



(T (T L^ ha 



1^31 - 1?5(> 



EXETER, CALIF. 6UN 

JULY 2, 1931 



"BANDITS OF THE SAN JOAQUIN" 




By F- F. LATTA 

Copyright 1930, by F. F. Latta 



"It was an easy shot and I 
would surely have killed lii"^J^ 
the gun had not missed fire. The 
cartridge McPherson had found 
was rim fire and would not work 
in my gun. 

'Trocopio circled about to the 
south and forced a nearby Mexi- 
can to give him a horse, saying 
that he had just killed a man and 
had to leave the country. 

**This was the most exciting ex- 
perience of my life. The shooting 
did not last one minute, but in 
that time more than lorty shots 
must have been fired. ^. _, ^ 

''Sixteen shots were fired trom 
my rifle. Procopio fired at least 
twelve times. Whitesides tired 
five shots. Other members ol the 
posse fired at _ least ten shots- 



persuasion, promised to show 
them the Saucelito Valley, where 
the outlaws were encamped, on 
condition that he be allowed to 
retire before the fun commenced. 
This was agreed to, and the party 
climbed the last ridge which over- 
looked the valley. Three small 
huts were to be seen. It was evi- 
dent that the retreat of the gang 
lay farther up the canyon. 

"Acting on the suggestion of 
the Alameda sheriff, the posse di- 
vided into three parties, «ach ot 
which was to surround one of the 
adobe huts and capture any in- 
mates. Before they could carry 
warning to the bandits. 

"Little did the brave officers 
surmise that the dreaded outlaws 
were at the very moment enscon- 



Tiosse fired at least ten snoi^. were at i.ne vcxjr .xw...^*.« ;„: nf 
wu^ +Vm Pxcention of McPher- ced in fancied security in one of 
^i Procopfo w^^^^ only one the very habitation, they were 

who hH anithin^^^ I believe that approaching. Morse and Dei^uty 

where they met a Mexican whom 
they asked for a drink of water. 



horse. 

"During the shooting the horses 
Ihad pulled the hitching rack 
Idown and were running across 
the plains still tied to the pole. 
It was some time before we 
^ould catch the horses. 

**As soon as I caught my horse 
1 rode back to the store after 
more cartridges. A portion of the 
posse then took up Procopio s 
trail, but were not able to ovei- 

take him.'' ^^^^ 

JUAN SOTO 
The following account fyom the 
files of the Overland Monthly 
was prepared by. John A. Henshan 
from data furnished by bheritt 
Harris of Santa Clara county, a 
member of the posse which lan 
Soto to earth. This data was 
i-urnished at a time when the 
event was fresh in the minds of 
the participants and is undoubt- 
edly the most complete and accur- 

ate obtainable. „j^oc 

-Another of these desperadoes 

less known but more brutal even 



The bandit, for such he was, led 
the way to the house, and Morse 
and Winchell, after dismounting, 

followed him. 

**Neither officer expected to 
encounter opposition, but Morse 
took the precaution to carry his 
revolver in his hand, leaving his 
rifle behind, hanging to the sad- 
dle. Winchell carried a double- 
barreled shotgun loaded with 

buckshot. 

"Their guide entered the nut, 
and Morse and Winchell followed, 
only to find themselves confront- 
ed by Soto, and surrounded by a 
dozen desperate outlaws and their 
pnramours. Then commenced ^ 
fight which will be told and re- 
told as long as the exploits of 
bi-ave men are remembered. 

**Morse, with a quick intuition 
born of previous encounters, saw 
^Vat a moment's hesitation would 
be disastrous, and almost comci- 



than Vasquez, was 



tnan v a&quc^, "— , 

This renegade also seemed to oe 
favored by chance for years in 
his exemption from •CTtJtirre. 

*'0f mixed Indian and Mexican 
blood, he was a veritable Her^- 

lles, standing ^i^^^^W'^'MO 
in height, and weighing over 220 
pounds. A veritable human wild- 
cat, absolutely devoid of fear, and 
animated by a devourmg hatred 
of the Americans who were slow- 
ly establishing the reign of lavv 
and order in California, he. was 
dreaded even by his associates. 
His narrowed eyes, low forehead 
ind thick lower lip were but the 
3hvsical manifestations of as 
:ruel a spirit as ever animated a 

luman being. . ., 

-This renegade operated n the 
uivermore Valley and ^adjacent 



Drutai tJveii oe aisastruua, onu c*.aw-"v 

Juan Soto, dent wHh his entrance, covered 



Soto with his weapon and com- 
manded him to put up his hands. 
**The sheriff, who pays the 
renegade the tribute of being a 
man of unsurpassed V^V^^^f 
bravery, recounts how the banaiL 
sat immovable as a graven im- 
age, and elared at him. The rest 
of the Mexicans began to draw 
their weapons, and Morse again 
gave the order to surrender with- 
out dieting any response. At 
this, the American officer still 
keeping the leader covered with 
his weapon, drew his handcuffs 
with his free hand, and throwing 
them on the table, ordered Win- 
chell to advance and arrest the 
outlaw. The deputy advanced to 
his task bravely enough, but weak- 
ened at the critical moment, and 



oiiotr and adiaceni/ eneci ai/ tue v;iiuiv«i .».x-.- , 

■ -V r. fZ to S^n Luis seized with a frenzy .of fear ran 

ountry «"/°^". ^^^ thrbloody 1 „«t of the door, leaving the sher- 

b.spo. H«.»"amtr l.v his at-hlT in the midst of as ferocious a 



vn^. 



Wkh the exception of McPher- ' ced in fancied security in one o 

son Procopio was the only one the very habitation, they were 

iwho hit anything. 1 believe that approachinj?. Morse and Deputy 

McPherson killed Whiteside's Sheriff Winchell connprised the 
Mcl^herson k 1 1 ^.^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

**DurinK the shooting the horses where they met a Mexican whom 



had pulled the hitching rack 
Idown and were running across 
he plains still tied to the pole. 
it was some time before we 
•ould catch the horses. 

**As soon as I caught my horse 
, rode back to the store after 
more cartridges. A portion ot the 
posse then took up Procopio s 
trail, but were not able to over- 
take him.'* «^^^ 
JUAN SOTO 

The following account from the 
files of the Overland' Monthly 
was prepared by John A. HenshaU 
from data furnished by Sheriff 
Harris of Santa Clara county, a 
member of the posse which ran 
Soto to earth. This data was 
iurnished at a time when the 
event was fresh in the mmds ol 
the participants and is undoubt- 
edly the most complete and accur- 
ate obtainable. , , 

''Another of these desperadoes 

less known but more brutal even 
than Vasquez, was Juan boto. 
This renegade also seemed to be 
favored by chance for years m 
Ibis exemption f rgiiJ^ -^it^ture. 



they asked for a drink of water. 
The bandit, for such he was. led 
the way to the house, and Morse 
and Winchell, after dismounting, 
followed him. 

**Neither officer expected to 
encounter opposition, but Morse 
took the precaution to carry his 
revolver in his hand, leaving his 
rifle behind, hanging to the sad- 
dle. Winchell carried a double- 
barreled shotgun loaded with 

buckshot. 

"Their guide entered the hut, 
and Morse and Winchell followed, 
only to find themselves confront- 
ed by Soto, and surrounded by a 
dozen desperate outlaws and their 
nnramours. Then commenced ^ 
fight which will be told and re- 
told as long as the exploits of 
brave men are remembered. 

"Morse, with a quick intuition 
bom of previous encounters, saw 
*^^at a moment's hesitation would 
be disastrous, and almost coinci- 
dent w'th his entrance, covered 
Soto with his weapon. and com* 
manded him to put up his hands, 

**The sheriff, who pays the 



"Of mixed Indian and Mexican renegade the tribute of bemg a 
blood, he was a veritable n»^- \ man of unsurpassed physical 
les standing »ix feat -twtr inches i bravery, recounts how the bandit 
in height and weighing over 220 1 gat immovable as a graven im- 



pounds. A veritable human wild- 
cat, absolutely devoid of fear, and 
animated by a devouring hatred 



age, and glared at him. The rest 
of the Mexicans began to draw 
their weapons, and Morse again 



of the Americans who were slow- gave the order to surrender with- 
ly establishing the reign of lav^lout elicting any response. At 



land order in California, he was 
Idreaded even by his associates. 
:is narrowed eyes, low forehead, 
md thick lower lip were but the 
)hysical manifestations of as 
jruel a spirit as ever animated al 
luman being. ., 

*'This renegade operated in tne 
.ivermore Valley and adjacent 
country on down to San l^uis 
ibispo. He attained the bloody 
llimax of his career by his at- 
tack on an American family ,^i 
;unol in January, 1871. On that 
)ccasion, as the shade of evening 
ieepened, he entered the little 
jtore of Thomas Jones m the Ala- 
Tieda county village, ki led the 
;lerk, Otto Ludovici, and robbed 

;he store. , ^. -, x 

**Before leaving, he fired two 

Dr three volleys into the room at 

he rear of the store, where Mrs. 

IJones and her children were 

Touched in terror. But his lust 

or blood was satisfied by the 

bight of the dead body of the 

blerk, and he watched the 

Frightened family run across to 

I neighbor's house without fur- 

:her molesting them. .^ \p 

-' **Harry Morse, then sheritt oi 



this, the American officer still 
keeping the leader covered with 
his weapon, drew his handcuffs 
with his free hand, and throwing' 
them on the table, ordered Win- 
chell to advance and arrest the 
outlaw. The deputy advanced to 
his task bravely enough, but weak- 
ened at the critical moment, and 
seized with a frenzy of fear, ran 
out of the door, leaving the sher- 
iff in the midst of as ferocious a 
band of .murderers as were ever 
gathered together. 

**As the deputy disapper^d, a 
g-VfiPtic Mexican Amazon hurled 
herself upon Morse from behind 
nnd seized his pistol arm. A male 
desperado grabbed his other arm, 
and Soto arose, drawing his own 
weapon and shoutino- to his men 
to close in and kill the hated 
American officer. Morse, an ex- 
ceptionally strong and active man, 
was at that time in the very prime 
of manhood, and as fine an ath- 
lete as the State could boast. 
With the knowledge that life or 
death depended on his next move, 
he exerted his powers, and threw 
off both his assailants, at the same 
time discharging his weapon at 



he county, determined to spend Soto. But in the dusky light his 



..^:l'' 



lis entire time, as far as possible, 
m running this murderer's head 

into a noose. . 

^A posse was organized, and, 
ifter long weeks of scouting it 
;as learned that his headquarters 
^ere in a canyon in the Panoche 
bountains some fifty miles from 
Gilroy. This country is today 
)ut little traversed, and then was 
probably the least known and 
lost avoided section of Central 
California. A few Mexicans, os- 
knsibly sheep-herders, but in al- 
lost every case allies of the 
.bandits, lived in scattered adobe 
|huts, hidden by protecting rocks. 
**There were no roads, ana 
|Morse*s party comprised in all 
probability the first Americans 
to penetrate the jumbled moun- 
tain ranges and cross their almost 
inaccessible canyons. In con- 
iunetion with Sheriff Harris, of 
Santa Glara county, a few proven 
nu-n were chosen, and the party 
y^X out to kill or capture Soto and 
nis associates. As they advanced, 
no signs of human habitation could 
\hv discerned. 

'The third day out, however, a 
lone Mexican sheepherder was 
caught sight of who, after much 



aim was faulty, and the bullet 
only pierced the bandit's hat. 

**Soto, sure of his prey, leaped 
from his seat at the same moment 
as Morse, with a herculean effort, 
sprang backward through the 
door. The outlaw followed, and 
then a duel to the death com- 
menced on the open space be- 
tween the hut and the corral. 
Soto had a wide reputation of be- 
ing a dead shot, in addition to 
his magnificent physical endow- 
ments and undeniable nerve, and 
his associate bandits watched the 
encounter confident that he 
would quickly finish the officer. 

*'When the fight commenced 
on the outside, Soto was within 
five yards of his opponent. He 
fired point blank at him four 
times, but Morse with an ^almost 
superhuman intuition, timed his 
shots, and, dropping to the ground 
at the 'psychologicar moment, 
avoided the bullets. 



(Continued Next Week) 



WeSDLAKF., CAL. ECHO 

JULY 3, mi . 




LATTAFIIJ 
INDIAN LIFE 
SCENES H E K E 



FIRST ATTEMPT I'OrftEPRqpUCE 
THE OLD LIFE OF THE WUK- 
CHUMNE INDIANS WHO 
LIVED HERE 



County Historian F. F. Latta, of 
Tulare was in Woodlake Tuesday on 
work connected with his work of re- 
producing in motion pictures the 
native life of the Wukchumne In- 
dians, a sub-tribe of the Yocuts, who 
once inhabited the entire San Joa- 
quin valley, and who were numerous 
in this section, and especially along 
the Kaweah river near Lemon Cove. 

Mr. and Mrs. Icho, two of the re- 
maining members of the almost ex- 
tinct tribe, and their grandchildren 
were with Mr. Latta. Under the 
direction of their seniors the child- 
ren, garbed in the costumes of the 
olden days cut tules in the low lands 
east of town, in the fashion of their 
forefathers. The tules are to be 
used in constructing an Indian 
house in the true Wukchumne fash- 
ion. This work is now being done 
under the eye of the motion camera 
on the Kaweah river in an isolated 
spot east of Visalia. 

To date Mr. Latta has produced 
about 1000 feet of film on Indian 
life, which is but a beginning of his 
work. He plans to use the film for 
educational purposes to be used in a 
series of lectures which he is giving 
in the schools of the valley an 
before clvi&^rganizations. 



LINRSAV. . ALIF. CAZETtE 



Latta Froducing 
Film Story Of 
Valley Indians 



F. F. Latta of Tulare, who is well 
known herr as a histot-ian of fndian 
life in Tulare county, is producing 
a film, showing the native life of 
the Wukchumne Indians, who once 
inhabited the entire San Joaquin 
valley. The pictures are being shot 
on the Kaweah river in an isolated 
spot east of Visalia. Latta intends 
1 to use the film for educational pi 
I poses in a series of lectures w^h 
ihe will give in the valley. 



SENTINEL * 

^^^LY lb, ly^i 




A vivid word picture ^ tlj Sa 
I Joaquin valley, Qven before tA firs 
white settlers made their holies i 
the valley, was given at the Klwani 
club luncheon at Peden's today b 
F. F. Latta of Tulare, who gave 
sketch of the Indian tribes that^ 
made their homes on the floor of 
the valley before the days of Gener- 
al Fremont. 

Prof. Latta stated tnat he had 
gained a valuable knowledge of In- 
dian life and conditions in the val- 
ley by talking with the early settlers 
and of a more intensive study of 
history. 

Once Indian Nation 
The San Joaquin valley, he said, 
was at one time occupied by one 
large Indian nation, composed ^f 
tribes whose customs differed m 
proportion to their environment. 
There were three strictly different 
types of cultiire among the In- 
dians of the valley and their lan- 
guage varied with their localities. 

He said there are at present only 
a few full-blooded Indians of the 
early tribes left in the valley. 

Speaking of their customs he not- 
ed that an Indian village in the 
valley was not a mere collection of 
huts, but such villages were govern- 
ed by ordinances and laws much the 
same as modern towns. There were 
rules of sanitation and the destruc- 
tion of refuse, and against the pol- 
luting of streams, and the govern- 
ment was conducted with but little 
1 trouble or quarreling. 

Tells of Tache Tribe 
In his closing remarks Prof. Latta 
spoke interestingly on the Tache 
tribe of Indians that lived on the 
shores of Tulare lake, and whose 
descendants now occupy the ranch- 
erie south of Lemoore. He told of 
their custom of hunting and fishing 
and how they constructed huge rafts 

I of tules, on which they would spend 
perhaps a week cruising about the 
lake, fishing and hunting wild ducks 

li and geese. 

Owing to the ever changing shore 

II line of the lake, the speaker pointed 
out it was impossible for these In- 
dians to build what might be called 
permanent habitations. Their dwell- 
ing were houses built of tules some- 
times 100 yards or more in length, 
and in these the entire tribe lived, 

IJ each family having its own camp 
fire and living and sleeping spaces, 

Ij but never quarreling with their 

1! neighbors. He referred to 'Indian 
Bob," a well-known character of 

I rancherie, who, he said, knew the 
lore of the medicine men, and the 
art of practicing the charms on his 
tribe. 



HArJFOPvD CAL. JOURNAL 

JULY 10, rj2i 



T'JLARE. CALIF. r TIMESI 

JULY Id, 11)31 



I 

|San Joaquin Indian History Section 
Of Lalta Serial To Begin Tomorrc 
Many Interesting Topics Discussed! 



With thcT^oj^cJhsioh^^^^ this issue 
lof the aiTKkeoIojry secttn of F. F. | 
iLatta's *MUsU>ry of th| San Joa- 
huin Valley", the section describ- 
ing: the Indians of the San Joa<iuin 
Iwill he taken up, starting tonior- 
Irow. Subsequently the sections re- 
llatinK to the Spanish, Mexican and 
learly American re/^imes will be ' 
Ipublished. , 

In l.atta's section about the red 

Inien who formerly inhabited this 

valley is con) pi led a jrreat deal of 

hntereiitin;; infonnation, ijnd re;jd 

CIS of the Times are advited to 



miss none of the installments. Somcl 
of the topics to be dealt with arc] 
*'Origin of the Indians", "The Yo- 
kuts or San Joaquin Valley In-| 
dians", **The River People", "Wuk 
chumne llo^wallow Myth", "Thcl 
Pestilence of J 833", "The 5^weat-| 
house", "The Mother-in-la>v Pro- 
blem", "Salt from Salt Grass", 
"Blackberry Jam", "Acorn Bread,,^ 
"Yokuts Football", "Indian Paint- 
ings", "MVibal Traditions", **The 
Lost Treaties", "Armona Ranch- 
eria", "Th^: Chowchillas", and '4va- 
weah Kivtr Myths/' 



m\mi LIFE IN 

KING^ DESCRIBED BY 
SPEMK AT KPNIS 



-'*->' 



The life of tjle original ^ttlers of 
the San Joaquin valley — the Indi- 
ans — was outlined yesterday at the 
Kiwanis club luncheon at Peden's 
cafe by P. F. Latta of Tulare 

Latta declared that much of his 
knowledge of the Indians had been 
gained in talks with early settlers 
and in an intensive study of his- 
tory. Three distinct tribes, though 
members of the same nation, inhab- 
ited the valley in early days, he 
declared. The languages and cus- 
tims of the tribes varied with the 
localities. 

Indian villages, he stated, were 
not merely a collection of huts but 
were governed by laws in much the 
same manner as a modern town. 
Sanitation and the destruction* ofl 
refuse, the polluting of streams and, 
other matters were all governed by 
rule. Little trouble originated from| 
the enforcement of the regulations. 

The Tache tribe, making their] 
homes on the shore of Tulare lake,! 
were discussed by the speaker. 
Their methods of hunting and fish- 
ing were described. The Taches 
would construct large rafts of tules 
and spend possibly a week cruising 
about the lake on their fishing and 
hunting expeditions. The Taches 
had no permanent homes, the ever- 
changing shoreline prohibiting a 
settled residence. Their buildings' 
were generally of tules, sometimes 
100 feet in length, each family hav- 
ing a certain space in the commu- 
nity shelter. Latta also described 
the lore of the medicine men of the 
tribe. 



VISALIA, CALl' 
VISALIA'J 

JULY 17. K'lSl 



Latta Filming 
Indian Records 

i. 

F. F. Latta <7f Tulare, who is be- 
coming widelj^ known by his 
knowledge of Indian lore, is mak- 
ing a film of Indian life in Tu- 
lare county, showing the native 
life of the Wukchumne Indians, 
who once inhabitated the entire 
San Joaquin valley. Latta intends 
to use the film for educational 
purposes in a series of lectures 
which he will give in the Valley. 

The historian 'is busily engaged 
at present in completing his col- 
lection of data for a valley Indian 
history which promises to be one 
of the most complete ever ass^^arf- 
bled. .^^ 



TULARE. CALir. 
^OVANCir. REGISTER 



I 




Delegates Named To S 
Conclave In September 
At Long Beach 



a- 



»» 



"More about Indian:-'," Avas IIkC- 
[theme of K. F. Latta's ijiterestiiiru 
talic lu.st uight to lUo 20-:50 chillit 
at its rPiL::ular uieethjg in the Tloje- 
Itel Tulare. o 

Latta i\Qc.]avi\d thctt the pasi?iniit 
lot' I lie Red Man ^vas his reason foil 
making the studies ho is — to vmW 
servo tlie records of these first in-le 
habitautj:; of tin.' iS.m Joaqiun r^*;il a 
ley. 

That th(;yd)d iiihabil it. thai thisi 
valley at one time was tiiickly' 
populated with Indians, is a fact,! 
declared T^atta, for even yet therel 
is one old Indian wlio remembers^ 
tb<' coming oi" tiie lirsf white iiien,> 



( Continue 







pie had clalineir'^Ihrs^llTnimctlm^ 
Lige Smith was another man who 
Iiad come before Fromont, Latta 
found out from Molly. That the 
first settlerB were not Spanish, but 
were "Americanoa," was another 
fact Latta learned from her. Molly 
declared that the first aettlers came 
about 1827 or 1828, and that after 
stopping a week or two at what is 
now Lemon Cove, they went north. 

The remarkable thing about Blind 
Molly's tales, declared Latta, is 
that they check exactly with other 
records of these first settlings by 
white people. 

The 20-30 club decided duriug the 
meeting to send the president of 
the club, Hugh Ross, and the im- 
mediate past presidout, Frank Boy- 
sen, to the state 20-30 convention 
at Long Beach in September. 

It was also announced that eiglit 
of tlie members would be preeent 
at the charter ceremonies for th* 
newly-formed Lindsay Club Satur- 
day uight. 




*!\. ► wvi- 









, I v ., J- J' ■ 



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.'./-'> ■r/C 



I 



[JM pohituoad Aip^pa<«B ..bjm. 



ooixciM ui ido:i aupq s'ibm 9ii5 djai;^! 
puno; o\\ *^o\uoyi b^uisq %j aoueiBddcJ 
-c;k ..puBs o] jjns.. aaq opBiu uosjgii, 
-oiv oidiuds 3^iujv U3UA VMl P^iui«., 
opirq •uoi)BU|iu«xa .jq-j ^uuna 

uniii^sB oq) o; -^uas 3( 
o"; udiind \j unof ^pnf jo.xsdns /^< 
pajopjo puB 'paDUBi^jqun paounouoj^ 
puB f»UBP^s\?i(d .^q pouiuiixa 'sua^aunl 
-p.ail dO]:od 0^ ua^iB; Xhbuij sfm oh 

..•ui]u oa.ij 0-^ Hl^nl 
UdiOH ioujoAOO uosiJd o)U| ;:^m«a 
neiW puB a^.CA^Bl ]B9a2 b piiB ubui aui 
|t3 s:„ saXaM SujiBiJap Xq jjB^b' ^^^\i;\ 
loqiL paAouuB aq 'aaAa,uou 'Xspaa^sa^^ 

\«)nu„ s.^aiuuBq b;sb papaB8aa uao< 
ipBU ^nq *y[9^iA ^yBx aq) joj aoijjo s,',joi 
'.ioAo3 aq; SuniniFq uoaq psq apit^T 

•ABpoi iB^tdyoq oinrbiq 110)^00)5 
iq-^ o'j Aba siq qo s'b-.*a S'a*C^^ tgv 
jaj; 0-^ qoiqM q'JiM 000' I $ ^'^iJ o\ Aspjc 1 
•saA aJUjo s.qdioH JouasAo-o o) ^uoat 
iq.v^ uBxuaao Plo-aBaA-69 *apu;q yac 
rOH— (cTI) '€2 ^inf 'OXM3T4VHOVS 



VISALIA, CALM- 



ViSALIA'^^l 



JULY 



i. 



IVU 



Latta Filming 
Indian Records 

F. F. Latta <rfTplare, who is be- 
coming widely- known by his 
knowledge of Indian lore, is mak- 
ing a film of Indian life in Tu- 
lare county, showing the native 
life of the Wukchumne Indians, 
who once inhabitated the entire 
San Joaquin valley. Latta intends 
to use the film for educational 
purposes in a series of lectures 
which he will give in the Valley. 

The historian is busily engaged 
at present in completing his col- 
lection of data for a valley Indian 
history which promises to be one 
of the most complete ever ass( 
bled. 




n[A8v ox ;u^ 



_ i* 






20-30 Club Hears 
Talk By Latta 

(ConUnuod from Pagj^ i) . 

aud.ke can describe the eairlj' ti*ea- 
t^h, signed in 1851. betweet^ tlie 
wUi:<^ ^j'jUlers and the Red Men. 

**0)d IJill- Wlkon, or "Pah-mit," 
i« tiiu oidesc inhabitant of this soc- 
tiuu of tJie valley who was born 
Jiojo, h'aid Latta. He lives at Friant 
aacl i:.^ iww about 303 years of age. 
\iiollier Indian, "Blind Molly," who 
died in 1928, had lived to be about 
107 or 108, Latta declared. 

From her he got much informa- 
tion about the early white people 
in this valley. Though he had a 
difficult time getting this squaw to 
talk, Latta sa^s he finally accom- 
plished it by discovering an old 
Indian language that she had not 
heard for many years. It pleased 
her so he won her confidence. 
She told him that a Mr. Evertou 
was the first settler on the Ka^ 
weah river, though many white peo- 
ple had claimed this distinction. 
Lige Smith was another man who 
had come before Fremont, Latta 
found out from Molly. That the 
first settlers were not Spanish, but 
were "Americanos," was another 
fact Latta learned from her. Molly 
declared that the first settlers came 
about 1S27 or 1828, and that after 
stopping a week or two at what is 
now Lemon Cove, they went north. 
^ The remarkable thing about Blind 
Molly's tales, declared Latta, Is 
that they check exactly with other 
records of these first settlings by 
white people. 

The 20-30 club decided during the 
meeting to send the president of 
the club, Hugh Koss, and the im- 
mediate past presidout, Frank Boy- 
sen, to the state 20-30 convention 
at Long Beach in September. 

It was also announced that eigJit 
of thQ members would be present 
at the charter ceremonies for thr 
newly.formed Lindsay Club Satur- 
day ulght. 



TULARE, QAL'.r., TIMES - 

JULY 2'6, iDGi 

Passing Of Indian 
Life Latta's Theme 
In 20-30 Club Talk 

A talk by y. F..talta iuthority 
on San .JoatfuUi valloy hfstory, on 
the extinction of the ralifoniia 
Indian, livened the 20-.*U) club meet 
held last nii^ht at Hotel Tulare. 

It was voted to pay the expenses 
of the president and past president 
|h.s deleg'ates to the state 20-30 con- 
vention, which will be held at Lon^ 
I Beach over Labor day. 

Eugene A skin was chairman of 
lentertainment for the meeting, 
over which Hugh Ross, president, 
presided. Arnold Beck will he in 
charpfe of entertainment next Wcd- 
Inesday. 

Latta jjave a vivid description 
lof the pradual disappearance of 
Indian life after the coming of the 
white men. He described Blind 
Molly, an Indian woman who saw 
|the first surVL'yors enter the Sa^ 
Joa(iuin. iMolly died two years ago 
|at the a^-e of 108. 

When live su iveyors passed 
llhrou^rh, the IndiMns wcro curious 
las to the reason \'(>r the stakes they 
drove into the )Lcn>und. After the 
white men had ^one on, the re<l 
nuMi ]>uMcd up the slakes and were 
much puzzled not to find anything 
|at the bottom of them. 

The arrival of the first trappers 
svas also describeil by Latta. 



FRESNO, CALIF, 

AUGUST G, 1031 




V 



LOS BANO^-Mereed Co., A:ug. 5. 

— At yesterday's liJ^cHfion of the 

Los Bancs Exchangre club, Frank 

Latta, historian, of Tulare, was the 

guest speaker. He talked for 20 

minutes on the history of this part 

of the San Joaquin valley, from the 

days of the oxcart road which 

crossed the Los Banos creek in the 

Menjoulet canyon, [^atta stated that 
the road dex'eTop^^^ from antelope 
trails into Il^dian trails and later 
into oxcart i^oui^s. He also gave 
historical facts concerning the 
early Pacheco pass road. 



'^"^'-^-^ ^^i, I'm 
I Early Days Of 
i Valley Will Be 
Shown At Fair 

TULARE. Tulare Co^ Aug. 30.— 
One of the most unique special ex- 
hibits ever ^.presented In California, 
a lilcture gallery containing more 
than 800 photographs of Tulare 
<*ounty pioneers and early scenes, 
is now being prepared for the Tu- 
lare county fair here September 22 
to 26 by F. F. Latta of this city. 

Latta, one of the best know au- 
thorities on Indian and pioneer life 
of the San Joaquin valley, alcfady 
lias a collection of approximately 
800 pictures of well known early 
pioneers and scenes, together with 
authentic and detailed information 
concerning each. Such historical 
f^vents as the cutting and shipping,' 
of the first redwoods to the Cen- 
II tennial exposition in Philadelphia 
in 1876 and the World's fair in 
Chicago in 1893, grain harvesting 
and ranching scenes are Included 
in the collection. 

I^tta is hopeful that several hun- 
dred more Interesting photographs 
will be added to the display prior 
to the opening of the fair and re- 
quests that any person who has 
such a photograph communicate 
with him. If photographs are sent 
direct, he asks that the senderl 
write the name of the person, date 
of settlement in Tulare county, anc 
any other necessary information o 
tlie back of the photograph. Sub 
jects should have resided In th 
^>tnUy in the 80« or before 



LC3 GANGS CALIF. 

~ r-i r 'Z r: p i^isz 



Farm Bureau Hears ITalkj 
On Indians / 

mSettrs^xrf-'^lae^FBxm Bureau 
last F^day evening was replete with 
numlberk of interest. y" 

The flW on the prq^ram was a 
film prodl^etion undfer supervision 
of W. H. Al^pn, Jr., and exemipltfled 
what womeai oap do in way of home 
canning and reserving of fruits, 
vegetables and m^ts. 

After regular ibii^ness work had 
been dispensed with "<)fiacers for the 
ensuing year were placed in nomi- 
nation for the coming year, to bei 
eecteera^t Ul^ nw i i -^regular meeting. 

Prank Latta of Tulare gave an| 
entertaining talk on the early his- 
tory of the San Joaquin valley and! 
devoted his lecture to the discussion' 
of the Indians and their habits and 
haibitations. The livtnig, habits of 
these first settlers were compared 
with those who inhabited the great] 
plains, with our own Indians gain- 
ing by the comparison. Their houses 
being more substantially construct- 
ed giving proof of a more perman- 
ent abode against the roving habits 
of the great plains Indians. 

Mr. Latta displayed a few baskets | 
as examples of Indian workmanship, 
the making of these baskets being 
done by the women and young 
children. 



^■'•^ 





>■£■■ 



■%v^r,-. 



'■\ ••."■' ♦■V^irfi-.^.rt;' ■■?;. '.T- 



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iii^f.'i^ '^^ 



!S^l?^^fe^gy;aa^^jfB^H 



CALIFORNIA 

OCTODLiv i I; j.:)31 



^ 



^.?Y 




^^ 



•V.^ 






^'Wl 



LL ADDRESS STUDENTS 



McFARLAND, Oct. 14. -^F. 



:k 



J- 

of Tulare will speaPjbefjre a , 
assembly of the stu^nt*t)ody a 
local high school Thursday at 1 ■ 
Latta stuAlftd* »»d Kpecialized 1 
early history of this country and 
lecture on Indians and their customs. 
He will be afifijmjpanied here by an 
Indian womanTwho' will give a dem- 
onstration fifteiMi ket making. E. P. 
Janes, principal, gives a special In- 
vitation to patrons of the school who 
nre interested. 





^ORTFPVTLi P. CALir. 
RECORDER 



■ ■ 1*-. v^■■ 






^^.jKi^iMiaitL 





//;\^-^:;':^' 






>V- 



• ■■■..■■ >■ ij V 



SUCCESS-SPRINGVILLE 

.Miss Sylvia Wylde- . . 



Knder Iho (lwctif)U4)f Mrf Williani 
IliliXiT, distri( t . (Imifinjin pf liuliaii 
Welfare, of the California j^eileratioii 
of Women's (^lul)s, an inlerestinixl P^ovitled theui. Mr. and Mrs. (.. 4>. 



an 

program was j^lven in the s(h<K)lli()use 
of the Tule Kive r Indian Uesen ;aion 
Sunday 'Tif It'l iiuuil'.""" "" '" ' ■— ■'*— -^ 

Tlie fii'st i>()rtion of the proirrani 

Iwas (ievnted to nuisic. furnished by 

1 1 wo pijjno i)Ui)ils of Miss Wylde, 

l!.on-ain<' and .f. I>. Wilson. Attired 

11 Indian costume. Lorraine f>pened 

he program with a i)iano scdo, Little 

llndian CJiief, l)y Lily Strickland. 

IXunilKTs 'foJlowinLC were waltz from 

1 Trovatore: .Jack and the Beanstalk, 

LaOrande: Hird Waltz. I'anaronvo: 

dinuet, M(>zai*t: Schubert's ^^erenade: 

[Mxie'sGood Xi^iijht Son.u-, Brown. This 

kvas foilowiMl hy ii .sjroup of piano solos 

play(Hl hy Lorraine's younger hroth- 

M-. J. 1).. as follows: Sweet Violets, 

.oh'kM': Scissors Grinder. Krh : Bee 

ilaich. Miller: Brownies in the Moon- 

li.i^hi, Hulton. The children told sca'- 

■ral stories. inti'odu<-tory to their 

jarious selections, ;!s well as tlie story 

|»r St. (Vcilia, Va- and Schuhert, dis- 



part of th^frfter>mTtfi\^ proijram them- 
selves in a very hearty manner. That 
the liidian has a sense of humor and 
can, when apin-oaeiieil witU kindness 
and understan(Tf%. ijuhend , f r^m bis 
so called tacit urnjty, was fujly dem- 
'VMS t rated Sunday afternoon by their 
response to the afteruooh's program 



Sheward, teacher and housekeei)er at 
the reservation for the past three 
years, were present also, and annotinc- 
ed that $24.00 in prizes were award- 
ed the school children of the Tule 
Kiver L'^servation at the Sacramento 
state fair, and that the firs^t prize of 
$10.00 for the l>est exhibit front, an 
Indian day school, had l>een (i 
th'v^ priz(^s w(»n, an annHni 
that was enthusiastically iinNPei' 
Mrs. ililgcr, who has seitAH*# 
dian Welfare Chairman, for a 
ber of yenrs, has several special fea-^^ 
tures In mind for the Indians thi$ \ 
season, and Avili conduct another i)ro- | 
there in the near futtire. ) 




.giam 



..Mli' 



oi' the subjects. 

Kricnds," an orig- 

I)., completed the 



hhiying jtictur 
j'dood Bye. 
Inal re*if'''» . ;'; I. 
•hildri n om'jiir.. 

K. i\ Latta. (»! 'rr.lare. -who is de- 
oi ii.L'. his " fline if) in dian research^ 

iH'k, gave a ta!\-. lonching n]M)n his ^ 
[ndeavors to rcrord foimcr hidian 
lames of (Mni\- dM\ villages, 'tribes 
:nd evi'rything possihlo touching u])on ! 
Indian history, Each cajiyon, foothill | 
11(1 stream has its Indian name, stat-j 
[d Latta, and these lie will make an, 
jffort to obtain and to make a mat- j 
ler of record. Tm^ speak(*r, using" 
blackboard illustrations, began with | 
Jlie time wlien the Indian wms the sole! 
Inhabitant of what is now the White j 
nan's country, and when '• ('huko - 
d shjj^i '' an Indian villag(\ occupied 
liepresent site of l*orterville. 

At oue time, Mr. Latta .stated, 50 1 
Irihes. designated us *'Vokuts." all j 
[ipoke one laiiiiuage. The JMlv(»nt of j 
^l)aiiish' missions was touched upon, I 
jiiid t]i(» date ISO7 was given ^s show-' 
jiug practif'ally th{» entire San Joa- 
ijuin A'alley s(*ttled by jievv c<aners, 
[with llie Indians receding into the 
Ifool hills. Mr. Latta si)oke of the 
rVauh-dauhn-shees", the itribe of the 
VirpT^r-'TtiTr^r^TlV "K^^" tribe that 
inhabited the Jo( al "THstTict, of which- , 
lone representat^ive v/as present in ( 
llu^ audience, an Lidian having been 
morn on Deer Creek: and the "Chu- 
h^iilL tril)(>"*or'r?le Tulare Lake rivgion. 
FSfbiics and pronunciation of Indian 
words (h'lighled the Indians, who (M1- 
Jo\(»fl. thoroughly, Mr. Lalta's iiuder- 
jstaiidin^ manner with them, his time- 
ly l>ils of humor interspersing Jiis talk, 
tind his tactful (]uesti(ais which in- 
•i(id(Ml them, from time to time, in th(^ 
lectuiM'. ill a personal way. wliich 
l)rouglit f(U"tli excellent results. Mr. 
fi.'itta is (Micouraging tlie art of bask- 
'ti'y among the Indians, but is anx- 
;)iis t'> see thai a fair pricc^ is re- , 
•ei\"(Ml toi' th(di* labors. The Indian j 
legend of how the wea\ing of dcfin- 
'.1:' [lattcriis came to l»e a i)art of 
l>a^k:'try was told, also, sojiic of tlie 
|older Indians amonu the audi^'iice be- 
ing fji miliar with bits of ili<» story,- 
as they were with- Jiiethods of smok-" 
ing out s(|uirr(ds, (dd-time deer hunting 
and other nctivities sivoken of bv their 

■ * • 

gue-l, some illustrating with enthusi- 
astic gi'stuix's just how certain f<s*its 
we;<' perf(n*nied. Iktis becomi^ig a 



O 



rigina 



Defective 






VlSAlJA CAL. TIMES DELTA 



V/OODLAKE, CAL. nCHO 



F/f. m TO SHOW HIS 

, Wmm. PIMES HER^ 

Pictures and Lect^^^^TT^t^^^^^^ 

Life in Early Days of White Settlers 



some extremely worth while Nat- 
ural Education programs are to be 
presented at the Woodlake Union 
High school in the near future. 

One of the most interesting will 
be a series of pictures and talks by 
P P Latta of Tulare, who has made 
an extensive study of the Indians 
of this part of the valley. He has 
published a newspaper article that 
appeared several years ago in the 
Echo and since then has pubhshd 
another article on early days. He 
has a number of relics which he will 
show the public. Mr. Latta wiU at 
these meetings answer any question 
asked if posible. You cannot af- 



ford to miss these classes. The ftret 
of the series will occur on November 
4 and 5; the second November 12, 
and the last op November 18 and 

19 
These lectures do not cost you a 

cent. 

Natural Science classes will be con- 
ducted by D. M. BisseU on October 
21 and 22 when "Wild Heart ofAf- 
rica" and "You'll" be Sorry" a com- 
pdv will be shown, 
'^'on October 28 and 29 "Rango" 
two comedies "Felix" and 'Hard 
Work will be the features. 

The people of the community are 
fortunate indeed to obtain such a 

service free of charge. 



JAN. S, VJ\i^ 

Latta To Give 



Special Course 



opecu 



7 

TULARE, Jan. /8.— Quite pos- 
sibly the most largely attendee 
special interest section at the 
coming Tulare Adult Week-End 
school will be Frank P. Latta's 
course in San Joaquin valley his- 
tory. 

No one in the valley is better I 
fitted to lead such a course than| 
Latta, the San Joaquin's premier 
historian, who has made a great] 
deal of personal research, written] 
books on the subject and is mak- 
ing California history his life| 
work. 

Interesting material will be pre- 
sented at each session in the way 
of geological and archaelogical re- 
mains, Indian and Spanish relics, 
maps, pictures, and motion pic- 
tures taken by Latta himself. The 
personal experiences of those at- 
tending also will be drawn upon. 
Special Groups 

This course will be one of four 
special interest groups meeting 
simultaneously from 8:05 to 9:30 
o'clock on six successive Friday 
evenings. The subject tonight, at 
the opening of the school, will be 
''Ancient San Joaquin Valley 
Geography. Human Remains. 
Was the Sah Joaquin An Inland 
Sea and If So, How Many Times?" 

Other subjects will be: 

January 15— Indians of the San 
Joaquin Valley. 

January 22— Spanish and Mexi- 
can Expeditions. San Joaquin 
Valley Mexican Land Grants. 

January 29— American Expedi- 
tions. Early Settlements. 

February 5— The cattle era. 
Henry Miller, land baron. San 
iJoaquin Valley Water Conditions. 

February 12— Valley Develop- 

lents. Grain. "No Fence.'' Rail- 
oads. Crime. 



UNDSAY, CAL IP. GAZETTE 
JAN. §, 17'6Z W* 



i 



tNEW SERIES OF SKETCHES 01 
CALIFORNIA PIONEER HISTORyI 
STARTS TODAY IN THE GAZETTE 



■The Gazette ^gins todar the 
publication of another interestinK 
lZ7Jf Articles on early cS 

by F rVlV"''' ^^r^^ °ot written 
hL ■ ■-^- ^'^*' ^»"ey historian who 

S m;^ '"^"'•^' absorbing ler- 

a the^4«t?. '*'-«^^°»«'5^ appeared 

arranged'T' ^T '''^''^ ^"^ 
written bv H r^'-, ^^^ ^^re 

to- CalLrni?f?om^£oirh '""^ 
of the Isthmus o?^p.o"^' ^^ ^^^ 

Two of Mr Ba.Mfv^ ""^^ '° 1«^- 
Mrs Fred' ^'L®J,« grandchildren, 
no!i« ^ Hopkins) and W r 

Bailey, now live in Tulare ' 

me1^i^[,f"^,-''a<l. set down his 

months of searching T,flu^'' 
been able to recnvt fif" * ^*« 
series, some of T°n Lo, !v '"V* 

roXVViL?r-i- - -e 

beyond a d^'ubf tne'^of 7h '"'"'^' 
complete and vivid aocoLf^ J^T 
neer California which haV^ ^^^- 
been published N^t a .in.i .t^^^ 
that Mr Ron Single thing 

dun His sw^>,"^'"*^^"« ^PP^ars 
thev present .. ^^^ ^^^^^' ^nd 

ed in pln^ /^® ^^^^^ ^bo land- 
^ m California brokp nn/i i,«^ * 
make a war. ^^^ ^^^ bad to 



Mr. Bailey's writing always pr^| 

sents the subject from the stand 
point of today and explains manyl 
things which many historians hare 

failed to even mention, and all hav^ 
failed to oresent so that the readpr 
is ^ade to live those davs himself 

The sketches are short In lensrth 
find are written so thp*^ each makes 
'^ comnlete ^^torv Thpv mimb^^r 
•more than fiftv ^nd <-reat with thp 
hmo to ra1ifomif». thp landine in 
Rf^n Fr*incisro. th«» various eirner- 
ipnres of o tenderfoot, ♦^he rru^kin? 
of a new ho*^«» on t^he Bncramento 
Rivpr. the Indians the mine^i. camn 
meptinsrs and n^antr other topics too 
nii»neroiicj to '^pntion. 

Prob'\bb' tbo most rprnarkabl*^ 
npft of Mr. Trailer's writincr con- 
cerns the T^Hians of the ^pcram^ti-i 
ti VqllpT' Wp are p^curpd hv scipn-' 
tists Ti'ho >>ive «jtiirijod thpm fo*- 
rnore tbqn ffftv vpa''^? that nrnrticnl 
Iv nothino' has V»een rpcor^pd con- 
rf^rr}]vor f\}G\r \^P(x wbpn first dis- 
f^r>^of^ \^v tb<^ wbitp »^fln. 

Nirip of thp qVotohpq dp<*l wi*-h 
fho TnHiaris nnd nrpoont a olppr r»ir- 
tiiro of nianv det?>*1«s of f^hpfr Iffo 
nnd r»h?*'"3 '^tP'* T^^'^ 1r>ove ♦■^o 
rp^Hor with thp fopHnor fhot fhP'^P 
T>por(»1p h^vo b*^*^n ''nrlprgfnod ^v ^'^ ■» 

wri'for nr(j are being given fair 
valuation. 



ADVANCE ^y^' 



•*-••» - •• .. .. 



Pictured And 
Discussed By F. F. Latta 






Concluding his talk ^vith the show- 
ling of moving pictures of the Yokuts 
Indians and mo|r habits, P. P. Latta 
Icondiicted an Hitoresting se^ion in 
Ihis San Joaquin vaH# histgfy group 
lat the adult school here, m-ty-four 
Ipcrsons attended his lecture, which 
Iwas illustrated with Indian baskets. 
Imortars and pestles, bows and arrows, 
Ibeads, crudfe stone instruments, stone 
1 bowls and ornaments. i 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Icho of the 
IWuk-Chumme tribe of Yokuts were 
present to talk, and witnessed them- j 
selves, their children and their grand- j 
children in the moving pictures. They 
are among the less than 20 Yokuts 
llndians left. 

Latta talked of the history of the 
Itrlbes which inhabited the San Joa- 
quin valley, and of the early Spanish 
explorers in this state. During liis 
talk he revealed that the padres had 
recommended Visaila., Alpaugh, Strat- 
ford and Kaweah for mission sites, 
and that two were started at Laton 
and 'near Maricopa. 






R. Wl. PRICE FILE 




HOLDS 






■fcifc 



Master in Chancery H(;llds 
Against Riparian Claims 
Of Power Company 



Judge Louderback to Take 
Final Action in Suit 
To Determine Rights 



Holding that the United States gov- 
ernment is entitled to but 25.21 cubic 
feet of water per second continuous 
flow during the irrigation season of 180 
days for the irrigation of two thou- 
sand acres of Indian lands on the 
Walker river Indian reservation, Rob- 
ert M. Pricerspi^ral'masternn chan- 
cery in the Walke r river adjudication 
suit institute^"^ TKe^United States 
government, has completed his report, 
findings of fact and decree for sub- 
mission to Federal Judge Harold S. 
Louderback for fi*--' approval. 
GOVERNMENT'S CLAIM REDUCED 

The government claimed it is en- 
titled to 150 second feet of water 
from the Walker river for the irriga- 
tion of ten thousand acres of land in 
the Schvirz reservation with a prior- 
ity of November 29, 1859. The spe- 
cial master recognized the priority 
claim, but In reaching his derision 
held that the government Is entitled 
only to sufficient water to iiTigate 
the lands under cultivation, stating: 
"There are upon said reserva- 
tion approximately five hundred 
, Indians. Ninety-six individual 
Indians are farming parts of one 
hundred and forty allotments of 
twenty acres each and ninety-six 
allotments have homes on them. 
The Indians generally refuse to 
Irrigate at night and there re- 
sults a considerable loss of water 
by reason thereof. The number 
of Indians upon said reservation 
is not increasing and it has not 
been shown that there is the ne- 
cessity or demand by the Indians 
for the cultivation of a larger 
area of land than two thousand 
acres. A flow of water from said 
river of 25.21 second feet at the 
point or points of diversion dur- 
ing the irrigating season of 180 
days is necessary for the proper 
Irrigation of said two thousand 
acres." 
FAVORS WHITE SETTLERS 

Attorneys who participated in the 
suit say the opinion of Special Mas- 
ter Price is clearly in favor of the I 
white settlers and that he holds the 
Indians are entitled to a volume of 
; water sufficient to irrigate two 
thousand acres of land only. In writ- 1 
I ing his opinion Special Master Price 
! held that when the government camel 
into a court of equity, equitable prin-l 
ciples must apply, and that the gov-| 
ernment, in this instance, is estopet 
from taking title to water which th( 
white settlers have placed to benefi- 
cial use throughout a period of man: 
years, during which time the govern- 
' ment permitted them to do so. 

Cole L. Harwood, special attorne: 
for the government in the case, 8ai< 
the government will undoubtedly tak< 
an appeal from the finding if it U 
\ affirmed by the federal court. 
I POWER COMPANY' RIGHTS 
j In connection with the claim of th( 
Sierra Pacific Power Company to ril 
parian rights on the West Walkej 
river for irrigation of its holdings o| 
2634.74 acres of swamp and sch0( 
land in the Antelope Valley distrid 
Price held that the company Is en| 
titlled to: 

"... the reasonable use of the 
water of the West Walker river 
and its tributaries for the irriga- 
tion of four hundred acres of 
land lying above Antelope Valley 
out of the land specifically de- 
scribed In the answer of said de- 
fendant," 

He based this finding on the facJ 
that the rompRny and it^ rredecesi 
I sors In ownership of the land had di| 
! verted water sufficient to irrigate bi 
four hundred acres of land prior t\ 
1901 and had not increased the qua] 
tity of land under irrigation «inc| 
that time. 
jRIPARLAN CLAIM 
I Price does not recognize the rll 
. parian ownership claim of the com] 
pany, stating: 

! "It appearing under the Cali- 

fornia doctrine the riparian right 
I to the water of stream is a part 
and parcel of the land through 
which it flows and not a mere in- 
cident to the land, it follows that 
in the case of the swamp lands 
(994.74 acres acquired under the 
Swamp Land act of Congress of 
1859) the riparian rights of the 
Sierra Pacific Power Company at- 
taching to such lands dated from 
the passage of the swamp land 
act (Sept. 28. 1850): that in the 
case of the school lands held by 
the company the riparian rights 
relate to the date of the school 
act (March 3, 1833), and that in 
case of the school lieu lands the 
riparian rights attach as of the 
date r>f the selection by the st.ite 
of California and the approval of 
tlie selection by the secretary of 
the interior (June, 25, 1896. June 
15,' 1898. and /anul^y 2, 1902). 
NLVADA LAW ' 

"But we ^ve to 
the law cf Fevada. 



consider aLso 
in early de- 



(X|frn to 



RE 



R 



»>5 'ft s.ss'SXgi'-s' 



'4 
3 






''1o , •'*! 



»"- -^/S ^o 



06i 





ITER RIGHTS 




(Turn to Page Three) 



k 



cision In Nevada recognized thf 
common law rule of riparian 
rights. 

"Later decisions, however, def- 
initely determined that the doc- 
trine of appropriation and not the 
doctrine of riparian rights pre- 
vailed in Nevada. 

"The two doctrines cannot be 
reconciled. If the doctrine of 
riparian rights as construed by 
the courts of California be ap- 
plied in this case to the lands 
of the Sierra Pacific Power Com- 
pany its rights at least for the 
greater portion of its lands would 
be superior to the rights of the 
water users lower on the river. 
If, on the other hand, the doc- 
trine of appropriation as con- 
strued by the courts of Nevada be 
applied the rights of the water 
users in Nevada v/ould be su- 
perior to the rights of the Sierra 
Pacific Power Company. . . . 

"There is little precedent to 
assist us in determining the 
question presented. . . . The 
question, then, is what basis of 
apportionment will be equitable 
under the facts? 

"It appears that water from 
the West Walker river and some 
of its branches has been applied 
to between three and four hun- 
dred acres of said defendant's 
land. . . . An equitable appor- 
tionment would be to allow the* 
Sierra Pacific Power Company 
water for use upon four hundred 
acres of land out of the lots de- 
scribed in its answer and cross 
complaint to the extent of an 
amount reasonably necessary for 
the Irrigation thereof." 
DUTY OF WATER 

In a stipulation entered into by th 
parties to the suit during the hearin 
the duty of water was fixed at .01 
cubic feet of water per second pe 
acre of land irrigated during the ir 
rigation season. The irrigation seasoi 
was fixed to conform to the decre 
entered in the case of the Pacifi 
Livestock Company vs. T. B. Rickey 
known as decree No. 731, with the 
exception of the lands in the Bridge- 
port valley on the East Fork of the 
Walker river and all points above the 
Coleville gauging station of the west 
fork of the river, where the irriga- 
tion season was set to cover the pe- 
riod starting March 1 and ending on 
September 15. 
HAMLEY DECISION 

In his report, Mr. Price discusses 
at length the questions involved in 
the government's contention that in 
withdrawing the land from entry to 
establish an Indian reservation it im- 
pliedly reserved, for the use of the 
Indians, water from the river for 
the irrigaion of lands within the res- 
ervation. Mr. Price recognizes this 
contention, citing the decision of 
Judge T. P. Hawley in the Winters 
case in connection with the Ft. Bel- 
knap Indian reservation in Montana. 
The Hawley decision was later af- 
firmed by the United States supreme 
court. Judge Hawley was a member 
of the Nevada supreme court before 
being appointed a federal judge. 

Mr. Price in his report also recog- 
nizes the government's contention 
that the Walker river Indian reserva- 
tion was created on November 29, 
1859, when the department of the in- 
terior Issued its first withdrawal or- 
der, although the presidential execu- 
tive order withdrawing the land was 
not Issued until March 18, 1874. 

The decree prepared by Mr. Price 
embodies the priorities and acreages 
of the white settlers as determined In 
the Rickey decree and as stipulated 
between the attorneys for the var- 
ious parties during the hearing. The 
decree also includes the same admin- 
istration provisions of the stream 
system as outlined in the Rickey de- 
cree. 

Copies of the decree and other 
findings were placed in the hands of 
the various attorneys today by Mr. 
Price. A hearing date will be set to 
correct any errors of fact and the re- 
port will then be submitted to Judge 
Louderback. 

The federal Judge will conduct 
hearings at which the attorneys for 
the interested parties can enter ob- 
jections. His final decision and d 
cree can be appealed to the circ 
court of appeals and possibly to fhe 
United States supreme court. 



FHESNO. n^^^P^, 



v 



v^^l;;^ 



>. 



First Residents 
Of San Joaquin 
VaDey Were Most 
Interesting Race 

Contradicting the conception that 
the San Joaquin valley Indian was 
the lowest form of the primitive 
races, F. F. Latta, of Tulare, yes- 
t<^rday told members of the Fi'esno 
notary club at the Hotel Californian 
that Vnlley Indians were so far 
above the predatory tribes, even by 
our standards, that there was no 
comparison between the two. 

'The Sari Joaquin valley." Latta 
declared, **was once occupied by 
one of the most interesting races 
of people. It was the largest of 
any of the Indian groups in lan- 
guage and blood groups and cov- 
ered a territory from the Sacra- 
mento river to the Tehachapi moun- 
tains and from the Sierra to the 
coast ranges. In this group there 
were, it is estimated conservatively, 
between 35,000 and 45,000 people, 
divided into 52 sub-tribes. The 
large group has been given the 
name Yokuts, which in their own 
language, means people, and the 
Indians are pleased with the name, 
because it is as though you were 
to call them "every one." 

"Throughout this group a com- 
mon language prevailed, and over 
the entire territory the Indians 
could understand each other. This 
was unusual, because in other sec- 
tions there were sharp cleavages 
In language in short distances. 
Sometimes a distance of eight miles 
would mean an entire change in 
language. 

"The primitive cultures of these 
Indians were maintained intact as 
late as the late *40s, but now there is 
relatively little left. Careful investi- 
gation has shown that the average 
pioneer knew little about the Indians^ 
and after talking to more than 600 
pioneers, I have found but two who 
knew anything about their life. One 
of those was a man who had been 
raised by the Indians after his 
mother had died. 

NAMES PRESERVED 

•'Among the tribes that belonged to 
the group were the Wahtoke, the 
Mokelumne, the Tuolumne, the Ka- 
weah, which became extinct last 
year, the Tache, and the Watchum- 
na. John C. Fremont was responsible 
for the preservation of many of 
these names, because when he came 
through this territory with Kit Car- 
bon and others, he obtained the 
names of rivers nnd tribes from the 



Demonstrates Basket Weaving 







:•:^^x::::■^^^:v:^^::>^^x•:•x•::::^:^x^:^.^;; :-;x x:. : : . vx- 

v:-:-:-;-: x-x'>:xv:-:':':':--'--' '^^ :'■ ■-:- ' ;''' :*•:"■■ ''• --x-x-x ',jiiji>^x<fy>'^^ : . :•. . X 



Mrs. Ada Icho, gave a demonstration of Indian basket weaving c.t the meeting of the 
Fresno Rotary club at the Hotel Californian yesterday, illustrating a talk by F. F. Latta 
of Tulare. She is shown here, working on a basket, while other baskets, many of which she 
made, are near her. Her husband, Henry Icho, is with her. The couple, members of the 
Watchumna tribe, were guests of the club. — Republican Photo. 



Indians and put them on his niaps. 
Otherwise they might have been 
lost. Very little that is authentic has 
been written about these tribes, and 
the idea that these Indians exempli- 
fied the lowest form of Indian life is 
one of the mistakes that only sci- 
entists can correct. 

"The plain Indians here wore only 
a breech clout and a gee string. 
Many of these tribes had no word for 
any foot covering and, as the Valley 
in those days was much like a vel- 
vet carpet, there was no need for 
moccasins. In this they differed from 
eastern tribes in their dress. The 
men wore their hair gathered In colls 
over their ears, and decorated with 
beads. Perhaps they had a hole in 
one ear where they carried a reed 
pipe. The women wore only a small 
apron in front and behind, and had 
their cosmetics tattooed on. They 
may have had their noses pierced 
and a piece of bone placed In the 
hole for decoration. The men and the 
unmarried women sometimes wore a 
few feathers in their hair, but there 
were none of these trailing head- 
dresses you see In the movies. An 
Indian would have cut his throat be- 
fore he would have put one of those 
on. 
LANGUAGE INTERESTING 

"The language was Interesting. The 
Indian language ha« ^utteral sounds 
which are difficult for the white man 
to reproduce. The Indian has no dif- 
ficulty with the English language, 
because the sounds are simple. That 
is one thing our civilization has 
done. It has simplified our language, 
although it has complicated most 
everything else. Our language was 
similar 10,000 years ago, back in the 
stone age. The Indian language Is 
descriptive. "Swoop" Is the word 
for hawk, and the name of the billy 
owl is the sound he makes. 

"Although the Indian Is taciturn 
when near white men, among them- 
selves they are the noisiest people on 
earth. They play Jokes on each oth- 
er; jokes that would be fatal if 
played on us, and they had many 
games. They had football, and a game 
like golf, played with golf clubs cut 
from trees and roots. They "teed" 
off, and had a hole In .which to sink 

the ball, and golf clubs were common 
In every Yokut house. They played 
*'shlnny on your own side," and that 
is one game that was common to In- 
dians all over the continent. In this 
they didn't use a tin can, but a little 
round oak ball, and the ball was 
buried in the ground and had to be 
dug out with the sticks before It was 
put In play. 

"They were skilled in the working 
of stone and the making of arrow 
points. This last was one of the trade 
secrets, and the man who could make 
arrow points didn't want other 
members of the tribe to know his 
business, any more than we want 
other people to know ours. This ap- 
plies also to the making of beads. 
The conception that arrow points 
were made by heating the stone and 
applying a wet stick Is wrong. No one 
has ever made an arrow point that 
way. But many people have made 
tlieni by taking a piece of obsidian, 
holding it against the thigh, and 
striking it with a piece of fossilized 
ivory. The direction of the blow de- 
termines the line of cleavage. I have 
seen good arrow points made in four 
minutes, and a point had less value 
than a good straight shaft. 

BASKETS VARIED 

"The making: of baskets was the 
thing that forced the study of Indiaii 
• sutoms. There are three types r.f 
baskets, including twined work, and 
stitched coil work. The Yokuts \isrd 
<"«^tton wood instead of willow. They 
< laim it lasts longer. Other niaterinls 
used are tops of bunch grass, swamp 
grass root, the outside wood of the j 
Ircd bud tree, and the root of the j 
sword fern, which can be dyed. Bas- I 
ket designs are always conventionHi. j 
and snake designs are conimon. Thp 
Istory is that there was one** a bad j 
rattlesnake and the ants ate him up 



This story was told in design on a 
basket, and every time a basket was 
made in which design, there was a 
man in the tribe who inspected the 
basket to see that the design was 
accurate. If not the basket was 
thrown in the fire. That is the way 
the designs were kept Intact. Other 
designs include the arrow point, and 
the Brandt goose design. It takes 
more time to prepare the materials 
than It does to stitch a basket. Some 
of the larger baskets take six months 
and more to make. 

"The Indians don't make baskets 
for the money In It. A basket which 
required approximately 1,440 hours 
will sometimes sell for $20. You can 
figure out how many cents an hour 
the weaver got. She could make more 
money working In the harvest, but 
they make the baskets to satisfy the 
creative, artistic Instinct. The In- 
dians will not make baskets to order, 
and I think there can be no question 
but that it Is not commercial at all." 

Latta showed samples of Indian 



basketry, and Henry Icho and Mrs. 
Ada Icho, his wife, of Three Rivers, 
members of the ^YaJ^JliiilUQa tribe, 
were guests of the club. Mrs. Icho 
gave a demonstration of basket 
weaving. 

It was announced that there will 
be no meeting next Monday, Wash- 
ington's birthday. 



-iV.'J 



^Sji 






^m:Lu 



^)^^ 



^' 



Land To Speak At 

Six Hanford Meetings 

KANFOno, Feb. 20.— F F Ij-h„ 
San Joaquin valley historian im 
?P^ak the Hanford high schoo, on^ x 

!.!„ Pleasant Weatlesdav Evenlne- 

has been announced by Mrs riaJi 
<'"Mw.,I director of aduft ^ucat^on 

iuuiHn and Spanish rpifpo movv<. \ 

picturp«< will j. '"" 't'lics, mapft an<] 

U.m'wlthX'tl.kT'''"*^'' '" '=°""-- 



FED. :i7; U'^;2 



, ^.»r-«>.«:».i -^ff """VJ "VCT- 



LAT*A TO LECTURE UPON 

ill be the subject of P. F. Latta 
at the hgih school aduitorlvm next 
(Wednesday night, fis the second in 
a series of lecture*, sponsored by 
the adult education department of 
the high school 

Mr. Latta's remarks will cover the 
period when there were 35,000 
Indians in this portion of the val- 
ley, and their habits and their treat- 
ment by the white will be an in- 
teresting part of the lecture. A 
' number of the remnant of full 
{ blooded Indians will accompany Mr. 
•Latta here and bas^tets and other 
' Indian relics will be on display. 
The first lecture covering the early I 
history of the valley was attended' 
by a large audience. 






I 



iXtTA TO DISCUSS 

INDIANS WED. NIGHTl 

m 

"San Joaquin Valley Indians" 
will be the subject discussed by F. 
F. Latta, Valley historian, at the 
second of a series of taTks to be 
given '^t the Hanford high school 
next Wednesday night. 

Some of the few remaining In- 
dians of the Valley will accompany 
Mr. Latta next Wednesday night. 
These people are the remnants of 
the 35,000 Indians who at one time 
lived in this territory. Indain bas- 
kets and other articles also will be 
displayed. 

Nearly 100 adults, many of them 
having lived in Knigs county - for 
40 years, attended Mr. Latta's first 
lecture last Wednesday night. All 
adults of the community are invit- 
ed to attend the five remaniing lec- 
tures, which begin at -7:45 o'clock 
each Wednesday night. No admis- 
sion is charged. 

T|ie lectures are being given un- 
der the direction of Mrs. Clara 
Coldwell, director of adult educa- 
tion at the local high school. 






M 
t 



5i£WT;.MEL 



I 



■.if^yr* 



"•.v»>M»" • "^♦' 



Hanford Wednesdaj^^. 

hA^^ORD, Feb. 28. 'San Joa-^|i 

qylh Valley Indians" will be the 

y^hiect discussed by p. F. J^ttal 

■^aney historian, at the second of i 

series' of talks to be ^iven at th« 

Hanford high school Wednesday] 
night. 'I 

Some of the fe^v remaining In 
rlians of the Valley will accompanj 

!'';. of; ^^'^^"^ ^^"^ t^^^ remnant, 
of the 35,000 Indians which at on 
time lived in this territory. Indiai 
baskets and other articles also wil 
h6 displayed. 






INBlANS COMING WITH 

LATTA HERE TOMORROW 

Moving pictures taken by himself, 
will be featured by F. F. Latta of 
Tulare iu his lecture on ''Indians of 
the San Joaquii^ Valley", scheduled 
for tomorrow night at the high 
school auditorium. In addition to 
the pictures, there will be exhibited 
Indian baskets and other relics of 
the tribes that once roamed the val- 
ley. 

A number of Indians will accom- 
pany Mr. Latta here and figure in 
his lecture. The lecture is one of 
a series sponsored by the adult edu- 
cation department of the high 
school. Admission is free and the 
public cordially invited to attend. 



I 






LAITA^ SPEAKS TO\lGHT~ 

Fj P. Latta will give the second 
If his series of lectures on the his- 
tory of the San Joaquin valley at 
i^^^ Hanford high school tonight 
i Mr Latta will be accompanied by 
San Joaquin valley Indians and he 
win display a number of Indian 
baskets and relics. He also wm 
ifa^^ °^°^*o» pictures of the In- 






■ yr^r' 



S E N T I N Ei I. 









- . »- 




i 



The haWlQ customs ancf mode; 
of living am€mg «^e Indians of the 
I San Joaquin valley were compre- 
Ihensively explained in the lecture 
' delivered at the high school auditor- 
ium last night by F. F. Latta ol 
Tulare, a recognized authority on 
Indian lore. The lecture was at- 
tended by a large audience. 

The lecturer had with him Mr. 
and Mrs. Ichow, members of the 
Waichumna tribe of Indians, who 
now live near Lemon Cove. The in- 
tricacies of basket weaving was re- 
vealed by Mrs. Ichow, who prepared 
the material and did some real 
weaving on the stage. Moving pic- 
tures were shown of the Indians as 
they live at present in their camps 
along the Sierra foothills. Most 
interesting was their method of 
grinding acorns, grains and other 
seeds and their preparation for 

food. 

Seven Tribes Once 

In the years before the advent of 
white settlers to the San Joaquin 
valley, there were seven distinct 
tribes in the territory reaching from 
old Fort Tejon on the south to th^ 
northern part of the valley. The^ 
number of Indians was estimated at 
from 35,000 to 50,000. The camps 
of the Indians, said the lecturer, 
mostly followed a chain of lakes be- 
ginning at Kern lake now in Kern 
county thence to Buena Vista, | 
Goose and Tulare lakes and then 
along Kings river toward Kingsburg 
and north to the San Joaquin river. 
Only a few of real fullblooded 
Indians now survive, said the 

speaker. 

Vanishing People 

He told something of the coming] 
of the military forces of Mexico and 
later of the white settlers. He de- 
clared that the Indians were forced | 
to give up their lands by the gov- 
ernment forces under Major Savage;, 
and that the coming of the whites 
and a widespread pestilence' that' 
swept the valley were largely re- 
sponsible for the rapidly dwindling 
of the Indian population. 

A variety of basketry was on dis- 
play, and its manufacture and use 
was explained by the speaker. 



' HANFOnO CAt. JOUnHAU • 

HAil. 4, lt^32 ... . - . 



W"^^^^^^ 




mmmk Indians 

ACCOMPANY SPEAKER 
AT HISTORY SERIE 



Biringing with him two member^ 
of the Watchumri a tribe of Indians] 

Mr. and^ Mrs: Ichow of Lemoi 

Cove, F. F. Latta of Tulare, Valle^ 
historian and writer, addressed r 
large audience at the Hanford higl 
school Wednesday night. 

Mr. Latta lUi^trated ^^ lectur- 
with basket weaving which Mrs. 
Ichow did oi>' the stage and with 
motion pictures of the I^/^ans who 
reside along Ae Sierra ^o^t^^^^^:, / 
Latta recount&*.^that before th. 
time of the white man. there wer( 
seven distinct Indian tribes between! 
Fort Tejon and the north end ofl 
the Valley, totaling between 35.000 
and 50,000. Today only a very few 
of the full blooded tribesmen re- 
main, he said. *^^rv^i 
Early invasions by troops from 
Mexico and luter eviction from 
their lands by U. S troops under i 
Major Savage, together with a se- 
trere pestilence, were largely r^l 
sponsible for wiping out the Ri- 
dians, Latta said. 






■ *l 






mi\-\r:;::f^^_ 



LirjD&AY. CALir. GAZETTE 






MAY 27, I'm 






>A*:^ 



FlOHtER CALIFORNIA SKETCHES 




By H. C. BAILEY 



Compiled and Copyrighted 1930-31. 

By F. F. LATTA 



THE DIGGEE INDIAN, HIS GEN- 
ERAL APPEARANCE AND 
HOW HE LIVED. 

The American Indian, like the 
buffalo, is fast passing away. 
Not many decades will p|ss until 
the Indian in all his ti*ibal re- 
lations will De a thing of the 
past. The Indian has gone forth 
to be a white man or die. 

As their numbers decrease and 
extinction approaches, the inter- 
est in their history, habits, tra- 
dition, religion, and in fact in 
all that in any way appertains 
to Indians seems to increase in an 
inverse ratio. 

Prom my earliest recollection, 
I have felt the keenest interest 
in the Indian stories as told by 
the actors on one side of the 
scene, many of which showed 
him in his best light. 

To the present time I have 
read and often reread all the 
literature treating of the Indian 
regardless of the pros and cons 
discussed. After all my studying 
through all kinds of literature 
and nearly twenty years of close 
observation and intimate contact, 
I feel free to say I don't believe 
the primitive family has had a 
fair shake. 

Their worthlessness and cussed- 
ness have been overestimated 
while their virtues (for they had 
some, if not abnormally develop- 
ed, the germ was there) mini- 
mized. 

There are several strikingly 
developed characteristics in the 
Indian makeup that seem so far 
as I have ever read or observed, 
that are common to all the 
tribes. 

All are stoics of the extreme- 
order and are almost without 
nerves. Consequently they suf- 
fer less from the same cause 
than most of the tribes of the 
earth. They seem almost if not 
entirely devoid of sympathy for 
another's suffering. I have seen 
their medicine man practicing 
his art in a way that caused in- 
tense pain and of the most ner- 
vous kind, and when his patient 
would squirm a little he would 
laugh as though it was the fun- 
niest thing in the world. 

The family bond is strong and 
their generosity in their way pro- 
fuse. When the squaws came 
around the house and one was 
given a biscuit all had a piece 
of It regardless of the number 
present. ** 

I don't thilTk our government 
dealt with the Indians along the 
best lines for either parties. 

They seemed to instinctively 
regard the white man as an 
enemy and would never fully 
trust him until, by the best possi- 
ble evidence, they were con- 
vinced- to the contrary. But once 
their confidence was fully gained, 

I never had one to deceive me 
or misuse my confidence. ~" 

I never knew but one but 
what used both whisky and to- 
bacco. Of all men when their 
sprees are over they hate worst 
the man who sells them whisky. 
And of all the inhuman, beastly 
sights in human form, a drunken 
Indian takes the cake. He is 
absolutely beyond conception, and 
repulsive beyond description. 

When 1 went to Grand Island 
in '53, there were on the river 
Three rancherias of 500 or 
Indians each. They were 
in their primitive state and 
raw tenderfoot were a 
enough revelation. We had 



The primitive squaw was, 
don't know what, just a squa^ 
and nothing else. There wj 
nothing else like her or even ai 
proaching a resemblance. 

Her average height was m 
more than five feet, five inche 
and more likely to come und. 
than go over. 

They had heavy heads of coars, 
nair, cut bang fashion to an ind 
above the eyes, the back hail 
hung to just below the base 
the skull when not done m 
They dressed their hair somi 
thing after the Elizabethan sty] 
except when they strove f( 
width instead of height. 

The hair was dressed wit] 
some substance resembling U 
and was made turban shapet 
flat on the top and extending al 
inch or more all around and s 
covered the head that no hail 
was visible. 

The cheeks were covered witl 
the same substance as the hail 
from the eyes to the corners o 
the mouth, some solid and other! 
stripes. The chin was stripe( 
with a different color, generall 
a bright green or yellow a hah 
inch wide, equal spaces between 

They had big black eyes witB 
a large white circle, huge mouth' 
were always laughing; and were- 
nt they daisies! I never founi 
out how long a done up heac 
lasted or whether it was for orna- 
ment or utility. 

The young squaws, most oL 
them, had shapely hands, armd 
and feet. I have seen a few 
hard to surpass in shape and sym- 
metry. But at 20 years of age 
i !. i?^^ vestige of shapeliness 
nad disappeared and flesh began 
to accumulate. Fairly fat squaws 
were the rule. ^ ^^^b 

Truly they were nature's chil- 
dren when uncontaminated by 
their white brother but whose 
contact soon brought distress and 
rapid extinction. 

But under this rough, almost 
repulsive outside there were hid- 
den some good traits possible of 
developing astonishing results 

I always had a warm place in 
my heart for the Indian and close 
contact failed to destroy it. 

Next Chapter: The Diggers— 
What They Lived On and How 
They Got It. 



more 
still 
to. a 
sure 
seen 






while the!r virtues (for they had 
some, if not abnormally develop- 
ed, the germ wa*, there) mini- 
mized. 

There are several strikingly 
deyeJoped characterietlcs in the 
Indian makeup that seem so far 
as I have ever read or observed, 
tribes ^^^ ^^^^on to all the 

All are stoics of the extreme- 
•5ia order and are almost without 
nerves. Consequently they suf- 
fer less from the same cause 
than most of the tribes of the 
Itl: \ ^^^^ ^^^^ almost if not 
«^i/>f ^. '^^^''^^ ^^ sympathy for 
another's suffering. I have seen 

M c I ,°J^^^^in^ man practicing 
^iLt"^^ ^^ ^ "^^y ^^^^ caused in- 
11? I ^^'J" ^""^ ^^ the n^ost ner- 
wonH^'°^'/°^ when his patient 
ZTJ^ '^"l^^ ^ ^^ttJe l^e would 
Jaugh as though it was the fun- 
niest thing in the world 

The family bond is strong and 
their generosity in their way pro- 

Iround Yh''^ '^^ ^^"^^« -^^e 
around the house and one was 

given a biscuit all had a pi^ce 

present"^^^*" '^ ""^ ^^^ ""^^^^ 

H.ii/''"! ^^v.^^^' ^'^^ government 
dealt with the Indians along the 
best lines for either parties 

ihey seemed to Instinctively 
regard the white man as an 

fr^nifl''"'^ ^''''^'^ "ever fully 
trust him until, by the best possi- 
ble evidence, they were con- 
vmced to the contrary. But once 
their confidence was fully gained 
I never had one to deceive nip 
or misuse my confldencl?®^— ^^ 
I never knew but one but 
what used both whisky and to- 
bacco. Of all men when their 
sprees are over they hate worst 
the man who sells them whisky. 
And of all the inhuman, beastly 
sights in human form, a drunken 
Indian takes the cake. He is 
absolutely beyond conception, and 
repulsive beyond description. 

When I went to Grand Island 
in '53, there were on the river 
three rancherias of 500 or more 
Indians each. They were still 
in their primitive state and to. a 
raw tenderfoot were a sure 
enough revelation. We had seen 
on the Isthmus in the way of 
costumes, some pretty scanty 
clothing, but none in fig leaves. 
The Sacramento Digger had not 
advanced to the fig leaf stage 
when we came, at least the male 
contingent. 

DIGGEE INDIAN CUSTOMS 

The female dress consisted of 
a kind of skirt of two parts, 
made of wild hemp, reaching not 
Quite to the knees and plaited 
m a knot at the waist. It was 
allowed to hang loosely before 
and behind with ample space be- 
tween the two sections, the front 
being used for a cushion when 
sitting. 

In the rancheria the men dress- 
ed in the Georgia Meyers uni- 
form, minus the necktie and 
^purs, though to their credit 
they always dressed up when 
they went visiting their white 
neighbors. Their dress consisted 
of a very abbreviated loin cloth 
made of the same material. The 
children dressed in nature's uni- 
form, fine and simple. 

There was one thing notice- 
able about Indians; they were 
much more uniform in size than 
>vhite people. The men were sel- 
dom more than five feet, ten 
inches, and seldom under five 
feet, eight inches and very uni- 
form in flesh. I never saw a fat 
buck in a rancheria or a lank 
rawboned one. 

Their muscular strength was 
not great but their endurance 
was incredible. The distance an 
Indian could carry without rest 
or stop, a load which was all 
they could stand under is hardly 
credible to one who has never 
seen it. They carry all loads 
on the head or forehead band 
never on the shoulder. 

TTie squaws did all the carry- 
ing except game. They always 
used the forehead band and car- 
ried a pointed basket, inverted 
cone shape, 18 inches deep and 
same in diameter across the ton 
of the load. ^ 



oui now long a done ud he,iH 

£ r ""- -"'a t:\ 

the last vesuL n/^^K™ °' ^«« 

J always had a warm nio ; 
my hPMr/fr.^ ?u X warm place in 

contact fanL*^" ^°^'^'» ^nd dose 
>T .: i,^ ^° destroy It 

Next Chapter: The Diggers- 



'''3* " 




y.^r 






^^m^Mg 



Ilindsay. cAuir. gazette 



JU-NE 17, 193 



^•O 



;m.m^ 



PIONEER CALIFORNIA SKETCHES 



I 




By H. C. BAILEY 



Compiled and Copyrighted 1930-31. 
By F. F. LATTA 



THE DIGGER INDIAN, HIS 

RELIGION, SUPERSTITIONS 

AND BURIAL RITES 

The American Indian remains a 
problem almost as much today as 
-v^hen he was first discovered. The 
archaeologists are far from a unit 
In their conclusions and can onlyj 
give individual theories regarding 
his origin, distribution and differ- 
ent degrees of savagery or civili- 
zation. 

None of his traditions reach to 
a beginning. The best of them 
only reach an undefined pass 
where all is lost. He has left 
many relics of his past history by 
•whi<ih we may formulate a fairly 
probable theory, but his heirogli- 
phics where found remain unsolv- 
ed. 

There is a marked unanimity in 
many of the characteristics of all 
the tribes. And none more mark- 
ed than his religion. And their 
religion approaches nearer the 
theology of our Bible than any 
other heathen people when found 
in their wild state. 

The Indian theology had the 
same two elements of rewards and 
punishments as ours. But as is 
common to all heathens their ide- 
as were crude and poorly defined, 
yet in substance were identical 
with ours, and their simple faith 
in some instances is pathetic. 

A well authenticated incident 
which is the prototype of many 
others of a like character, occurr- 
ed when the great Northwest was 
an unknown country. A white 
man and Indian were together in 
unknown regions and for three 
days and had had nothing to eat. 
Though they were in a ganie coun 
try, lib game had been s^ienl At 
last the Indian said he was going 
to make a sacrifice and invoke 
the Great Spirit. 

After the ways of his people he 
prepared a sweat house, an altar 
and his offering. When all was 
prepared he entered and com- 
menced his devotions; and at the 
proper time offered the following 
prayer : 

"Oh Great Spirit, hear us, thy 
children, we have gone long with- 
out fo6d. The deer and the tur- 
keys are thine. Oh. let us not die. 
Thou knowest how I love tobacco 
and how hard for me to get it yet 
here I offer to thee all T have. Oh, 
hear us and give us food." 

The idea of sacrifice attaches to 
all Indian theology in som*^ sense. 
The Sacramento Indian had no re- 
lie:ions rites unless their fiestas 
were in some way a religions af- 
fair. 

Their creed was plain and sim- 
ple. If an Indian was good at 
death he entered a place with all 
the good things of the Indians' 
ideal of good. If bad, according 
to their code of good and bad and 
their code differed from ours in 
many particulars, he waff banish- 
ed to a place where he suffered 
all the ills and hardships of Indian 
life without respite. 

At the death of an Indian all 
his belongings were buried with 
him and a season of mourning was 
kept up for a statetl time. A« to 
noise, it was sure enough mourn- 
ing and was kept up by relays. 
Five or six in number would sit on 
top of a log and at intervals send 
forth the most lonesome and dis- 
ma) molonged howls. 



n 



»eginning. The best of them 
only reach an undefined pass 
where a is lost. He has Teft 
many relics of his past history by 
which we may formulate a fairly 
probable theory, but his heirogll- 
phlcs where found remain unsolv- 

There is a marked unanimity in 
many of the characteristics of all 
the tribes. And none more mark- 

reH.inn" ''" '■'"^'°"- ^"'' thefr 
rehgion approaches nearer the 

theology of our Bible than anv 

fn ?he.v^^'^!," P^*"*'^ ^hen found 
in their wild state. 

The Indian theology had thp 
same two elements of rewards aJd 
punishments as ours. But as is 
common to all heathens their ide 

yet^n\T^' '"** P^^'-ly defined 
yet m substance were identical 

with ours, and their simple faUh 
'n some instances is pathetic 

wWch'^it" ,v^"*^^°"f ated incident 
Ss of ^^t.^^^'^otype of many 
©d wLn *S ^^^ character, occurr- 
ed when the great Northwest waq 

man"a„d"T2. """"''•y- ^ ^hi?e 
man and Indian were together in 

unknown regions and f^r three 

^t^s and had had nothing to eat 

Though they were In a game coun 

After the ways of his people he 
llT'f^ ^,/Y^at house.^n altar 
and his offering. When all was 

^"T^^L^^?^ entered and com- 
TrUl^.^^^ devotions and at the 
proper time offered the followLj 

'!S,^ ^^eat Spirit, hear us, thy 
children, we have gone long with- 
out food. The deer and the tS 
keys are thine. Oh, let us not d e 
Thou knowest how I love tobacco 
and how hard for me to get it yet 
here I offer to thee all I hlVe Oh 
hear us and give us food" 

all in^rMi^n ^i""^ sacrifice attaches to 
an Inaian theology m some sense 

Hgious rues unless their fiest.s 
^^ere m some way a religious af- 

Their creed was plain and sim- 
death hp'Int^"^?" ^^' ^^«^ «^ 

idP«7 n? ^^\"^' ^^ ^^^ Indians' 
deal of good. If bad, according 

tL-^'"' i'ode of good and bad and 
their code differed from ours^n 
niany particnlarQ i,^ ""\ ours in 
ed to n \;o V^^ ^^^^ banish- 

all the liii^^'^^ .""^^^^ ^^ suffered 
ail the Ills and hardships of Indian 
life without respite. ^"^ 

At the death of an Indian all 
his belongings were buried wfth 

St nn f '^^'^? ^^ mourning was 
Kept up for a stated time. As to 

noise, it was sure enough mourn- 
mg. and was kept up by relays. 
Five or six in number would sit on 
top of a log and at intervals send 
forth the most lonesome and dis- 
mal prolonged howls. 

A round hole was dug and the 
body was doubled as near into a 
ball as possible by bending the 
back and drawing up the knees 
and wrapping rope around so to 
confine the body in the least space 
possible. 

All of their belqngings were 
buried with them. Every bead 
was believed to give protection one 
Tir?'.,^".^ ^ way to the happy land. 
While the beads held out the spir- 
it was safe from evil. It was a 
Kind of abbreviated purgatory 
"^^""s, th^ third party. Until cor- 
rupted by contamination with the 
whites they were a harmless, hap- 
py people. 

They were simple in their hab- 
its, and, so far as I ever saw, kind 
and affectionate and free from the 
cruelty generally supposed to be 
attached to the race. 

In many things they were far 
different from the tribes along 
the state line and in Mexico. The 
countries are so different that a 
forced difference was a necessity. 
In the one it was a hard fight to 
live, while in the other food had 
only to be gathered, and all parts 
of the year had its abundance of 
special supplies. 

Next week's sketch: The Down 
fall of the Digger Indian. ^ 



LINDSAY, CALIP. GAZETTE 



JUNE 24, 1^J32 



•(/ — ig -- ^ - . ** 



PIONEER CALIFORNIA SKETCHES 

By H. C. BAILEY 




Compiled and Copyrighted 1930-31 

By F. F. LATTA 






TH6 DIGGER IfJDIAN, 
HIS DOWNFALL 

When I try to recalf at this time 
the Indians of the Sacramento 
valley as I first saw tbem nearly 
fifty years ago and as I last saw 
them fourteen years later, the 
wreck and ruin of so short a time 
is far from pleasant to recall. 

Though unpleasant and almost 
repulsive to look at, a closer ac- 
quaintance and observation show- 
ed there was more good in them 
than outward appearances indicat- 
ed As they discarded their abo- 
rigional habits and ways of living 
and assumed those of the white 
man, they were doomed to early 
extinction. 

As soon as white women began 
to come and the squaws saw their 
way of dressing they, with the ex- 
ception of a few very old ones, 
discarded the primitive hemp skirt 
and adopted the others which were 
made of most any kind of materi- 
al that came to hand. They also 
adopted the shirt waist. If not 
exactly after the present pattern, 
it was the best known at that 
date and all things improve with 
age and familiarity, except pos- 
sibly a bad temper. 

Wfith the ability to supply their _ ^ _ _^ _ 

wants from the stores, they soon | smallpox entered among the rem 



ca is the answer as to which was 
the better policy. 

I think more than 60 per cent 
of the deaths were from lung 
troubles. A band would come to 
the house and sit around, accord- 
ing to their way of visiting, and 
talk, while several would be cough- 
ing a little and looking drowsy. 
In a few months they would cease 
to come. Inquire for them — gone, 
was the answer, with a mournful 
cadence and a look pathetic to 
see. 

(They seemed to realize they 
were doomed and each and all 
only waiting for the call. The in- 
terruption and abandonment of 
their aboriginal habits, and the 
attempts to adopt the white man's 
methods proved their ruin. 

By some perverse law of nature 
the wild tribes always, adopt the 
worst feature of a civilization to 
the exclusion of the better. With 
one exception, all the Indians I 
ever came in contact with were 
lovers of whisky and tobacco. 
They will go to any extreme for 
whisky when once they get a taste. 
The large profit on the whisky 
trade by bad men has been a large 
factor in the Indian's destination 
regardless of law or right. 

In the great flood of '62-3, the 



ceased to produce many things 
deemed indispensable in their 
wild state. By the use of money 
easily obtained they were able for 
a small sum to procure what 
would require much labor and 
time to produce. They also be- 
came more and more negligent in 
gathering their wild food supplies. 
As wheat and barley fields extend- 
ed, they depended more and more 
on gleaning the fields and thresh- 
ing floors. 

The men followed along the 
same lines. In a very few years 
most all had shirts and an Indian 
without some kind of pants was 

rare. ' < 

Clothing was easily obtained 
from town, and from the ranchers 
they received cast off garments 
that the owners were glad to get 
rid of, if no better motive moved 
them to help clothe the Indian 
families. 

It was often amusing and enter- 
taining to see some of the Indians 
after an excursion to some of thp 
towns. A buck wpuld be dressed 
in all the shirts he could get; one 
ion top the other so long as he 
could get them on, regardless of 
Icloth or color. Some of cotton, 
some wool and a few bilecT shirts 
for variety and pants worn afte'' 
Ithe same plan, and possibly aplue 
Ihat to top out with. So togfged 
lout the average buck was ready 
lin his heart to repeat: 
"Some may be blest, but I am 

glorious 
lO'er the ills of life victorious." 
Heap big Injun; and so he was 
lin bulk and his own estimation. 

After women got fairly plenti- 
Iful the squaws often made a more 
ludicrous appearance than the 
'bucks, by putting on a number of I 
dresses intermixed with shawls | 
and any other cast off female an- 
I parel. They preferred' carrvinfi: 
them on their backs rather than 
in a bundle. 

This silly and often, ludicrous 
and anparentlv harmless practice, 
was to the simple Indian as des- 
tructive as opium to John China- 
man. 

It w^as destructive along several 
lines. First, they had no idea of 
regulating their dress to climatic 
conditions. A hot day_ would find 
them dressed three or four layers 
deep and a colder one in nature's 
uniform. 

Wlere it possible an Indian would 
gamble his soul away. They were 
inveterate gamblers during all 
their idle time. When two bucks 
sat down to gamble they may 
have been both clothed four lay- 
ers deep but when they quit one 
had on all the duds. Such prac- 
tices soon began to tell on their 
health. The squaws suffered less 
along this line than the bucks, but 
met more dire and sure destruc- 
tion along worse and more certain 

lines. 

•Loathsome and to them incura- 
ble diseases in a short space of 
time swept from existence the 
whole band at Colusa, except a 
few that had been incorporated 
into the white homes. In a short 
time they had so nearly gone that 



nant left and killed more than 
half. Their suffering was terrible. 
My boy, Lopez, told us the whole 
story. I 

Eighty or ninety per cent of 
the valley race died in attempting 
to escape disease. IMany left their 
huts and camped as best they 
could where a high piece of land 
couldl be found. Of course, the 
disease soon revealed Itself. So 
the poor wretches shifted around 
from place to p^ace, the number 
diminishing all the time, until br| 
April, when bad weather and 
smallpox were gone, less than 200 
Indians were left. 

When I went onto my ranch it 
had skulls and other human bones 
scattered over a good part of it 
with a tradition of a great battle. 
I don't doubt the truth of the 
fight — only the participants. In- 
stead of Indian against Indian, it 
had been Indian against smallpox. 
The Sacramento Indians were 
as harmless, contented, happy a 
set of people as ever lived. They 
were as peaceful as sheep and 
never even fought among them- 
selves. 

it 



their homes were burnt by the 
whites, and no attempt ever made 
to rebuild them. The few left 
joined the other two rancherias. 

Colusa was the head of naviga- 
tion on the river and was filled 
with teamsters, Mexican packers, 
and the usual floating frontier pop- 
ulation. The two rancherias low- 
er down the river suffered little 
if any from the same cause as the 
others, but more from whiskey. 

^ was the same old story of all 
our Indian care and protection. It 
is a sad. pathetic story — the de- 
cline and almost entire extinction 
of the American Indians. ButI 
such seems to be the order of th 
universe. "Take the one poun 
from he who has none and giv 
it to he who has ten." The worl 
needed their lands for a civilizal 
tion beyond their ken or abilit 
to adopt. 



By F. F. LATTA 



— — .K,rMAN ica is the answer as to which was 

THE DIGGER l^p AN, ^^^^^^ p^U^y 

HIS DOWNFALL ^^^0^8 than 60 per cent 

Wh« I try to recall at this time ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^l^i""^. 



of the deaths were from lung 
troubles. A band would come to 



'^^.-^ of the- Sacramento 

the Indians »i- >^"^ *!,«»« nparlv iiouu»eo- -^ ""..v. 

lallev as I first saw th«^^ "^^^'^ the house and sit around accord 
my "years ago and as I last saw . ^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^ ^^ ^.^.^^^g ^ ^ 
them fourteen years later tnei ^^.^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^1^ be cough- 

l reck and ruin of so short a time ^ ^.^^^^ ^^^ j^^^.^^g drowsy. 

i<5 far from pleasant to recall. ^^ ^ ^^^ months they would cease 

^ Though unpleasant and almost ^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^ ^.^j. t^em— gone 

repulsive to look at. * ^?^°^^j: „*^ was the answer, with a niournful 
Quaintance and observation show ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ look pathetic to 
^ there was more good in th^m ^^^ 

than outward appearances mdicat ^^^^^^ ^^ realize they 

ed As they discarded ^^^^/'^..^f^ L-ere doomed and each and all 
rigional habits and ways of I'TPSLniy waiting for the call. The m- 
and assumed those of the white ^^^.^^ jj^„ ^^d abandonment of 
man they were doomed to early I ^^.^ aboriginal habits, and the 
extinction. attempts to adopt the white man s 

A« <,oon as white women began ^lethods proved their ruin 
AS soon <» _ „ „,„, +v,^,r ^^ ^^^^ perverse law of nature 



*' 'TnmA and the squaws saw their . g^ gg^ie perverse law oi imiur. 
o^^ dressing they, with the ex- ^^^■ ^.ji^ tribes always adopt th« 
^ay ot are s ^^^^ ^^^ ones.L^orst feature of a civilization to 
^?P -°^„i^ tv,P primitive hemp skirt ^^^ exclusion of the better. With 



the exclusion of the better. With 
one exception, all the Indians I 
ever came in contact with were 
lovers of whisky and tobacco 
They will go to any extreme for 
whisky when once they get a taste. 
The large profit on the whisky 
trade by bad men has been a large 
factor in the Indian's destination 
regardless of law or right. 

In the great flood of '62-3, the 
smallpox entered among the rem- 
nant left and killed more than 
half Their suffering was terrible, 
wild state. «y .". ^^^ -' "- , v My W, Lopez, told us the whole 
rorrnv obtained they were able for story. i 

^«n sum to procure what Eighty or ninety per cent of 
^ ^?/^ rPnuTre much labor and the valley race died in attempting 
r'l to nroduce They also be- to escape disease. Many left their 
time ^"^ J^""^^^^' in huts and camped as best they 
" «Zrr/ th^r%^W tood^u^ could where a high piece of land 
gathering their wi a extend- - - - — ^' «- '^'' 



Srded Ve primitive hemp ^ 
and adopted the others whch were 
made of most any kind of Jiat^^^^ 
al that came to hand They also 
adoDted the shirt waist. If not 
exactly after the present pattern 
it was the best known at tnai 
^ate and all things improve with 
age and familiarity, except pos- 
sibly a bad temper. 

With the ability to supply their 
w^ s from the stores, they f«n 
ceased to produce many things 
deemed indispensable in their 
wild state. By the use of money 



fr:S and baHey «e,ds e.^end^ 
ed, they depended more a^amo^^^ 



could! be found. Of course the 
disease soon revealed itself, bo 



A5> """"•^ """ ^„^ more and more disease soon reveaiea iu>eii. *=" 
^^' *r* «r/ theiields and thresh- the poor wretches shifted aronnd 
on gleaning the news anu from place to place, the number 

^°^i!lP°™pn followed along the diminishing all the time until br 
, The men """o^r-y few years Upril. when bad weather and 
S in had shirts' a'S'd an Indian t^anpox were gone, less than 200 
rthouV some Wnd of pants was md^ns^ ^^ „f ^.^o my ranch it 
"nothing was easily obtained had skulls and other human bones 
^ Vi:™^ and from the ranchers scattered over a good part of it 
from to^; ^a°^ ™ Iff garments with a tradition of a great battle. 
T^, t'lffo^ers were gl^ to get T don't doubt the truth of the 
^^'^^^ i If ^b^tCT motive moved fight-only the participante. In- 
'"l^ "•*' !. ^Mn cloth^ the Indian stead of Indian against Indian, it 
them to help clothe the ^^^^been Indian against smallpox, 

families. ^'"^ " x_ T^^«»r^a wprp 



It was often amusing and enter- 
taining to see some of the Indians 
after an excursion to some of th. 



The Sacramento Indians were 
as harmless, contented, trappy a 
set of people as ever lived^ They 



after an -.urs^^^^ 1 s^et of PeoP- - -^^^^ — ^ , 

ran the sS^ he' could get; one I^ver even fought among them- 
on top the other so long as he selves, 
could get them on, regardless ofi ♦- 
icloth or color. Some of cotton 
some wool and a few biled^ shirts 
for variety and pants worn afte- 
Ithe same plan, and possibly a pine 
hat to top out with. So toffged 
lout the average buck was ready 
lin his heart to repeat: 
"Some may be blest, but I am 
I glorious 

O'er the ills of life victorious. ! 
Heap big Iniun; and so he was 
in bulk and his own estimation. 

After women got fairly plenti- 
ful the squaws often made a more 
ludicrous appearance than tne 
bucks, by putting on a number of 
! dresses intermixed with sjiawls 
and any other cast off female an- 
parel. They preferred' carrvmc: 
them on their backs rather than 
in a bundle. . j 

This silly and often, ludicrous 
and anparentlv harmless practice, 
was to the simple Indian as des- 
tructive as opium to John China- 
man. , ^, 1 
It was destructive along several 
lines. First, they had no idea of 
regulating their dress to oj^jtic 
conditions. A hot day, would find 
them dressed three or four layers 
deep and a colder one in natures 

uniform. ., 

Wtere it possible an Indian would 
gamble his soul away. They were 
inveterate gamblers during all 
their idle time. When two bucks 
sat down to gamble they may 
have been both clothed four lay- 
ers deep but when they qmt one 
had on all the duds. Such prac- 
tices soon began to tell on their 
health The squaws suffered less 
afoli? this line than the bucl^- bu 
met more dire and sure destruc 
tton Song worse and more certain 

"whsome and to them incura^i 
ble diseases in a short space of 
ViZ,a <?went from existence tne 

their homes were burnt by the 

Sd the »s«»' n«'«»s '""«' K 

1 *i^n TVip two ranch erias low 
: 'Town tSe Srver suffered little 
?f any from the same cause as the 
others, but more from whiskey. 

•A was the same old story of all 
our Indian care and Protection. It 
^fa sad. pathetic «tory-the de^" 

cline and almost entire extinction 

of the American Indians. But 

such seems to be the order of the 

universe. "Take the one poun 

from he who has none and giv 

it to he who has ten. ^ne wori 

needed their lands for a civn za 

tion beyond their ken or ability 

to adopt. „-oTra f 

There were only two ^ays t 
solve the problem-intermix o 
destroy. The A"^\o-Saxon chos 
the latter and the Latin the foi 
mer In existing conditions i 
North America and South Amer 



I 



■t 



LINDSAY. CALir. OA^ 
JULY 1, 1932 . 



LINDSAY. CALfr. GAZETTE 
JULY i), IVJ'^ 



PIONEER CALIFORNIA SKETCHES 

1 




By H. C. BAILEY 

Compiled and Copyrighted 1930-31. 
By F. F. LATTA 






One HRrre-Tnata* story and I will 
leave the valley Indians and may- 
bT tell something about the south- 
em plains and mountain trib^ 
a™ng the state line and Mexico. 

Charley was a Truckee Indian, 
an entirely different tribe Irom 
the Sacramento triDes. 
*^!a?k Long, a cattle dealer ^d 
at the time quite wealthy, while 
driving a^erd of cattle from Mis- 
souri bought Charley from his 
trTbe on the Truckee river mth« 
early 50's for a pair of Dianketa. 

He was about ten years old and 

a ver^brigbt and ^f * ^'f^^^^^, 
w He was the only Indian I 
iver knew to abandon his Indian 

fJsTincrs' and remain con*^^* J aV 
the whites. I am inclined to at 
tr«)Ute that to his far removal and 
5nabimy to ever see or communi- 

cate with Ms tribe. rh^rlev 

However this may be, Charley 

ig^rld all Indian ff ^^^^'^J^'J^j 
an folks, even to tabooing of all 
the InXi boys even more so than 
Jbe white boys of the country did^ 
hI was fond of playing with the 
white boys and entered mto all 
S games with all the gusto of 
a real boy. He was sonaewhat a 
fVoTite Jm his play feUow| an^^ 
injected into some of their sports 
a strain of the ^^dian sports Tb* 
mountain tribes were far different 
Som the valley river tribes along 

*^f h^'a nephew. Walter living 
near Charley's home and tjey 
were great chums at all boy s 

Tports-fishing. ^restlin^ «^S 
were on a visit there when -Wlalter 
was about seven years old. his 
cousin three or fours' years older, 
was about the same age or unar- 
ley During mid-summer he tooK 
his' cousin to have a good day s 
lun up and down the river. 
..How it happened, we never 
found out. But by some mischance, 
Walter fell over the bank, which 
was about 20 feet high, into the 
river and near the bottom caught 
under a root extending into the 
water He would surely have 
drowned in a short time but for 
Charley's quick conception and 
diving ability. He Instantly com- 
prehended the situation and acted 
as quickly. He dove for him, broke 
his hold and soon had him on the 
bank, and. in a few minutes, as 
well as ever, except for his wet 

^^ They had determined to keep it 
a secret and it took an hour or 
more to get dry before coming 

home. .4 ^ ^r 

It was sometime before any of » 
us heard about it. After ?e didf/i 
1 felt more interest in Charley 
ind valued his friendship. He soon 
got big enough to va<iuero and 
felt much elated on a good horse 
with leather leggings, riate and 
Tnurs Mr. Long was fleshy and 
too o\d Stride and had a nephew 
named Galbraith who dfd most of 

^*G^Sh and Charley were sel- 
dom parted long at a time. They 
spent most of their time in the 
saddle and were great <=!}««« J^ 
all appearances, had they been 
brothers the attachment could not 
have been closer. 

As time went on. Long got sick 

and began to droop and_made «," 

ajderable demands on Wlaiter anu 

Charley's time. They were not so 

Xften seen together on the range. 

Mr Long continued to droop and 

er^^onJTook to his bed. so one 

of them had to stay at or near 

the house all the time As was 

the general issue of the tunes 

when one went to bed he went 

t'h^er^ tT die. and this was no ex^ 

ception. Mr. Long died and lett 

^^Lnnfafter the death of Mr^ 

Long, waiter got "^/'•"^Jj,f''BS 
surroundings seemed ^'^^''t mu 

the future had trouble m f«;^^-^ 

From different causes the prop 
0rtv began to dwindle away and 
ffigrwalte? and Charley made 
„ v-ard fight with their siocr. 
wh^ch was their only source of in- 
come the country had »,ec°me 

-iththrsUmr s«rurg 

^hrrfngf fad- become so ove. 
storked the cattle could not set 
arenough for beef in the sumn^^r 
and the death rate m winter ex 
ceeded the increase i" f""^^^;:,. 
The result was that despite 

their best efforts '^K^'lATof Cv 
themselves on the border of poj 
erty. and soon passed the border 
and entered into full PO^^f^^>°". 

Now Charley shows off m his 
best light. Instead o* fsert- 
ing his old friends in their n is 
fortune, it only strengthened the 
ties. He hired out at anything he 
could get to do and turned m all 
his wages to the common fnnd. 
buying only his clothes. 

As the years went on and the 
family had additions. Charley 
stood at his guns and made the 
best fight he could. After a while 
they left our section and the lasi 
I heard from them they were 
some miles beyond Colusa tow aid 

the mountains. /-.,,„^i«„ 

Walter was dead and Charley 
was still at his guns holding the 
fort for the widow and orphans. 

This is but one incident of many 
Hbe character proving the stabili- 
ty of the Indian character regard 
less of the channel it runs in. n 



rare and shining jewels, if we 
have time, patience and the in- 
clination to hunt them out of tb* 
rubbish. 



SM 



PIONEER CALIFORNIA SKETCHES 

By H. C. BAILEY 




Compiled and Copyrighted 1930-31 



By F. F. LATTA 



Lopez , 

A Digg«? Indian is surely a 
good subject for a character 
sketch There are peculiar 

characters among the Indians of 
the various tribes as among any 
other people. We frequently 
get insights into their real char- 

acteTS 

In the fall of 1855, there were 
fifty or more Indians camped on 
Grand Island in our pasture near 
the house. During the after- 
noons, wife and I visited them 
frequently. Our attention was 
attracted to a boy seven or eight 
years old whose general makeup 
was more like a mythical Browme 
boy He was all stomach and 
head. His other anatomy, legs, 
arms and chest, seemed to jUst 
be clinging to those two parts 
He was skin and bones, and his 
large black eyes had a most for- 
lorn and pathetic expression. 

On inquiry, we found he had 
no parents. Both parents were 
dead and his uncle had charge of 
him We asked his guardians, 
Old Lewis and Sue. to give lum 
to us. That they were only too 
glad to do, and told that his name 

was Lopez. • i,.^„ 

We went home an Indian richer 
and with one more added to the 
household. It did not take long 
to crop his hair, give him a gen- 





Well, if they were not a sight 
to see, I give it up. Nor did 
they need any extra perfume to 
make their presence known. Poor 
creatures, we could not but feel 
sorry for them, they looked so 
humiliated and forlorn. 

They soon left. That was their 
last visit to our home. But his 
training was quite a factor in 
his future life. Lopez never 
lacked a job if he wanted it. He 
was a good farm hand along all 
lines. He was trusty and could 
handle horses as well or better 
than many white hands did. 

My wife visited our old home 
about ten years later and saw 
Lopez and Sue. They had a 
good, rough board house fairly 
furnished; a cook stove and sew- 
ing machine. 

Lopez had just sued the jus- 
tice of peace of the township for 
wages due him and had beaten 
him and received his cash. He 
had not lost all his American 
ideas. He was well liked and 
conducted himself as well as the 
average citizen. 

I learned from him and other 
cases, which came under my ob- 
servation later, that it is just 
about as easy to change an In- 
dians' color as his nature. It 
makes no difference under what 
conditions they grow to maturity, 



to crop l^iB hair, give mm a ^.^ .u.^ .^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ separated, 
eral scrubbing ;\°^«:,,J^^^^ J,^,^^ ^^^„ .^e time comes they are 



clothes on him (though neither 
UUor cut nor made) af ter wh ch 
we had a happy, contented In- 
dian. By giving him plenty of 
food, pills and quinine, we soon 
had a sleek, fat, shiny, happy 
boy all our own, for the present 

^'lS" grew and flourished 
api^e, and^ soon, with his store 
clothes and boots, began to put 
on airs with his o^ chums. 
When they came around he shun- 
Ted them as far as he could. 
After a few visits to the ranch- 
eria as far as he could, he turn- 
ed his back on the whole tribe 
Ind started out to be an Amer- 

^^'^We were well pleased with 
him, and he soon learned to 
wSh dishes and do any chores 
Tround the house, and seemed 
delighted to get praise tor well 

^'^As^long as he tried to be 



when the time comes they are 
about as sure to turn out to 
be a genuine Indian as a tadpole 
is to grow into a frog. 

I never knew but one excep- 
tion and he was a Truckee 
Indian brought in from Nevada. 

I knew two girls stolen from 
Clear Lake, sixty miles west of 
.where we lived. They were raised 
almost from infancy by wealthy 
people and had all they wanted. 

In 1858 the people left and 
came to Colusa. About a year 
after they came, one morning the 
girls were gone, and had got 
about half way to Clear Lake 
before they were overtaken and 
brought back. But it was no use; 
the Indian was beginning to as- 
sert itself and nft-»4nducement 
could keep thepiT Tlidugh they 
had always l»€en well d ^sed. ^ 

have no doubt that In two days 
after they reached the^r old 
home they '■>ere ^^is dirty and 



Americano, he was about ine^ greasy as any^«*e tp the Ranch - 

same as any boy of his age, ex- ^^j^ ^ 

cent he never got into mischief | ^^^^^^^^ 

as most boys do. He was anxigjis 
to learn the alphabet, making 
the letters on anything he could 
find, and did fine work. He 
could beat me from the start. 

Teaching him to shoot a shot- 
gun and ride the horses added 
Ireatly to his content and pride^ 
The second winter I put him to 
nlaving and never saw a boy 
prouder of his achievements than 

^^He now felt so far above hi^ 
old comrades he would not talk 
S them when he could he p it. 
I was congratulating myself on 
Ly acquisition, as he was worth , 
Xut twenty dollars a month. ^ 
and I now felt fairly secure in 

°'^But*^^"The'^"best laid plans of 

mice -and men gang aft aglee, 

^nd leave us nought but grief 

nnd nain for promised ]oy. 

I All went well for about two 

years. He then periodically want- ^ 

ed to go to the rancheria, at ^ 

first a month or two between ■ 

Iv^sUs. I had no objection to | 

this as he always went on bun- 
day morning and came home in 

good time to do his chores. I 

didn't know Indians then as l 

did latec. He soon >^«^ted to 

go Saturday evening and come 

home Sunday evening. And then 

ponday morning and maybe Tues 

fdav The Indian microbe in him 

was working with a sure result 

lin the ^ear future. . 

I had to go after him twice 

Kind had trouble to find him the 

fast time. But he came Peaceful- 

hy as ever. At last one Monday 
morning he failed to appear. 
I waited two days and went 

,10 look him up (I was stuck on 
that Indian) but the other In- 
dians would not tell me where 
to find him. Wednesday after- 
noon 1 found him with a band 
k£ young bucks. When I hailed 
Ihim and told him to get on niy 

horse behind ^^^--'^^^'^'If ,,[" 
Irun I soon caught him on ni> 
Prse ana a few go.,a strokes <. 
an oak limb stopped him .in<i 
brouKl.t him to terms 

But I knew he was .1 got'er 
-m.l tried to make a conii>r..n.i8e 
1 toll him if he would stay til 
1 could gel done plowms 1 
would give him a new suit of 
clothes, a little money and good 
will. He stayed a tew days 
and left. I did not see him for 
more than a year. 

One evening, about dark, he 
and his Mhttla (named Sue. some- 
thing of a belle) came in drunk 
as ^ilors, and in a -ondertul 
good humor. He was going t^o 
work for me and milk while 
Sue worked in the house. 

They were the only good hu-, 
Lored drunk Indians 1 ever saw.; 
as usually tbey were ugly. 

We told him to go into an 

lid rtrv cellar to bed and in the 

Iniorniiig we would see about it. 

Instead of the cellar tliey went 

Into the hen house "iid located! 



'^^^. 



By F. F. LATTA 



. . 7t „,51i I rare and shining jewels, if y© 

one HK»rrTrtata» ^ry and I wUl ^^^^^^^^ ^^ the to- 

^ x*.„ ,,«nov Indians ana may ,,_^xi 4.^ v*ii«t tham mit of thfl 



the Sacramento tribes. ^ 

Jack Long. » ,ff*Jl„ithy While 

at the time ^««*t%^t^fe ?rom Mis- 
driving a herd «« ^attte iro ^.^ 

souri, b°y!^^_„^tee river in the' 
*"?w To's for a^aTr of blankets 
-SI ^\^aU Jn ygrs Old ^^^^^^ 

ever knew to ^Jf^^^jJ^^^ntent with 

«,l, with I,"?,'"''- 6,, cbuley 

?^e iSnCs 'even more so than 
Z lite l>ojs of the country d^d^ 

He was fond of Playing a,„ 

white boys and enterea 
their games with all th« |;^,t a 
a real boy. He was ^^^ 

favorite with his play le 

injected in V^-^^jf, ^^rts'^Tb. 
a strain of the inn a ^^^^^^^4 

SomS vaS river tribes along 

^f h^'a nephew. Walter li^ng 
^elr Charley's home and they 

were great cl^^'^ttnf^ etc We 
sports-fishing -^^f ;\^^«^iTer 

rs%ToutTeve'^Tears old. His 
lousin three or fours' years older 
was about the same age 01 ^aai 
w During mid-summer he took 
Ms cousin ^to have a good day's 
fun up and down the river. 

Wnw it happened, we never 

fofnd out. But by f o°»« ^f ^^'ch 

yr^bo':? rf^enigT intr 9 

rivir and near the bottom caught 
Ser a root extending into the 
water He would surely nave 
browned in a short time but for 
Pharley's quick conception and 
divtng aMlity. He instantly com^ 
p^ehlnded the situation and acted 
as quickly. He dove for him, broke 
his hold and soon had h m on the 
hank, and, in a few minutes, as 
well as ever, except for his wet 

''^ tS had determined to keep it 
a secret and it took an hour or 
more S .get dry before coming 

^''tt^as sometime before any of 

->r '^ orrtt'erest^T; cTarSJ 
L? vairerhis'fSendU. He soon 
S? Itg enough to va^uero ^^d 

;^'^i'^i^herit^^^. Ix ^d 

«^""i. S^rir^dTadTiUew 
rm^'G^^lh^aUh^Vhodldmostof 

^^^oSith and Charley were sel^ 
dom parted long at a time. They 

^"^l ani were grit chums. To 
irippeara^es. 'had they been 
brothers the attachment could not 
have been closer _ ^-^ 

As time went on, Long goi 

and began to ^^^^^^fyZt^T^^^ 
siderable demands on ^alter^^ ^^ 

^'ifn seen Together on the range. 

r,\lrem^ S to^ stay at or n^- 
the house all .the time. 

Stor "S.-arLea-na .en 

%:^i;T."i« th, death ..Mr 

-r «. TWBuitpr eot married ana au 
liong* waiter sul v,^4p^vit But 

surroundings seemed l^^?^'^^, _^' 

though Walter ^na ^^^^^ 

''°'^^\ lo^ • nrlces went down. 
^\rth?1tock^-er still holding 

^hrrfngfrad become so ov^- 
,tocked the caUle could not^^.et 

i^nV?bf SeS; 'rate in winter ex- 
^ceeded the increase }" summer 

and entered into full PO|f °^ ^jg 

Now Charley shows off in ^^ 

K^ct lieht Instead of dcseii 

S his o d friends in their mis- 

ortune. it only strengthened t^e 

h^^'tages to the common fund, 
buying only his clothes. 

family''\aT" ddiuins." ^Charley 
o"od\t\t gnns and made^the 
hPQt fieM he could. Altera y^nn^ 
fhly left*our section and the^ast 
T heard from them they weie 
some miles beyond Colusa toward 

the monntains. niiaripv 

Walter was dead ^^^^ ,9^^'^^^^^^^^ 

was still at his guns holding the 

Tort for the widow --/-^^^f^^. 

This is hut one incident of many 

like character proving the stahili- 

ty of the Indian character regard 

less of the channel it runs in I 

hatred, revenge, gratitude or love 

we find the same dogged persist^ 

ence. With no vassalating or 

changing of purpose, we find tne 

same dogged persistence pursued 

that is seldom, if ever, changed 

till death makes the change. 

Among all his dark and viscious 
traits of savagery there are some 



rare ana smmuB j^^^^», ** -— 
have time, patience and the m- 
•clinaUon to hunt them out olV^ 
ruhblBh. 




By H. C. BAILEY 



Compiled and Copyrighted 1930-31. 
By F. F. LATTA 



Tjfinftz 

A Digfi^ Indian is surely n 
good subject for a character 
sketch. There are peculiar 
characters among the Indians of 
the various tribes as among any 
otheo- people. We frequently 
get insights into their real char- 

acters 

In the fall of 1855, there were 
fifty or more Indians camped on 
Grand Island in our pasture near 
the house. During the after- 
noons, wife and I visited them 
frequently. Our attention was 
attracted to a boy seven or eight 
years old whose general makeup 
was more like a mythical Brownie 
boy. He was all stomach and 
head. His other anatomy, legs, 
arms and chest, seemed to just 
be clinging to those two parts. 
He was skin and bones, and his 
large black eyes had a most for- 
lorn and pathetic expression. 

On inquiry, we found he had 
no parents. Both parents were 
dead and his uncle had charge of 
him. We asked his guardians, 
Old Lewis and Sue. to give him 
to us. That they were only too 
glad to do, and told that his name 
was Lopez. . 

We went home an Indian richer 
and with one more added to the 
household. It did not take long 
to crop his hair, give him a gen- 
eral scrubbing and get some 
clothes on him (though neither 
tailor cut nor made) after which 
^we had a happy, contented In- 
dian. By giving him plenty of 
food, pills and quinine, we soon 
had a sleek, fat, shiny, happy 
boy all our own, for the present 

at least. ^, . v. j 

Lopez grew and flourished 
apace, and soon, with his store 
clothes and boots, began to put 
on airs with his old chums. 
When they came around he shun- 
ned them as far as he could. 
After a few visits to the ranch- 
eria, as far as he could, he turn- 
ed his back on the whole tribe 
and started out to be an Amer- 
icano. , , ... 
We were well pleased with 
him, and he soon learned to 
wash dishes and do any chores 
around the house, and seemed 
delighted to get praise for well 

doing. , 

As long as he tried to be 
Americano, he was about the 
same as any boy of his age, ex- 
cept he never got into mischief 
as most boys do. He was anxi.9i^s 
to learn the alphabet, making 
the letters on anything he could 
find, and did fine work. He 
could beat me from the start. 

Teaching him to shoot a shot- 
gun and ride the horses added 
greatly to his content and pride. 
The second winter I put him to 
playing and never saw a boy 
prouder of his achievements than 

ke now feH so far above his 
old comrades he would not talk 
to them when he could help it. 
I was congratulating myself on 
my acquisition, as he was worth 
about twenty dollars a month, 
and I now felt fairly secure in 
my possession. 

But, "The best laid plans of ^ 
mice -and men gang aft aglee, 
and leave us nought but grief 
and pain for promised joy.*' 

All went well for about two 
i years. Hfi then periodically want- 1 
ed to go to the rancheria, at 
first a month or two between 
visits. I had no objection to 
this as he always went on Sun- 
day morning and came home in 
good time to do his chores. I 
didn't know Indians then as I 
did latei:. He soon wanted to 
go Saturday evening and come 
home Sunday evening. And then 
pionday morning and maybe Tues- 
day. The Indian microbe in him 
was working with a sure result 
in the 'near future. 
J I had to go after him twice 
land had trouble to find him the 
bast time. But he came peaceful- 
Ey as ever. At last one Monday 
lorning he failed to appear. 
I waited two days and went 
,io look him up (I was stuck on 
[that Indian) but the other In- 
Idians would not tell me where 
to find him. Wednesday after- 
Inoon I found him with a band 
lof young bucks. When I hailed 
Ihim and told him to get on my 
horse behind me, he started to 
[run. I soon caught him on my 
Ihorse and a few good strokes of 
an oak limb stopped him and 
brought him to terms. 
I But I knew he was n goner 
and tried to make a compromise. 
I told him if he would stay till 
I could get done plowing 1 
would give him a new suit of 
clothes, a little money and good 
will. He stayed a few days 
and left. I did not see him for 
more than a year. 

One evening, about dark, he 
and his Mhala (named Sue, some- 
thing of a belle) came in drunk 
las sailors, and in a wonderful 
[good humor. He was going to 
work for me and milk while 
Sue worked in the house. 

They were the only good hu-| 

mored drunk Indians I ever sav\% > 

las usually they were ugly. 

We told him to go into an 
.jld dry cellar to bed and in the 
|morning we would see about it- 
Instead of the cellar they went 
jinto the hen house and located 
Ijust under the roosts. Next morn- 
ling just after sunup they came 
lout of the hen roost, the worst 
Icowed and shamed couple I ever 
kaw. 



Well, if they were not a sight 
to see, I give it up. Nor did 
they need any extra perfume to 
make their presence known. Poor 
creatures, we could not but feel 
sorry for them, they looked so 
humiliated and forlorn. 

They soon left. That was their 
last visit to our home. But his 
training was quite a factor in 
his future life. Lopez never 
lacked a job if he wanted it. He 
was a good farm hand along all 
lines. He was trusty and could 
handle horses as well or better 
than many white hands did. 

My wife visited our old home 
about ten years later and saw 
Lopez and Sue. They had a 
good, rough board house fairly 
furnished; a cook stove and sew- 
ing machine. 

Lopez had just sued the jus- 
tice of peace of the township for 
wages due him and had beaten 
him and received his cash. He 
had not lost all his American 
ideas. He was well liked and 
conducted himself as well as the 
average citizen. 

I learned from him and other 
cases, which came under my ob- 
servation later, that it is just 
about as easy to change an In- 
dians* color as his nature. It 
makes no difference under what 
conditions they grow to maturity, 
or how young they are separated, 
when the time comes they are 
about as sure to turn out tO- 
be a genuine Indian as a tadpole 
is to grow into a frog. 

I never knew but one excep- 
tion and he was a Truckee 
Indian brought in from Nevada. 

I knew two girls stolen from 
Clear Lake, sixty miles west of 
jwhere we lived. They were raised 
almost from infancy by wealthy 
people and had all they wanted. 

In 1858 the people left and 
came to Colusa. About a year 
after they came, one morning the 
girls were gone, and had got 
about half way to Clear Lake 
before they were overtaken and 
brought back. But it was no use; 
the Indian was beginning to as- 
sert itself and m> ..ijiiducementj 
could keep thep»r^Thdugh theyi 
had always Wen well (\essed, ^' 



have no doubt that in two days 
after they reached the^r old 
home they "Were >iis ^irty and 
greasy as any «aie Ip the Ranch- 
eria. 



BAKERSF1ELD, CAL. 
CALirCRNIA 

FEBRUARY 18, 1833 

um SPE 





Shatter Educator Lectures on 

Indians at Meeting of 

Exchangites 

WASCO, Feb. IS.— "San .ToaQUin| 
valley was once inhabited by approxi- 
mately 60,000 Indians," stated Profes- 
sor Frank Latta in his address before| 
members of Exchange Clubs and their 
ladies Thursday evening at the Con- 
gregational church, when the Wasco 
i:xchange Club was host. Professor 
T.atta. an instructor In the Shafter 
Tfigh School, who has made an inten- 
yiv© studv of the history of Indians in 
ilie San Joaquin, told many interesting 
ruc£s that he learned in his travels. 
The entire valley was inhabited by one 
or the largest groups of Indians m the 
^nrlv days. Plagues of 1833 and 1850 
rfiduced the numbers by thousands. 
The speaker included in his talk the 
beliefs of the Indians, their art, meth- 
ods of living, crafts, and stories of 
ilieir adventures. Handiwork of the 
Indians and basketry were exhibited 
Hnd the designs explained. 



6akersfield!cal!~calif'rnian^ 
OCTOBER 18, 1933 

Iwiran Life, 
to Occupy 

— „_^ 

Frank Latta, i\trs. Hugh 

Allen Will Be Speakers 

at Monday Meeting 



'^pHE American Indian, how he llvee, 

-*- his art and handcraft, his music 
and what his prospects for the future 
are, will be presented to the Bakers- 
field Woman's Club members next 
Monday afternoon by speakers, in 
music, in motion pictures, and in an 
exhibt of Indian art, it was announced 
today by Mrs. Harold Burt, program 
chairman. Mrs. Kenneth W. Rich, 
president, will conduct the business 
meeting that will open at 2 o'clock. 
A meeting: of the board of directors 
will be held Thursday morning at the 
clubhouse to prepare the business 
slate. 

Well-Versed Speaker 

Frank Ltitta, a member of the fac- 
ulty at Shafter High School, who has 
delved extensively into the history of 
the San Joaquin valley, will be the 
chief speaker Monday on the subject 
of "The Art and Handcraft of the In- 
dians." 

Mr. Latta spent the greater part orf 
his life in Tulare county and for more 
than 15 years he has made a study of 
Indian life. While personally investi- 
gating Indians of the valley, he used 
as his guides Smithsonian Institution 
reports. Bancroft histories and many 
rare and v.'iluable volumes now out 
of print, including some source mate- 
rial to be found only at the Southwest 
Museum in T^os Angeles. Mr. I^atta 
has known how to use this material to 
his advantage in his considerable per- 
sona! exploring and visiting among the 
tribes. He has done what is not easy, 
but what is absolutely essential to ob- 
tain first-hand information, he has 
won and holds the confidence and 
loyal friendship of the Indians. 
To Show Picture 

Mr. Latta owns a large library of his 
own on Indian lore, as well as a choice 
collection pf Indian relics, baskets an< 
oilier articles of their craft. Just re-1 
centlj' he has been making motion pic 
tures of the California Indians, which' 
he will show Monday and which willl 
add greatly to the color and interest 
of his lecture. 

Mrs. Hugh S. Allen, chariman of In- 
dian welfare for the club, will be pro- 
gram chairman for the day, and pre- 
ceding Mr. I.atta's talk, she will speak 



T~'; 



fi^,,,.^^; ^,, 



3AKERSFIELD. CAL. — CALIF'RNIAN 

OCTOBEK 24, 1933 



fe^^.,;Vi^„; 



F Latta Describes V alley 
Indian Crafts Before Club 

Mrs. Hugh Allen Tells ol'| 
NRA Aid; Fine Musical ■■ 
Program Included 

..^„E Indian i;;^^ ^'^^ »^«'- '^'" 
T . «= -.vBs one of the great- 
A and <Tafts ^^»" °"' ,„,,e t»ie ex- 
est forces that '^f ^e po>,slbIe 

ploratlon and ^^^'^"^^"^t"^^.? of and 
Slates." '■'•'^I'^.V^^l^:. told the mem- 
authority on ln<''^"„l*"^the B'^'^^""^ 
,,ers and K"««^^ "1 ^eetlnfc on Mon- 
Woman-s Club at the ^««*^^^^, ,„,vey 
day afternoon. After a ee ^^^^ j^^. 

of the Indian ^V^^^^ "^^,g briefly <>n 
quin valley and tou^,'^;f ^ed to 

personal ooUectlon. 

I ftcal Tribes Studied 

IT^:.': f - V^ --red ar^ 

the subject for '"^^ ^.^'^ndian tribes 
than -^ll^he rest of^ the Tn«^^^^ ^^^^^ 

of the ^"'^,«^„„/vfibitR have been 
tribal l"^«"ts and «-y";,j^itg „an. 

■^^^^^, ^.^.o^'follo.-ed an ex- 
eeptltnaly fine P-f,-" In^dlarmu" 

music. '^^''^'•**'^V the flute, musical 
slcal instrument.-,, ^he "ute^ 

bow, drum ^-^^^IJ'^Jtlt. of the 

pointed out "'"* Vl^^^side of the val- 
Indlans on the ^ est hi ^(j^,^^^ ,„ 

'^^^'■'''a^bv the hounSms of the 
1833 and by tne 1350.6O. The 

oavalrj- <J'i'-l"^"'*±ns in the valley 
three types of Indians In ^^^^^ 

be said arc th« J^^^^.^'^ty, the river 

^•ell-kno-n-n in Kern co an 3 , 

type, and the P^alnspeop e ^^^^^ ^^_ 

they acquired use o , t,,j£ m. 

came known as the 

'^'^"^•" tv,o resource and Intelll- 

,;,L-T th^rxndun -man ^h^^^^^^^^ 

^,„ently acted a^ whotaught the fron- 
exploring Parties wi ,yes and 

tiersmen how to adapt t^-^ i„ ,vhlch 

survive In tne ^";\ ,, Latta said, 
they found themseUes, Mr. La ^^^^^^ 

THe «P«t^;^\oueewlfe and detailed 
of the I"f,^"^,°t of basket making, 
her special ^^alt o_^ materials are 
telling how the basket ^^ ^^^ 

gathered, ^J'*^'^^ "e^o^?^ with nat- 
baskets and *>« '"/^he tribal customs 
,,a, humor some ot the ^^^^ , bis 

^endly contacts with Indian fam- 

'"" KT.':' introduced by 

The spe^'V','^, '""program chairman 

Mr.s. Hugh Allen, progr „t 

for the a ternoon and c^^^ ^^^ ,^ 

Indian welfare for tne ^^^^.^^ 

herself Y«".7f''!^?fernoon, Mrs. Allen 
Earlier in the a-f terno ^ ^^^ ^^^^ 
told the club memb«r^w ^^^ ^^^ ^^_ 

is domg for tne " ^ y,e re- 

organization of their luo ^^ ^^^^^ 

claiming of m""°"« 7 *.= ooO 000 has 

^^"- ^„"rUated by Confess for this 
been appropriaieu uj^ orffanizatlon 
v-ork and explained themffan 
of tlielndiar^orU o.amna-l^^ 



DECEMBER 17, 1934 




^~\ 



i^AEAST OF HER TRIBE 




When Yoi-Mut (left) of Hanford. 
the last surviving member of the 
Chunut and Wowol Indian tribes, 
dies the language of the two 
once-powerfur tribes of the San 
Joaquin Valley will die with her, 
because she is the only person in 
the world now who speaks them. 
F. F. Latta, Shafter High School 
teacher and student of Indian and 
eq^rly California lore, has been oc- 
cupied recently making a diction- 
ary of the languages in co-opera- 
tion with Yoi-Mut, who is 79 years 
of age and who was born near Vi- 
salia. The other pictures show a 
Tachft Indian in tribal costume and 
a group of her Tache Indian 
friends. 



<ft>x*3:>>wS%i::>»3W:vK^^ 







Two Indian Languages 
Will Die With Last Q 
Wowol, Chunut Tribes 

HANFORD ^Kings Co.), Dec. 18.— Thirty years ago thel 
Smithsonian Institutions reported in an ethnological buUetinl 
that the Wowol and Chunut tribes of; San 'Joaquin Valleyl 
ilndians were fast vanishing and would soon become extinct.) 
[That prediction is almost fulfilled. 

To-day there appears to be but a 



one survivor, a Hanford woman, 

hose Indian name is Yoi-Mut and 
n whose veins flows the blood of 

er Chunut father, Poh-hass-la, 

nd her Wowol mother, Tee-tsay- 
wee-kut. 

"They're all gone now," sadly re- 
marked the niece of a former 
Chunut chief. "I alone am left. And 
my time won't be long now." She 
is 79 years old. 

With her passing will also go the 
spoken Wowol and Chunut lan- 
guages. 

Down at the foot of South Phil- 
lips Street, hi the humblest of huts, 
Yoi-Mut was found living with her 
only child, Mrs. Marcelino Baga, 
and the latter's husband. With 
them also is a grandson, Frank 
Baga, intelligent youth who spent 
twelve years in a Chimakua Indian 
School in Oregon. 

Here in this household the aged 
grandmother sat trying to warm 
her chilled bones beside a cook- 
stove. She had a bundle of cotton 
in her lap and was separating the 
seeds as she spoke. The cotton 
would go into yarn and stockings 
later. 

"Hello, stranger," she said, and 
immediately acknowledged that 
she had met the "stranger" before. 

Her eyesight is not so good as 
it once was. She said her eyes be- 
gan getting dim about eight years 
ago. She worked in the fields 
until then. She did not complain 
of her hearing, but said she has 
"one bad ear." Otherwise she felt 
Quite well, except for a stiffness in 
the bones that comes to one of her 
advanced age. 
Speaks Spanish, Wowol, Chunut 

Yoi-M"t spoke English fluently, 
just as she also spoke Spanish, 
which she had learned from her 
Spanish husband, and in addition 
to her native Wowol and Chunut 
she likewise knows the language 
of the Taches with whom she has 
lived a considerable time on the 
rancheria southeast of Lemoore. 
Her Spanish name is Josie Alonzo. 

Was Niece Of Chief Mah-Tay 

The Indian princess talked of 

her father, and of her father's 

brother, Mah-Tay. chief of the 

once important Chunut tribe, a 

branch of Yokuts. or— MaHnosans. 

aL ^Q<jinp^^:g^entire area be- 
lli 



Lake in what is now Kings County. 
They lived in long communal 
houses built of tule, the Tulare 
Lake rushes. But Yoi-Mut did not 
know this habitat. Before she was 
born the tribe had ceded their 
land to the United States in the 
treaty of June 3, 1851, and were 
moved first to the vicinity of 
Buena Vista Lake. Later they had 
a rancheria near Visalia, and it 
was in this Indian village where 
Yoi-Mut was born in 1855. 

"I remember my uncle but only 
as if in a dream," she said, tapping 
her forehead with her fingertips. 

Indian Lore Neglected 

Indian lore began to be neglect- 
ed even then, she related. In con- 
sequence, she learned practically 
nothing of basket-making, beading, 
pottery, weaving and other crafts 
of the Indians. Her mother washed 
for a living, and she, too, when ol, 
enough, went out washing. She 
also worked in the fields, picking 
grapes and cotton, or whatever she 
could find to do. 

Her Wowol mother, whom the 
white people called Svusie, lived 
with her tribe in the country north- 
east of Tulare Lake until they also 
were moved out by the United 
States cavalry. Some of the mem- 
bers probably found their way 
eventually to the Tule River Reser- 
vation, ten miles east of Porterville, 
but as far as is known, the last 
remnant has vanished with the ex- 
ception of the Wowol-Chunut de- 
scendant in Hanford. 

The dialects of both tribes are 
similar and faintly resemble that 
of the Taches, who lived north of 
Tulare Lake and to this day main- 
tain a small village on their an- 
cient camping ground between Le- 
moore and Stratford. 

Languages Recorded 

For the preservation of the dy-. 
ing languages of the Wowols andi 
Chunuts for archeology, a vocabu-l 
lary is being made by F. F. Latta, 



noh," and in Chunut "he-yum-n^ 
eet-tal-hee." One must give the 
Teuton or Spanish aspirant to the 
"h" in "ah-hen-me-hutk," meaning 
"Come and eat." That is all, thank 
you! and thank you is "in-seece " 
Life One Of Hardship 

Helping to support the aged 
woman is her son-in-law, Baga 
who is part Navajo and part 
Apache and claims to be a grand- 
son of a chief. A son and a daugh- 
ter of Yoi-Mut died as small chil- 
dren. There are three grandchil- 
dren, Frank Bag^, who is at home- 
Bernard, who is working with the 
Indian Emergency Conservation 
Corps in the Tule River Reserva- 
tion, and a married granddaughter 
Mrs. Mary Thomas, who lives with 
ber family at the Lemoore ranch- 
eria. The Bagas also lived there 
formerly, but have been in Han- 
ford about a year. 

The members of the family work 
at whatever they can find to do 
and Baga and his son want em- 
ployment now. They are backward 



San Joaquin Valley historian, from at asking for help, tut when asked 
words l«»arned from Yoi-Mut. Sped- 1 if the family was in need of any- 
mens oi worda in ordinary conver- : thing, Frank spoke up: 
sation were told by her to this cor-^ ''We don't ask an/thinr for our- 
respondent. selves, but I wish 'Comeecha' 

"Hee-yih" ijs the Chunut word of (grandma> could tave something 
greeting, and "hee-yook" that olrwarm to wear and ivarm bedcloth- 
the Wowols. "Lee-hink" is Chimut ing." ' 

for_ goo<^ jye, and in W^ol |t iJ . W^ll, there's a Christmas suggeg. 



in 



13 



yoneers oft 



>\ 



1^ 



wi 



i:0tMtri 




San Joaquin 



;l^»^^^ki2»LMik«d 



Can you imagine how it yould 
bP to know two languages which no 
one else in the >vorld knows how 
i?o speak, or to be the last survrvor 
of your race? Those are the raio 
?JstTctions of Yoi^-n^ut 80.year- 
old Yokut Indian woman who lives 
at Hanford. 

Yoi'-mut was born on the oui- 
Uirt. of Visalia in If ^ her mother 
la Wo'-wole and her father a Choo - 
aoot° Both of these trib- belo^^^^^^^^ 
to the Yokut group, ^he Wo -^^ic 
lived on Atwell Island ;»^. ™fj^ 
Lake, where the town of Alpaugh 
is now located, and on the main- 
land to the east. 

The Choo'-noot occupied the 
northeast shore of the Tulare Lake 
where the Tule River and the se. 
Lral branches of Kaweah R^y^r en- 
ter. They ranged up these streams 
Itn about where the Golden State 
iHighway crosses them. 

Yoi'mut is the last full-blood 
Choo'-noot. She naturally speaks 
the Choo'-noot tongue, as it was 
used exclusively within the family. 
She also learned the Wo'-wole 
tongue. There are a few mixed 
I breeds who speak a smattering of 
both languages, but with her will 
sro both of these spoken languages. 
She also speaks fluently both Eng- 
'lish and Snanish and several of 
.the surrounding Indian diale cts. ^ 



:•,'<; ■,"■,"■ 



a 



Is Rare Story Teller 



^It is a~sad exnericnce to know 
Yo'-mut a« well a? has this writer 
nnd tn think hov/ trasric it is tha 
ciirv. cimnip hor.pst Dcople had t 




o think hov/ trasric it is inai 
"uch simple, honest people had to 

Continued On Page 4-C) 



Yoi'-mut, last survivor of the| 
Choo'-noot Indians and last nv^ 
torian of her tribe.^^Sh;^-^ alsc 



t'orian of her tribe. Shn is als 
the last person to speak the Cioo 
noot and Wo'- wole tongue s, 

a few fish th« In'i'^^ln tulc root, 
alongjhejvay. 

N ewspaper^ ___— -m 

ences to the movement ot^n 
Indians. Contemporary j^turel 

it Mariposa pamta^^^^y^ge suf- 
of the methods u.ea . gev-l 

ferlng endured by the ina ^^^ ^ i 
eral pioneers ^ho were ^^^^ ^ 

lare bake at ^ne ""' . brand it| 
Eyewitness accounts and^^^^ 

as one of tne niu government, 

ever committed by our S ^j^j ^^J 

Readers of t^f?^ f^ gud Akers of 
member that Uncltii j 

Sanger told about ^^^^ mdianH 

A few n\°"ths auer ^^^^ 

had arrived at the rener .^ 

^ere a^tuaUy starving ^^^.^^ ^^ 

numbers. There ^^« ^^ g, 

b« dene but to alio ^^^^ j 

their jay settlers n^ ^^^ . 

possible the r ^try so th 

noot to their oi ^^ ^^^^ 

parents of ='°' ™"i„a2e on th«, 
Sid Ta'-lum-nee village ^^^^^.^ 

southeastern outskirts ^ 

It was here that Yo^m ^^^j, 

Visalia in ISf^'^^ loe stockadeJ 
lape built around a Wg ^^^^ 

This stockade was tor ^^ 

fore Yoi'-mut was oi ^emem- 

remember 't- but sh^ a ^^^^ ^J 

her a similar one wn ^joinind 

th- Blanken^hip rancn j^^ ^^^ 

th« Ta'-lum-nee village i 

w»B born. T~~^l 

%^^;;;rYoi'-mut was about e^yeaq 

old her <ftbe[^^i^?hree miles south 
at an old ^'VnJ „„ what was called i 
of Farmersyillc on wn .j pcord- 

ance with the anci^ ^^^ ^ ,r 

torn, her mother boo ^^^^ ^^^^ 
in mourning and w^' annual 

«^«V"^'o«t'nnestWal about five 
public mourning 

innnths later ^^ mourning 

During the P^^^'^j'^ofi ^^.as eaten 



z-^^' 





.^-- 



(Continued From Page 1-B) 






go. It would be difficult to find 
among a cultured white race heri 
equal at telling their old-time folk-^ 
lore stories, at singing their old 
songs and dancing their dances. 
The only compensatmg thought is 
that if it had to be, ^ how fortunate 
we are it fell to Yoi'-mut to be the 
last historian of her tribe. 

It is interesting to know how ' 
Yoi'-mut came to be born at vi- 
salia In 1854 the Tulare Lake 
Indians were lounded up by United 
States cavalry and driven to the 
Kines River Reservation near the 
present CenterviUe. The terms 
J^rounded up" and "driven 'express 
the idea exactly, except that they 
were not handled as humanely asi 
cattle would have been. Many ot 
them were actually l^pe^, ^^^^^^f ^ 
they would not go and others died 
of starvation and exposure on. the 
way and after they arrived at 

Kings River. ^ ^« 
'•he Indians were allowed no 
time in which to prepare food for 
travel and the cavalrymen had 
made no preparation to feed them. 
Almost a week was consumed m 
rounding up the Indians, paring 
this time they were held in a band, 
almost entirely without food Three 
days more were required to drive 
them to CenterviUe. The only food 
they had on the way consnted ot 
a few fish the Indians were able 
to catch and a few pfreen tule roots 
l^hat they dug v/lM?^ beiug produce 
along by the sabers of the cavalry- 
men. Several babies were born| 
along the way. 

I Newspaper Accounts Vivid ]' 

There are several written refei 
ences to the movement of the lake 
Indians. Contemporary newspapers 
at Mariposa paint a sorry picture 
of the methods used and the suf- 
fering endured by the Indians. Sev-I 
eral pioneers who were on the Tu-I 
lare Lake at the time have givenl 
eyewitness accounts and brand itl 
as one of the most infamous act^s 
ever committed by our government. 
Readers of these sketches will re4 
member that Uncle Bud Akers of| 
Sanger told about the affair. 

A few months after the Indiani 
had arrived at the reservation the: 
were actually starving in great 
numbers. There was nothing tf 
bo done but to allow them to g< 
their way. Settlers had made im- 
■possible the return of the Choo- 
noot to their old country ?o the 
parents of Yoi'-mut went to th( 
old Ta'-lum-nee village on th( 
southeastern outskirts of Visalia 
It was here that Yoi'-mut was born 
Visalia in 1855 was a small vil^ 
laee built around a log stockade. 
This stockade was torn down be- 
fore Yoi'-mut was old enough td 
remember it. but she does remem-J 
her a similar one which stood atl 
the Blanken'Thip ranch adjoinind 
the Ta'-lum-nee village where she 
was born. ^ 

llair Bobbed In Mourning 

^ _- — oj 

When Yoi'-mut was about 6 years 
old her father died and was buried 
at an old village three miles south 
of Farmersville on what was called 
the Fish Rice Ranch. In accord- 
ance with the ancient Yokuts cus- 
tom, her mother bobbed her hair 
in mourning and went into seclu- 
sion until the time for the annual 
public mourning festival about five 

months later. 

During the period of mourning 
no meat or solid food was eaten 
and no recreation of any sort was 
indulged in. The cheeks were 
coated with pitch and ashes and a 
constant crying was kept up. 

The annual public mournmg cere- 
mony was known among the 
Yokuts as the Lo-nee'-wis. It fol- 
lowed a set program and lasted 
for six days and nights. The finale 
consisted of the burning of clothed 
images of the dead, followed by a 
washing ceremony. After the wash- 
ing all taboos were over and the 
bereaved could again take part in 

all affair?. . , . - 

Yoi'-mut gives the following brief 

description ^^ thr T.n-nee'-wis which 

her father: "My mother washed 
after my father's death at a big 
T.o-nee'-wis at the Fish Rice Ranch. 
She bought new clothes for my 

>ught them at Sweet's 



There arc several written refe 
ences to the movement of the lake 
Indians. Contemporary newspapers 
at Mariposa paint a sorry picture 
of the methods used and the suM 
fering endured by the Indians. Sev- 
rral pioneers who were on the Tu- 
lare Lake at the time have given 
eyewitness accounts and brand it 
as one of the most infamous acts 
ever committed by our government. 
Readers of these sketches will re- 
member that Uncle Bud Akers of 
Sanger told about the affair. 

A few months after the Indian 
had arrived at the reservation the_ 
were actually starving in grea 
numbers. There was nothing t 
be dene but to allow them to g 
their way. Settlers had made im^ 
possible the return of the Choo' 
noot to their old country so th 
parents of Yoi'-mut went to th 
old Ta'-lum-nee village on th 
southeastern outskirts of Visalia 
It was here that Yoi'-mut was born 
Visalia in 1855 was a small vil 
lage built around a log stockade 
This stockade was torn down be 
fore Yoi'-mut was old enough t( 
remember it. but she does reniem 
her a similar one which stood a 
thm Blankenrhip ranch adjominj 
the Ta'-lum-nee village where she 

was born. 

o — ^^ 



■•■'\% 



Hair Bobbed In Mourning 
o _-o 

When Yoi'-mut was about 6 years 
old her father died and was buried 
at an old village three miles south 
of Farmersville on what was called 
the Fish Rice Ranch. In accord- 
ance with the ancient Yokuts cus- 
tom, her mother bobbed her hair 
in mourning and went into seclu- 
sion until the time for the annual 
public mourning festival about five 
months later. 

During the period of mourning 
no meat or solid food was eaten 
and no recreation of any sort was 
indulged in. The cheeks were 
coated with pitch and ashes and a 
constant crying was kept up. 

The annual public mourning cere- 
mony was known among the 
Yokuts as the Lo-nee'-wis. It fol- 
lowed a set program and lasted 
for six days and nights. The finale 
consisted of the burning of clothed 
images of the dead, followed by a 
washing ceremony. After the wash- 
ing all taboos were over and the 
bereaved could again take part in 
all affair?. , . ^ 

Yoi'-mut gives the following brief 
description of the Lo-nee'-wis which 
enA*(i^Aibi» per iock- 'wf . mouvning for 
her father: "My mother washed 
after my father's death at a big 
Lo-nee'-wis at the Fish Rice Ranch. 
She bought new clothes for nriy 
father. She bought them at Sweet s 
store in Visalia, a hat, a suit of 
clothes, underwear, socks ana 

shoes. 

"Mv mother made a man of tules 
and 'dressed it up in the new 
clothes. She burned the figure at 
the big Lc-nee'-wis. I just remem- 
ber that time. I was about 7 years 

^ Yoi'-mut is frank !n her discus- 
sion of the old-time customs of her 
people and the writer remarked 
that such a practice was quite ex- 
pensive and not necessary. She 
agreed that her mother had worked 
hard for many months washing 
clothes for the Blankenships to 
earn the money to buy the new 

clothes. , ,, 

Then Yoi'-mut challenged me di- 
rectly, saying, "You people do the 
same thing. You dress dead people 
in good clothes, you buy expensive 
coffin. You spend lots of money 
to bury your father, mother, may- 
be your wife. You put everything 
in the ground and all decay. We 
burn good clothes and they go to 
the hereafter so our dead person 
always has good clothes to wear. 
What do you think?" 

The writer is still thinking. 
It is a great disappointment to 
Yoi'-mut that her own tribe was 
never allowed a small piece of 
ground in their old locality. The 
lake shore from Waukena to An- 
siola was settled very early and 
they could not stay there. A great 
epidemic of measles broke up the 
old village of Wa'-tot shoo'-lool at 
the Blankenship ranch near Vi- 

From the Visalia village a part 
of her people went to the Burns 
ranch on the Kings River and part 
to the Fish Rice Ranch near 
Farmersville. By the time these 
last villages were broken up only 
a remnant of the Choo'-noot re- 
mained. Says Yoi'-mut, ''We went 
f^om one ranch to another chop- 
ping wood and washing clothes 
until I am the only one left. 

"Now my daughter and her Mex- 
ican husband are working in the 
cotton between Tulare and Wau- 
kena. Cotton, cotton, that is all 
that is left. Indians can not live 
on cotton. They can not sing their 
songs and tell their stories ^^wh,#rc 
there is nothing but cotton.' 






^^'^' 




y. •■-■•- 



l/if 



;hafter, cal. press 
IviARCH 19, 193G 

» 



Snafter Author Makes 

4 

Valuable Addition to 
Staters Indian Literature 



"California Indian Folk- 
lore'' is the title of a volume 
that makes a valuable addi- 
tion to California Indian lit- 
erature, just off the press. It 
is the work of a Shafter man, 
F. F. Latta, lopal high school 
instructor, who is recognized 
as one of the state's most re- 
liable authorities on Califor- 
nia Indians. 

The book has a total of 
300 pages and carries 34 In- 
dian folklore stories, each il- 
lustrated with a half-tone il- 
lustration occupying a full 
page. Each story was told to 
Mr. Latta by an Indian sur- 
vivor of the particular tribe 
with which the story deals. 

The introduction to each 
story tells something of the 
story-teller, and each tale is 
accompanied with a vocabu- 
lary of the Indian words used 
in it. / 

The work represents 14 
years painstaking effort on 



the part of Mr. Latta. It has 
been read in manuscript 
form by the state's most 
competent judges, and all at- 
test it to be a most valuable 
piece of work. In fact, the 
state board of education has 
formally approved it, and a 
number of counties have 
adopted it as a suplementary 
textbook to be used in the 
schools. 

The text of the book is 
printed on a heavy vellum- 
finish paper; the half-tones 
are printed on a highly cal- 
endared paper, and the book 
is substantially and attrac- 
tively bound in heavy boards 
covered with a tan fabrikoid. 
The book was produced en- 
tirely in the plant of THE 
Shafter Press, including 
composition, make-up, press- 
work and binding; and, be- 
ing the work of a Shafter au- 
thor, is a 100 per cent Shaf- 
ter product. 



SHAFTER, CAL. PRESS 
[JANUARY 30, 1936 



torSPEUKfll 






^' Unusual interest in early 
day Indian legend, lore and 
history is being evidenced by 
the people of the San Joaquin 
valley by their recent de- 
mand for talks by F. F. Lat- 
ta, Shafter high scnool in- 
structor, considered a pre- 
eminent authority on these 
subjects. 

On Wednesday evening, 
January 22, accompanied by 
Mrs. Latta, he went to Han- 
ford where he lectured be- 
fore the Wednesday evening 
adult class of that city, his 
subjiect being "Folklore of 
the Valley Indians." 

At Fellows last Friday eve- 
ning he lectured on "Indian 
Folklore" and made a talk on 
the early oil history of the 
valley before the /ellows 
Men's Forum. On Saturday 
evening he was the guest 
speaker before the San Joa- 
quin Valley Chapter of the 
California Greeter's Associa- 
tion at their annual oanquet 
in the Bakersfield El Tejon 
Hotel. His subect was **In- 
dian Basketry." 

On Sunday, with Mrs. Lat- 
ta he. participated in the 
meeting of the San Joaquin 
'^ Valley Chapter of the League 



of Western Writers in Fres- 
During the previous 



no. 



week Latta addressed the 
Friendly Indians at Wasco, 
talking to the embryo Boy 
Scouts on '^Indian Folklore 
of the Community." 



Uov'^^'tvi f 



1 



1^^8 - li^r nj 



:> 



■ » r i i n i M'r I ■!■■■ ■*• 



\ 



IFTOCKTOX. CAT,. TvFXORD. 
Scpt(jTL^cr 27, 1924 



Indian Chief Dies Aged 111. 

SAN BERNARDINO, Cal., April 27.— 
Chief Jose of the San Manuel reservation 

above Highland, was found dead in his 
shack. He was 111 years old, according 
to the mission records, and was celebrated 
among the pioneers throughout the sec- 
tion as a mighty hunter. Chief Jose simply 
dried up. News of his death was brought 
to town by his squaw, who asked for a 
box in which to place his remains. He 
was found by her in a chair in her cabin, 
and when removed 'by the coroner resem- 
bled dry leather. As far back as the 
pioneers can recollect Jose was the white 
man's friend. Many of the older hunters 
here he trained in hunting bear. Once he 
fought with a bear to save a white boy, 
finally dispatching the bear with a knife, 
though not until he had been badly torn, 
scars he Uieu receivej^ (UfASWiug him ^U 
1^ iUV 



tj. ki^t ^ 



Nt^aJJt «3(5L-«f^iZ"f.Ui&. 






[lan Brave 
of Calaveras 



Crosses Divide 




Joe Onitt, hwian patilarch 
of the Calaveras. Big Trees, is 
dead. He has follt^d his 
squaw, Sally, to th#^Happy 
Hunting Ground. 

Burial was held a couple of 
davs ago. according to Edgar 
Whiteside of the Big Trees 
hotel, in an Indian cemetery 
about five miles above the re- 
sort. It was a real Indian 
burial, all Joe's worldly pos- 
sessions being interred with 
him. Jeff Davis, an Indian of 
Sheep Ranch, officiated. 

Joe, who was a familiar fig- 
ure to vacationists at the Big 
Trees, was believed to oe close - 
to 100. years of^ age., I^i a con- 
fidential mood' Ive once told 
AVhiteside that when a young 
boy his * tribe massacred a 
train of immigrants to' Hermit 
valley. He was known as a 
medicine man among his peo- 
ple. 

Onitt possessed a good sing- 
ing ^'oice and a number of 
years ago somo phonograph 
records were made of his tribal 
songs. 

Joe will be missed at the Big 
Trees. 



ANGELS CAM:P, CXtVF. 
CaLIFORNIAN, IW 

OctotCP 2, 1924 



INDIAN CENTENARIAN 

CROSSES GREAT DIVIDE] 

Joe Onitt, an InAiafTsj^posed to be' 

over 100 years old, and a familiar' 

[figure around the Calaveras Big Tree 

['grove, died last week and was given 

a real Indian funeral. 

All his wealth and possessions were 
buried with him in an Indian cemetery 
about five miles above the Big Trees. 
He was a bjg "medicine man" in the 
days wJ^efT*^ redskin was thef boss 
this country. 



October 2, 1924 



Susanne, Indian 
Woman 102 Years, 
Joins Her Fathers 




:ofn«ii, is 
dajl aft- 
paralysis. 
ited 



l^rodi 
irhUT 
born r 



CARSON H 
sanne, aged In 
dead. She diedj^iS 
ernoon, victim of 
Siisanne was general 
with 102 years. PerhMf she 
was older. She was born near 
Mokelunine Hill, but had lived 
near this place for more than 
sixty years. One son Charles 
survives. The funeral will be 
held this afternoon at 3 o'clock. 
Burial will be made in the In-, 
dian cemetery. 





->■ 



oejc^ 




V\A/>^ 





^!^-9»-<-e\ 




JL.^ \ t) y-^ 



&-iL^ 




U-e-^-^A^ 



t 



HA U^l'T^-b- 



^^v«'.-.« 



OUlNCV, CA-. »»^ 



. ^.•»-i^*^' 



V\o\:oV.ov^\c 



^rff^ 



INDIAN WOMAN 

DIED MONDAY MORNING 

\7\ Mary Hamiltcrtgtff awralndian re- 
V sident of Ameifitan Vfilley died at 
P her home on the 13th inst., of tuber- 
culosis. She was about 85 years of 
aee and lived most of her life in this 
kection of the country. Her husband , 
passed away last spring, and since/ 
his death she has been unable to mov0 
about without assistance. 



}. 



CAN 



DECEMBER 2\, 1925 



Indian Woman, 120 
Years Old, Is Dead 

HEALDSBURQK P^\ kj^— Sally 
Castnio, Indian ipM^V^ Sliding at 
the Demostene sdAch, dedaared by 
her relatives to be 120 years old, 
died after a long illness. She hao 
lived with her son. Frank Castillo, 
but had f^everal other children. . 




8AM f^ANJ-»!><^fiOC, CA\. 

ti A A ♦*! . f\J ri R 

. JANUAJiV 0, 1926 

Squaw, 111 Years 
Old, to Get Pagan, 
Christian Burial 

CL.OVIS (Cal.). Jan. t.— "Safcaw 
Jim/' aged Mono Indian woman, 
whose relatives say she was 115 
years old, died yesterday at Syca- 
more Indian village. 
"She will be buried with both 
Christian and Indian rites. For 
more than a century of her long life 
"sQuaW Jim" was a bitter oe of 
the white man's rehgion. She at 
tacked the missionaries and ad- 
hered to the old tribal ways 

Four years ago. however she was 
^/n^prted She rose to her feet 
^^a missionary meeting and brieily 

announced t^at «^^%^J^,,f^tt^."^^^: 
u«f-» «-»an s God IS iigni:. one 
wal baptized and the missionaries 
«-m elve her a Christian burial. 

But after the minister has gone 
the crave will be re-opened, the 
mourners will gather about and with 
ceremonies used by the Monos for 
ht,.fHreds of years the Indians will 
^av farewenf One by one. the 
mourners will jump over the grave 
be^reving that all who accomplish 
rtis teat will avoid death for twelve 
months. 



£v.N rnANCircc. cal. 

JANUARY 2!, 132(5 



iED 'IDICl 



'VOODLAN;n, CAL.— MA!L. 




CLOVIS. Jan./>).^*to<Ily the 
body of Mrs. Jimlfoan, 90-#ear-old 
"medicine ^w^bman"' and magic 
worker of the Ahwahnee Indians, 
lies beside that of her brother, 
Peter Westfall, last chief of the 
tribe. She was buried yesterday, in 
the Indian graveyard here and took 
with her to the grave the solution 
of a little mystery surrounding 
Chief Westfall's death two years 

'^^^"efore he died Peter Westfall be- 
came religious and joined a church 
against the wishes of his old sister. 
She felt that he should die as he 
had lived, an Indian. He sickened 
soon after joining the church and 
as death neared him he called a 
councU of the Ahwahnee tribe. It 
fathered in the Indian roundhouse 
Ind the chiefs sister made "medi- 
cine" to drive away ghosts. 

A tradition of the Ahw-ahnees is 
that it was the duty of "medicine" 
workers to bring death to all who 
Ceaten bad luck to the tribe. Mrs^ 
Roan had been heard to declare 
th'Lt her brother's ccmversion meant 
Lad luck to his family and the 
liibe And out of that the legend 
Jrew that she hi«i cast a fatal spell 
on Peter Westfall. Few of the 
Ahwahnees are left but they re aln 
fhe^ld superstitions and believe 
ihf. legend. 



Indian, 104 Years 
Old, Speaks Tonight| 



Tonight at eigrht o'clock, Big Chief 
I Horse Eagle will speak at the First 
M. E14 church, this being an oppor-| 
tunity for Woodland people to h-ear 
one of the picturesque figures of| 
present day American life. 

Big Chief Horse pagle is 104 years] 
of age and is a member ot the Osagel 
tribe, and comes from Oklahoma 
where oil was discovered on his lands 
some time ago, bringing him a for- 
tune. 

He has traveled extensively in 
I America and Europe and has met the 
leading citizens of both countrie:^. 
That he has been known by every 
president since Lincoln is one of his 
boasts and he has met a large num- 
ber of th'e crowned heads of Europe. 
He recently spoke at Camp Curry 
in the Yosemite Valley and there 
won the approval of all who heard 
him. He has spoken before the 
Chamber of Commerce body of San 
Francisco and for the past week has 
been in Sacramento speaking daily. | 
Horse Eagle is the chief of over 
five hundred Indian tribes of Ameri- 
ca and graduated from Yale with the 
class of 1871. For a time he was a 
preacher and so will be at home in 
the pulpit. He will appear in full 
Indian regalia. 



AUGUST 5, 1926 



—couw*" 



CALIFORNIA 

IDIANUVED 
FOR lit YEAR 

The visit of Chief Whi!^ Hork 
Eagle, who is 104 years old, to Peta- 
luma naturally calls to mind some 
mystery regarding distinguished In- 
dians of California John Sales states 
that "Old Gabrier an Indian chief 
of California, lived to be 150 years 
old. Mr. Sales has furnished the fol- 
lowing for the Courier relative to 
Old Gabriel: 

^'Gabriel lived long enough to ac- 
quire title at least for a little while 
of being one of the oldest inhabi- 
tant:,. He was a native of the soil; 
uescendcnt of some tribe that in- 
herited Northern California. Before 
California climate ever became ad- 
vertised it appears to have been very ^^^.^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^ 
conductive to longevity; or at least ^^^^ ^.^ ^^^ ^^^ 



Gabriel found it so, for he had sur- 
vived one hundred and fifty-one long, 
sweet, sunshiny, summers of the 
Golden West. When it came to age 
he surpassed everybody and . almost 
everything about th£ tepee or camp; 
unless it were some of the mortars, 
arrow heads, and similar family heir- 
looms that may have been preserved 



said he could prove his age was not 
exagerated. He was converted, and 
joined the Mission church at Mon- 
terey, one of the first neophytes, 
knew it or not, but he lived under 
the glorious flag of Castile; one that 
the Spanish Grandees had fought 
and triumphed under for centuries; 
one that Columbus carried across 



looms that may have been preservea ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ g^^^^. j^^^^ ^„^ 
for many generations; and of the ^ ^^^ Mexican flag, with its eagle, 
Indian legends he might have been ^.^^^ insignia; later on, 



the originator of quite a number 
himself; he had sufficient time in his 
little sojourn among those that ap- 
preciated and enjoyed legends. 

After Gabriel had gained some 
little reputation for being old Raft- 
er he had passed the alloted time 



stripes and various insignia; later on, 
he lost his flag with its proud eagle 
and he found himself under a flag 
with a bear on it for a change. He 
survived under the Bear flag, that 
fluttered and floated in the balmy 
breezes of the Pacific for Twenty- 



er he had passed the aiiotea time ^.^^ ^_^ ^^ Historic old Sonoma, 
of old, that is three score and ten, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.p^^ ^.^ ^^^ ^^.^ 

by fifty years; people began to in- . .^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^, he still 
vestigate. One of the investigators t ^^^ became a good citizen 

was Samuel D. Cassidy, for many *^^^^ - 



years the estimable eidtor of the Pet- 
aluma Argus. He stated that after 



under V^cle Sam. There may have 
been other flags, since Mexico fre- 



- - , . . '^ nucntly changed rulers and during 

looking carefully over mission ^ec- j ' ^^^ changes in government there 
ords that he believed that at that!- ^^^^^^ ^^^^ changes in their flags. 

time our aged and venerable In- ''■ ^ - • 

dian was one hundred and twenty 
years of age. Gabriel loved his na-. 
tive soil he still remained; he did 
not depart for the happy l\unting 
grounds ^until thirty-one years later. 
Gabriel claimed a religion aijid a. 



During all these changes, ;n war 
time and peace, our venerable ob- 
originee took his daily bath and m 
addition he carefully scraped hiniseU 
vvith a knife k^s^ead of using a b^th 
towel. These 'Kabits of personal 
cleanliness it is s^«r,,th^t he re- 
llgeously adhered. ,tiNt|Kd«^hout his 

lenghv life. ^ ' '. 

"Gabriel " x^i^>ft. good- ^ In«aj» ; -on^ 
of exemplary ^bab\l6>- 1^ used' Ao liq- 
uor or tobacco. Besides the Hngoag? 
of his tribe he spoke Spanish/and 
English, but in. his last three, years 
he spoke neither Spanish nor English, 
claiming that he had forgotten both 
land could understand no language 
ibut the language of his youth and 
Ibis vounger days. Perhaps his mmd 
revetted to scenes that were more 
dear to him than those of later days 
He longed for the freedom of the 
West as he saw it before the ad- 
vent of the Dons and the Ameri- 
canos; the Golden West appeared 
to him more beautiful in its simplicity 
land undeveloped state; he saw not 
'progress; he saw only Gabriel as 
i chi;f of Tulare Tribe; he retained 
one blessing, one relic of the good 
old days to the last-h,s native 



tongue. 



••/xAM,\N^fv 21. 1927 



) 

>. 
I 



Oldest Indian m^t <f^ 
California Passes 

LAKEPORT. Feb. 20.— Charles 
Riggins, said to bo the oldest Indian 
in California, died at. Upper Lal^e 
this week at the age of JM;. His 
wife, who died a few months ago, 
'was 112 years old. 



/l!len;sciiH''"g 






y r 



Bureau 



SAN FRANCISCO. _/ 

LOS ANGELES- 
PORTLAND. OPE. 
CLIPPING rRON> 



i 



I- 



18,. 1927 



m'fL M 




Oldest Indian in 

California Passes 

T AT^'TTPORT Feb. 20.— Charles 
Ri^^ns^aidTo be the oldest Indian 
S^glllifmTiia, died at. Upper Lake; 
this week at the age of 108. His, 
wi^e, who died a few months ago. 



was 112 years old. 




APRIL 2, 1927 



i 



UpAN, REPUTED 126, ISDEAE 

1^^ <>«♦ ooo <«:«> <x«> 

ITiacer Tribes Will Gather For Rites At Clipper Gapl 



AUBURN (PI 
vada an 
Reservation 

nown 



El 



er Co.), April 2.— Indians from Placer, Ne- 

porado Counties will gather at Clipper Gap, 

ly for the funeral rites of an aged Indian 

t\ the white residents of the district as 

fr;o;,-^ •%! T ^^1' ^u'^. commonly reputed by her Indian 
friends t^ have been between 126 and 127 years of age at 

^^Ihe'^^fV^^r,^^^*^-. She died yesterday. ^ 



woman 




official death certificate of 
Br. Theodore Snypp of Auburn is 
now in the hands of Coroner Colin 
B. Hislop of Placer County, and 
Hislop has entered her age as 
"about 126 years" upon this docu- 
ment. » 

Bom In 1800 

Hi3lop states tliat Edward Enos, 
Indian, and spokesman for the tribe 
to which the aged woman belonged, 
and with which she has resided 
fourscore years, told him yesterday 
the Indians believed the woman was 
born in the year 1800, the month 
of year being uncertain. 

He stated the woman has always 
fixed the date of her birth by the 
fact that her parents resided near 
what is known as McCortney 
Bridge, in the Wheatland district, 
at the time when a Russian settle- 
ment was started in that territory, 
then a vast wilderness inhabited 
by Indians only. This is estimated 
to have.g*^en in 1806 o 



the aged woman claimed to have 
a girlhood memory of these whites 
which stayed with her until shortly 
before her death. 

Outlives Her Grandchildren. 
The aged woman is said to have 
outlived all her children and grand- 
children, but is reputed to have 
many more distant relatives in ex- 
istence, with the result that nearly 
the entire Indian reservations from 
above Nevada City, Nevada County, 
and from near Diamond Springs, El 
Dorado County, as well as Placer 
County Indians, will be in attend- 
ance. 

The remains are to be taken to 
Nevada County for interment, it 
was stated yesterday by Hislop. He 
stated a modern casket had been 
purchased by the Indians, and that 
the funeral ceremonial will bo un- 
der the direction of Jimdick, chief 
of the Indian 






^ >^ / 



INDIAN SQUAW, 126, DIES. 

Remembered Russian Settlement 
on Coast in 1806. 

AUBURN, Calif.. April 2 /f^ — 
With an age of 126 years registered 
on her death certificate, an Indian 
squaw known as Mandy Johnson 
will be buried by her tribesmen at 
Clipper Gap tomorrow. Coroner 
HisloD said as nearly as could be 
learned from old Indians, the woman 

was born in 1800. ^^^omVi^r 

Mandy claimed to have remembei 
ed a wh'lte settlement near Wheaton^ 
where a Russian settlement was 
attempted about 1806. 



OAKLAND. CAL.-TRIBUN= 

AFRIi. 3, 1927 



diaiis To Hoi 
Rites for Woma 
128 Years of Age\ 

Clipper Gap To Be Scene o: 
Tribal Ceremonies for 
Mandy Johnson. 1 ^ 
^'bvJM 

AUBURN, April 2. — Several hun- 
dred Indian residents will gather 
at Clipper Gap tomorrow for the 
tribdl funeral rites over the re- 
mains of Mandy Johnson, reputed 
to have been the oldest Indian wo- 
man of California and the west. 
They will come from Nevada, 
Placer and Eldorado counties, 
wearing their ancient tribal cos- 
tumes, to participate in the ser- 
vices. 

The aged woman, who claimed to 
have passed her 128.th milestone, 
died at Clipper Gap today afterl 
a long illness. It was a tribal 
legend that Mandy had been born 
in the Wheatland section, north of 
Roseville in 1801. the year the 
Russians pushed their colonization 
east from the Sonoma section to 
the uninhabited plains of the lower 
Sacramento region. On many oc- 
casions, members of the tribe re- 
port, she had described the activi-| 
ties of the Russians and gave such 
intimate details of their habits and 
colonization that there seemed lit- 
tle doubt of her claim. 

The services will be conducted 
by Jim Dick, chief of the Indian 
reservation at Long Valley, where 
the woman resided for more than 
a century. Following the tribal 
rites, the body will be removed'^to 
Nevada for burial. 



STOCKTON. CALir. 

MAY 14, 1927 



Picturesque Indian, Over 100, 

Who Saw Fremont Come Over the 
i U ^ Sierras, Passes to His Fathers 



ANGEI.S OFFICE STOCKTON 
RECORD, May 14. — "Calaveras 
Walker," Indian, and Calaveras 
oldest resident, died recently at his 
place near Murphys. Walker, 

whose exact age is urknown, was 
well past the century mark. 

The deceased was a member of a 
tribe of diggers which held forth 
in thi' section. During his young- 
er days he was the tribe's runner, 
and was not«»d for his speed. He 
often told how the Washoes from 
Nevada would convj over o.nd Btage 
races with the local tribe. The 
diggers were in poverty because 
the Washoes always won. They 
would take back all the tribes 
horses, hides, beads and everything 
of value that could be bet on the 
races. To refu&e to race would 
mean war, and the diggers were 
not strong for fighting. 

Walker rem<njbered when Fre- 
mont crossed the Sierra Nevada 
mountains on hia first trip to Cali- 
fornia. As a ycnng man he hia 
bonlnd a clump of trees ana 



watched Premont and his band oi 

explorers go by. ^, ,, 

On a recent occasion Walker w*J 
reported dead. The undertake! 
nrdcr#»d a grave dug and made all 
preparations for a funeral. Wher 
he called at ti'e Walker cabin U 
get the supposed dead man. Wal 
ker sat up with a start.. Lgh 
What's n:att»»r? Can't Walke; 
sleep? Go wayl Indian no dead! 
was the greeting handed out by tnr 
ancient one. ^. _. 

Walker was well known through- 
out this county. A few years agf 
he was a familiar sight ploddlni 
along the highways packing 
heavy load on his head in custo 
mary Indian fashion. He wai 
proud of his name and often wouiai 
stop tourlFts and introduce him-" 

self I 

"You know me? Me great Injun 
Walker. You takum picture. Pol 
a bit, takem Walker picture." He 
derived considerable money in this 
way, as he was a picturesque signt 
and many a tourist gave him moneyj 
out of sympathy. 



oEi-'li.'.Aiij.liil 16, 19X7 



ged Indian Resident 
Passes Away at Doyle 

,; MoUie Jim, vajii^^^ resi- 
Lnt of Lassen County, pa^ed away 
Et the home ol her husband, Bul- 
palo Jim near Doyle. Wednesday 

lalteraoon. t^„„„1 

Dr Dan Coll and Coroner Dave 

itdenholm were called and an^ 
autopsy was made to determme tna 
3ause of death. Peritonitis was^ 
learned to have been the cause ofl 

the death. 
Interment was made at Doyle th« 

isame day. ^ __^ 



^.SD SttUT^^T. C-^Ur.— MISWS 



vnv:^\i 3 ER 1, \m 





AGE 10] 





Anne Brown, iitputed to be the 
oldest person in northern Cali- 
fornia, is dead at the ripe old 
a^e of 107. She was the widow 
of an old Indian chief, who had 
made her home with a few sur- 
viving: members of the tribe. Her 
funeral took place Sunday at the 
Grindstone reservation in Glenn 
county, near the Tehama county 
line. For twenty-four hours mem- 
bers of the tribe continued to 
wail. Her remains were buried in 
an Indian mound on the ran- 
ch eria. 

When Anne Brown was littk^ 
more than a ^irl she was cap- 
tured by Spaniards and was taken 
to Sonoma county as a slave. Sho 
escaped, however, and returned 
to her people. When she became 
critically ill about two weeks ago 
an attempt was made to take her 
to the county hospital at Wil- 
lows, but she declared she wanted 
to die amono: her own people, 
ler eyesight was good until the 
last and there was no stoop in 
iher shoulders 






/I 

HEUBY VAN SICKLE, / 

, i r AGED iNDIAlil, DIES 

t\ h T^lair was called tol 

p,'''.r.h, discover, of . »» '"H 
r ^ i« >iia bed at Al Taboe. Inves \ 

,aet that the man -s He^^J,,,, 
Sickle, an Indian oi ^^ " 
Nevada. He had been o'^ f^ f ^\"^^ 
trip lor white fish, together wUh 
other Nevada Indians for the past 

See weeks this being ^h; «- th^ 

they make their annual- trip to tn*- 

T.fLke Talioe section. • 

The funeral was held at Carson 

City, Sunday afternoon. 






.^;,VM-v. :;,.;., v,..,-/ ' 



LoYVQtN\T\j 



LoTv 




Believed Oldest 

in World 



a>»!t*»^ft< ^^■V ? ^ ! ^^ ff ^ ! ■^Wl^^l•'•: ?i??:?x■^:^^ 










iPholo o.v Wide Woild> 
Nah-Nee-Num-Nal-Skok. *u»:Wooded 
Pnttanatomie Indian, lis years ou- 
This ancient brave, who was born where 
Ch caKo now stands, has been married 
five times and it is said his descendants 
number thousands. 

Hov. ilo \'\X-] 




/ 



AUTO KILLS INDIAN, 108. 

SHELTON wash., November 1»<>P)^ ( 

_Joo Dan, born 108 y*"*,.^*" ,.t«r- ' 
canoe crossing a stream fdy*»ter^ 

day from Injuries ^eceiveu 

wa';, struck ''y ?" «"r S'^^i'charU. ' 

survived by a brother, i-»aviu ^ 

""farUaVly blind and ^--^J^\,^^^^ 

^"Thl^Van brothers are Skokomlsh 

i In dians. 



/ 



INDIAN, 108, KILLED. 

Correspondence ol The Star. 

ILLAHEE. Wash.— Duckabush In- 
dians, typical Northwest tribe, live 
to ripe old ages. When funeral 
services were held for Joe Dan, 108, 
the chief mourner, his brother David, 
111, walked briskly alongside the bier. 
These two brothers were born in ca- 
noes anchored on Puget Sound, which 
custom was common a century ago. 
It was believed that the Great Spirit 
thus endowed infant boys as master 
marines and lucky fisherman. Joe 
Ban, expert canoeist, was killed while 
trying to dodge an automobile on 
Hoods Canal Highway. 






niVBRSIDE, CAl/-» PHHSS 
. MAY Z9. 1\>'M 



I ■> 



«ICHM«ND, CALIF. 



Oldest Indian 



110 Years OW 




He's 110 years old, has never 
seen a movie, but has acted be- 
fore the camera. DieRO Conejo, 
Southern California Indian, 
appears in an Indian massacre 
scene of an historical production 
not yet released. 




.■.lU^/<' 



The gold rush of '49 and other 
I stirring events arc as recent oc- 
currences to Jennie John, a 
Klamath Rivei Indian residin 
lat Crescent City. Cal., whose 104 
I years make her California's old^ 
est Indian. 



<TCCKTOW. CAtIF 




mi «icT 




OF SiKE BITtI 

Tuolumne Resident DieS| 

in Hospital at 

Sonora 



SONORA OFFICE STOCKTON 
RECORD, June l.—Bltten by a rat- 
tlesnake four or five days ago, Tom 
Woods, a resident of Cherokee In- 
dian reservation near here, died 
shortly after being brought to the 
county hospital yesterday. He was 
a California Indian, 75 years of age. 
Funeral services will be held to- 
morrow afternoon under the direc- 
tion of W. B. O'Beirne. Burial will 
be in the Indian cemetery at the 
Cherokee reservation. Deceased is 
survived by a brother and a sister, 
both residents of the reservation^ 



SACRAMEWTO. CALIF.- -DEE 

JUNE 4, 19Z3 






SONOBA (Tuolumne Co.>il^l'jrg' on 
(ff)_Tom wood, an 1" j^^^^. died 
a reservation near ^^ ^at- 
here Saturday as^f ^ yg ako. 
tlesnaKe bite seva j ^^^ qi 
■Wood. 75. yft*^leJ*^ti5TffbaTe- 
golng about "'"^o^St »"! ^*^ 
Struck on tn e ^ » _ — _j_ l— .-^^^ 



•AK BFEGO. CAfi., TTNTOH 



i^w 



'El? Mi4f?W£D 
miAfi DIES 
AT lot 



3>(.f 



Death yesterday brought to an 
end the life of Angel Qullp, 101- 
year-old Mesa Grande Indian, 
who lived so long because he 
never married, according to tra- 
dition. 

His body was found in his little 
"hogan" at the reservation, ac- 
cording to Coroner Schuyler O. 
Kelly. Back In 1843 the 16-year- 
old Angel fell in love with a 
beautiful Indian princess, who 
died before they could be mar- 
ried. Quilp, broken - hearted, 
pledged to live the rest of what 
resulted in a long earthly sojoun 
tn' bachelorhood. His body wj 
be burled in the historic cemeyPy 
near Mesa Grande. 



■X... : Buvea 

■ S..UV rnAMCiSCO.-.",v^V.Vj 
CLIPPING. FJJCM ' 

'- • •^*' ■> It ^ w • . 4k^^. », 

J^:?^'- 25^ IP23 



INDIAN WOMAN OF 
REPUTED AGE OF 
120 YEARS DIES 

NEVADA CITY (Nevada Co.>» 
June 25.— -Reputed by members of 
her tribe to be 120 yenTM old., 
"Ellasa" fa dead at ber howie In the 
Chicago rark mutriet, Nevada 
County. ^v^ '( 

She was a J^^iJggJ. !"**«« »«* *** 
oldeift iiieMlber orflie tribe. 



OAKl^NO. CALir. 

JULY 11. ]926 



•T«fB{<Ng 



rnr^* 



"A 



They liaugh ?X Time 

The fact that both have forgotten llicir ages, known to be past 
the 1 00 mark, bothers CHIEF BIG ROCK a^id his wife. WHITE 
FAWN, not a bit. They are completing their existence with serenity 
at the Laytonville Indian reservation. ^^ 






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wmmmmmm 

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^m^ymc:mmmmmm: 



'^^^^^^^yy^^l^^^' ^^ ^^^^^^^- 




Chief, Past 1 00, Lives in 
Contentment on Reservation 



WILLITS, July 11. — Presumably 

happy In his dreams of a departed 

tribal splendor, Chief Biff Rock. 

«aid to be the oldest living: Cali- 
fornia Indian, lives a tranquil exie- 
tence with his wife. White Fawn, 
on the Laytonville Indian reserva- 
tion. 

No one knows the exact age of 
Chief Big Rock. Even he does not 
know it. It has been variously 
placed at 110 and 120 years, with 
the former considered most likely. 
Old timers of this district remem- 
ber the chief always as a full grown 
man. 

Despite the years that have pars- 
ed over his head the chief Is as ac- 
tive as a man of 40 years younger, 
his admirers declare. None of the 
senility characteristics of his white 
brothers has been visited upon him. 



An ardent sportsman In his youth, 
the chief still retains a suspicion 
of his former muscular attributes. 

Chief Big Rock was born about 
six miles west of Laytonville. His 
wife was born on Ten mile river, 
on the west coast of Mendocino 
county. She, too, has long since for- 
gotten her age, although she re- 
members well her wedding day, and 
declares, a trifle naively, that some 
65 summers have since passed and 
they are quite happy and contented 
with one another. 

The aged Indian Is well entitled 
to the title of chief, pioneers of the 
district aver. He has been ruler of 
his tribe for more than 60 years, 
and even today his word Is consid- 
ered law among the comparatively 
few members of a mighty group of 
redskins that roamed this section 
moJiy years ago. 



KXTKRPRISE 

SEPTEMI3EU 'lil. 1926 




lej/Iortts 



Chief ManueJ/Tortts Very 

111 at Residence of 

His Son 



After a life that has extended! 
over 130 years, Chief Manuel Tor- 
tes of the Santa Rosa Indians is 
descending into the Valley of the 
Shadows. The elderly Indian be 
lieved to be the oldest man in 
Cahfornia, is desperately ill in 
Hemet at the home of his son, 
Alec. Until two weeks ago he 
scarcely had been ill a day in his 
long life. 

Tortes has tribal documents to 
prove that he was born in 1798 
Dunng all the years he has resided 
m the tiny Santa Rosa reserva- 
tion high up in a remote spot in 
the mountains, 40 miles southeast 
of Hemet. Only 50 of the tribe are 
}:l\: ^^^ seldom do they leave their 
hilltop fastness to visit the cities 
of the valley. 

For more than 100 years Manuel 
Tortes has ruled the gradually di- 
mmishing tribe. Despite his great 
age he has retained full possesion 
of his faculties and has farmid a 
tract on the reservation. Wh/i he 
was stricken a fortnight ago We was 
immediately removed to hi/ sDn's 
home. 

The patriarchal chief As four 
sons and 16 g^randchildre 



BCMEt, tKL., WEWS-J8I 

SBPTEMPER 21. V)^ -- 



TA ^OSA^- 



"tV ^ iQH vpars old, cliiei of the 

/Cp.jif #*«' !°Sly m It ?re home of M. e^"*; 

Z:Xt^t^^^^^}^CXS£>i r*=Wef, before 
Rosa tribe, earrfully kept by .^ ^;^,^ 

him, fix the year 1798 as tMt ^^^^^ ,„^ t„„ 

natives af 'Sern CaliforBia have been called to 

many sections of boutneru 

his bedside. ,• • „ «hilrlreii — each of tnem 

"^ Chief Tortes has ^^-^ ^'li:^^S^u and 40 great- 

Hearing 100 years of age-13 gra 

arandchildren. . £ chief Tortes is the tw-si 

"The present serious ine sot o ^^^ ^^ ^ed 

i,n has ever known— until t^ee reservation, 

every day 'vith his Pe# ^^ *^,^,f Cbeen attempting to 
''%or many years C^ief Torte^has ^^ Washington 

he heard in the Bureau of J^f^^" f^ater supply for his 
reirding the need for an ade^^**^ ^^^ has brought the 
nefple ol the Santa Rosa f ^^^^f j^^^nds of the California 
SS- to the attention of "^a^y"^^ definite assurance 

?nd Ss but so far ^^^ ^s'^at an^g ^^'^^ \X, 
hy the Washington authoritj^^^^^^ ,hope that he might live 

'' '%l Santa Rosa t^^e^^^^^S now only 50 j^e on the 
has been reduced i^ rmm^ersu.^ ^^^,j^,,,t of the Hem^«*, 
reservation, ^^8^^ *^ThV reservation is one of the mos 

fnTccS^n Hi^Son of the chief, arrived la^. Fj^ 
, 1J:;Taands%ther relatives have ^ am i^^ 
^^\ fifteen years ago Alec Jortes w ^^^^^^ qfu. 

daily- *^* . ^^^f^sional baseball pl/y^f '°u7,th of H^iet 
l,nown «\^?-P^Sers° R*P^*"^ ^"^ both otnju 

fomia. His ^/^^^^pronii^^tailiSiS^^^HI^HB 



SBPIEMBEJl 29, 1988 



M*: 



/ 



I8.1T1IWITG. DEATH 

. Af te/ a life H^t lias anfcftded over 
130 yJLrs, Chi€<K AllJluelTTortes of 
Santa Rosa Indtofts is neal death. Tiie 
elderlp Indian, beilioved to 'be the 
oldest man in Oaliftornia, is ill in 
Hemet at the home of his son, AUec. 
Un.til two weeks aigo he scarrely had 
been ill in his long life. 

Tortes hias tribal documetnts to 
prove that he was born in 1798, 
During all the years he has resided 
in the tiny Santa Rosa reservation 
high up in a remK)te spot in the 
ixiountaitts, 40 miles southeast of 
Hanet. Only 50 f the tribe are 
left, and seldom do they leave their 
hilltop fastness to visit the cities of 
the valley. 

For mk)re than 100 years Manuel 
Tontes has ruled the gradually di- 
minishing tribe. Despite his great 
age he has retained full possession of 
his faculties and has farmed a tract 
on the reservation. When he yas 
stricken a fortnight ago he wa^m- 
mediately removed to his son's «)me. 
The patriarchal chief has fouf sons 
and sixiteen grandchildren. 



SAN JACIXTO, CKU REGlSTEn 

— OCTOBER 4. 1928 — 




LIVING 
PASSES AWAY 



Dies at Age of 
C!^trange 
Rites 



The oldest knowii fP^rl^n fci Calif- 
ornia passed away at-^alle vfcta Sat- 
urday niglit in the person of Manuel 
Tort 88, chief of the Santa Rosa Iii-| 
dians. He had almost double the al- 
lotted three score and ten for he was 
130 years of age having been boru 
in 1798 according to tribal records. 

Sattirdar night stn^ Sunday nigh1 

following his death Indian ceremonial! 

were held in tbe little Indian settle] 

ment south of Florida Ave. and neai 

the Wilson home. Here the bady la: 

in state in a little house at the Inl 

dian camp. Messages had been sen| 

to the various reservations of th< 

death and soon tliere were 50 repre| 

sentatives present from the variou! 

tribes. The entire death ritual of th< 

Indians was gone through lasting th< 

entire Saturday aud Sunday nights] 

The mystic rites appealed to th( 

Great Spirit for acceptance of th( 

soul of the departed, imploring thai 

the Pass to the Happy Hnntini 

Grounds be made oasy. The chantini 

cf the creation of the earth, then th( 

formation of the hills and runnini 

of the rivers, then the creation oi 

?ilan, the]i the history of the Indiai 

; aiid particularly of the dead man's 

' faniily was chanted for many genera- 

j lions. Food was served to all, tli( 

foo.'l serving for refreshment to th( 

living and symbollically for the deadl 

^ during his journey to the spirit lands. 

As the Indians have embraced the 

' (^atholic faith, Father Henry of this 

city was present to pray for the de- 

T^avtefl. The body was prepared by 

llouLston & Harford. After the cere- 
I moiiials here it was taken to the Santa] 
i T7osa reservation where the funeral 

was bf^ld Monday attended by In-j 
• dians from many joints in Southern 
'i ralifornia for ail the Indian funeral 
' rites were again observed. 
i The chief lived all his life on the 
I Santa Rosa reservation until about 3 

voars ago wlien he cam'- to Valle 

Vista to thf' home of his grandson, 

Raphael Tortes. 

He is survived by four childi-ov^^nl 

of whom are said to be over IQ^ears 

of age and 13 Krand childii^ and 40 

proat grand children, 



^ OCTOBKK 5, 1928 ^1 



LAJPTrIBAL TRIBtJTE PAID CHIEF 

jtj <^ ♦ ♦ * ♦ ♦ * 

aftual Tones Summoned at Age of 130 Years 




Indians, all 



tty SaAaMlosj 
that remamjf oi a Aice powerful 
tribe, gathefed in the little cem- 
etery on the reservation high in 
the mountains above Hemet Mon- 
day night, and buried their chief, 
Captain Manual Tortes, 130 years 
old, with full tribal honors. An 
Indian priest chanted the burial 
intercession as the aged chief 
was lowered to his grave. Mem- 
bers of the tribe remained at the 
graveside throughout the night. 

Chief Tortes died Saturday at 
the home of his grandson, Raphael 
Tortes, at Valle Vista. His opti- 



cal illness was announced in The 
News two weeks ago. The body 
was removed to the Roulston & 
Harford Funeral Home and then 
taken to the Santa Rosa reserva- 
tion for the funeral service and 

burial. 

pom in 1798, according to tribal 
records, chief Tortes was at the 
time of his death believed to be 
the oldest living Indian chief in 
America. He is survived by four 
children, all declared to be ovei 
lOQ years old; 14 grandchildrei 
40 great-grandchildren, and 
eral great- great-grandchildrj 







/i, L/FTS MOrORCYCLi,; 
SELF OF 'VAC CHARGE 



There is a ' distinctly human 
side to occurrences at central po- 
lice station. Then there are rules 

and theories. , 1,4. nv^ 

If you can walk a straight line 
and say "przemysl" without dis- 
locating your tongue, you are not 
Intoxicated. This is a rule. 

If you are 100 years old and can 
lift the rear end of a 450-pound 
motorcycle, you are not a vagrant. 
This has been merely a theory. It 
Is'now a demonstrated fact. 

The "theory" was put into prac- 
tice yesterday when Joe Doran, 
chief of police, released Juan Mar- 
tinez, 100-year-old Indian, after 
he had been arrested by M. C. Mc- 
Laren, patrolman, and booked at 
the city jail on a charge of "va- 
grancy, refusing to work." Juan 



was arrested at Third and Island 

streets after the Indian is said to 

have refused to abandon his 

home, a crudely improvised affair. 

on the water front. 

The aged Indian convinced 
Chief poran that he was healthy 
and* capable of work, although 
100 years old, by lifting the rear 
wheel of a motorcycle off the 
ground. He was in Jail only a fj; 
minutes. 



OlifJtlana^Dete] 
their parei 



,he 
until 



Remnant Tribe 
Attends Rites 
Of Indian, 107 

[survivors of Sacramento VaL 
' ley Race Mourn Death 
of Aged Woman. 
\f^\> 

^, , 1 i/p) — Less 

1 WILLOWS, Nov 1^ r; rem- 

than 100 Ind'*"/'lWonce num- 

nant of „*„iTtn the Sacramento 

^'''"^ lathered y^terday near 
valley, satherea ye« ^^^^^^ „{ 

NewvUle to jpo'"" ^^"^id. the old- 
Ann Brown, 107 yeain • g^cra- , 

through ,1°":^^ ancestors In the 

I l,„rled with .^^U'^^l^nie. Death 

family mound nea. rje ^^.j^^gtone 

too^ Plact..%^ ..e had Uve^,. 



-■V. •' , -■ ■ 

' if- "■ -■■ - ''. 

ir ---r ■*- 



MA3t >v 19W 



.After Century of Life 

With the Indian ol4)aige is a tradition and INDIAN PETE 
of Willils prorirf no exccpjibn. Pete, who was a familiar character 
about that city for many years, died recently at the official age of 
120, but old timers of Mendocino county declare that the aged man 
had lived ma<^y y^ars/longcr. 




Indian Pioneer, 120 Years 
Old, Succurnbs at Willits 




WILLITS, March 31. — The 
"happy hunting grounds'* had to- 
day conferred its greeting upon In- 
dian Pete, Mendocino Indian who 

claimed 120 years before his death. 
Pete, presumably California's old- 
est resident, died last week at the 
ranchcria of the Shibalny Pomos 
at Cahto, near baytonville, and was 
buried with tribal rites. 

Pete was born during the term 
of James Madison, fourth president 
of the United States, and while 
Robert Fulton was engaged on his 
steamboat experiments. When 
Abraham Lincoln was assassinated 
he was well along in middle age. 

Though Pete's exact age was un- 
determined, old residents near here 
support his claims that he had 
seen 1 20 summers and winters go 
by. When, the first settlers in 



northern Mendocino county saw 
him he was an old and wrinkled 
man. 

Jim White, GO, said that in his 
boyhood days he knew Indian 
Pete as "the old man of the "Po- 
mos." Sam Pinchez of Laytonville 
said that when he first saw Pete 
in 1871 he was then well advanced 
in age. 

The aged Indian was presumably 
born within six miles of the spot 
where he died. A wife, almost as 
old as he, and three children sur- 
vive him. 

Among Indian Pete's memories 
were tales of the days when elk 
were as thick in California as cattle 
are ' today. He hunted over the 
state when it w^as a total wilder- 
ness and, 1^ his middle age, packedy 
supplies for the earliest adventu] 
ers who visited the coast. 



MhM 



•Ml* 



LOXa BEACH, CAL., %'. 

MAY 17. 1930 v>, 

U^IAN TALE 
FINDS ECHO 
IN OKLAHOMA 



SACRAMENTO CAL. BEE 

JULY 15, I^3X 




Member '^ Slfev^ee Tribe, 

William Little Axe, 

1 20 Years of Age. 



A news story appearing recently 
in the Press-Telegram about a 110- 
year old Indian living near Comp- 
ton finds an echo. 

"I know an Indian older than 
that" writes Miss Louise Holman, 
whose address is Healdton, OWa. 
♦'Near«ttie town of Shawnee Okla., 
is a Shawnee Indian, named Wil- 
liam Little Axe, who is 120.' , . 

Miss Holman's letter is v^rififid 
bv an Oklahoma newspaper clip- 
ping telling that when the census 
enumerator went to the Indians 
two-room farm house, the agea 
man fled. He was lured back by 
an interpreter and the promise of 

a cigar. _ 

William Little Axe was born 
in a Shawnee Indian village on trie 
South Canadian somewhere be- 
tween the cities that now are 
Purcell and Wanette. He thinks he 
was born in 1810, two years before 
the War of 1812 and the siege of 

New Orleans. ,. *. ^ ij 

William Little Axe enlisted In 
the Civil War in 1861. He had 
grown children and was the old 
man" of his troop of cavalry^ HeJ 
remembers riding the ranges hunt 
ing buffalo, deer, turkey and othei 

wild game. , . , ^♦ui,. 

The Indian drinks notnin 
stronger than water, smokes 
pipe nearly all the time, and livfi 
largely on pork. 



STOCKTON CALIF. RECORDI 
JULY 10, 11)31 



Aged Indian Dies 
at Home of Soi 



SONOKA OFFICE STOCKTOl, 
RECORD, July 10.— Jim Bill, Indi- 
an, 90, resident of the Groveland 
section for a long time, died yes- 
terday afternoon at the home of his 
son, Jack Bailey, at the Indian res- 
ervation near Tuolumne. The fun- 
eral, in charge of W. B. O'Beirne, 
vi^as held at the Indian reservatiorL 
at 4 o'clock this afternoon. Buriall 
was made in the Indian cemetery| 
at Cherokee. 



ISKTEiiPHISIU 

JULY 14,>^93 




Indian Is 
^ouhdDeadin^ 
Bed oLSiream 




Modern eyes acftJlSTtraited for 
ancient Indian smoke signSs, and 
for that reason, officers bVieve, 
an aged Indian died alone yes- 
terday in the San Jacinto river 
bottom— his attempts to summon 
aid by smoke signals of distress 
were futile. 

The body was found by a 
rancher in the sands northwest 
of San Jacinto near the Ryan 
ranch. Undersheriff W. W. Wal- 
rath and Deputy Sheriff E. J. 
Burr, investigating officers, said 
there were ashes of two fires, 
typical smoke signal fires, near 

the body. 

The aged Indian, who has not 
been identified, apparently died 
of natural causes, officers said. 
His age was estimaated at 90. 
years. 



GAZETTE 



Indian Aged 
104 Attends 
Tulare Fete 

Indians, tme of th^m 104 
years old, were among tne 
guests of honor on Pioneer 
Day at the Tulare fair last 
Wednesday, according to Mr. 
and Mrs. G. L. Wright of Mt. 
View, who were also among 
the honored guests. 

The more than a century- 
old Indian, whose name was 
not learned, was hale and 
hearty and very interested in 
the celebration, Mrs. Wright 
reports. 

All of the pioneer guests 
were residents of Tulare prior 
to 1881. Ten who were resi- 
dents r^ ior to 1848 formed a 
court of honor to Governor 
James Rolph, Jr., who attend- 
ed the out-of-door luncheon. 
" J. R. Wright of Mt. View 
accompanied his parents on 
the trip to Tulare. 



IWORfAN WHO PANNED 

GOLD 50 YEARS DIES] 

REDDING (Shasta Co.), July 15. [ 
(^)— Sarah Green, 90, Indian native 
of Shasta County, ^jrho had efirned 
her living for the last fifty years 
by panning gold in the streams 
near her home at Whlskytowa, died! 
yesterday. Funeral services will be| 
held Thursday. 



NOVEMBEIl G. 1931 » 



?x.. ^hx^Jja:^^ 




I ! { 

ig the registratiods^for la- 
led with fi(«^rf»tavy/Jorgen- 
sen isVn Indian !>;i y<^rs old. The 
fact th\t he is ihe father of 2G 
children adds interest to this r 
niarkable circumstance. 






t 



•^r 



Indian Dies at 

Age of 120 Years 

REDDIN-G. April fT.^-Tom DeUa, a 

rintoon Indian, dif?<1 n^ar Antler at 

pg^ of I'^n vrars. Thr^ verdict of 



Ihr. f«K« of 120 yrars. 
thp roroncr's jury yrns 

from la^k of .. u * i** 

and that hJp «s:e wa« »bout 120 

A cars." 



that b<»! 
noiirlsihmcnt and 



dfrd 



f^^ij-^^trv^^*^ 



uv- 






Louo^r CaMf6r/uc\ 



XHll- - \^3(4> 



L 



CAKL Aivm. CALir. -*-Trtl5UNS 

AUGUST ia, ]927 




Descendants o 
skins to Be Seen m ^terra 
Festival in September. 



MONTEREY, Aug. 27.— Direct 
descendants of the first Indians 
baptized in Carmel Mission 150 
vears ago by Fray Junipero Serra, 
founder of California Missions will 
be honored at the Serra Pilgrim- 
are here September 9, 10 and 11, 
kT/hen the Onesimo family of two 
l\sturdy pafenls and four stalwart 
sons will supply a picturesque 
group for the fiesta. 

Since the days of Serra, mem- 
bers of the family have been cared 
for by Serra's successors, and to- 
day finds Father Ramon Mestres 
of Monterey and Carmel missions 
looking out for the spiritual and 
often physical needs of present 
members of the old family. Just 
as their ancestors lived in close 
proximity to the old mission, the 
Onesimo family, with traits char- 
acteristic of their race, live in an 
humble dwelling a stone's throw 
from the last resting place of the 
old Spanish padre who walked 
among their forebears, tilling just 
enough of the soil to supply bod- 
ily needs and asking little of things 
worldly. The parents are in their 
seventies, while the sons range in 
age from 2 5 to 40. 

Sunday morning, September 11, 
the family will accompany the pil- 
grimage in the way of the cross 
from Monterey to Carmel headed 
by Monsigner Mentres, walking in 
the same* trail that their ancestors 
jBo often trod with their beloved 
Serra 

The route of the pilgrimage, 
marked with 14 crosses of virgin 
pine» will follow the easiest course 
over the hills to Carmel Mission, 
end was laid out with meticulous 
care by Fray Serra. Through the 
vears the original trail has been 
preserved by. Father Mentres. 



OAKLAND. CALIF.— Tr:Ct'NE 

MAY -M, 1926 







acher Says Old Baja California 
Indians Were Lax on Cultivation 



Tndlans In Lower^iCk^lffomlA In the 
I)aj5t lived entirely on the wllH prod- 
ucts of the land and did not ctilti- 
vate anything, acordlng to Peverll 
Meigs, a teaching felow In the depart- 
ment of geography, who has Just re- 
turned from a field trip in the north- 
western mesa area of Lower California, 
I covering 250 miles south of the border' 



Meigs WM studying the natural 
landscape. Including the climate of 
the area, the land formation and the 
vegetation, as well as the effect of the 
different eultun^ group* an th« livnd. 
The country rises in a series of marine 
terraces up to 2000 feet, he says. It Is 
greatly cut up by canyons, though 



part of It Is still smoth, and It has a 
^oggy, desert climate. 

The first of the cultural groups was 
tJie Indians. They had a very low cul- 
ture and left little except heaps of 
shells along the coast and even 20 
miles inland. They carried shellfish 
with them for food. Some heaps were 
found as high els 2000 feet In the 
mountains, says Meigs. 

The Indians also depended greatly 
on wild seeds and roots for their food. 
Cactus fruit was highly prized. Mes- 
qulte and the "Mescal" plant were 
other sources of food. The later Is 
very similar to the century plant. The 
Indians roasted the trunks In pits, a 
process which took three days, Meigs 
says. A few arrowheads Indicated that 
the Indians probably shot some quail 
and rabbits, which are plentiful there. 

Meigs talked with people who knew 
the old Indian language, and, Judging 
from it, he thinks that the Indians 
who once Inhabited that section be- 
longed to the Ytimaji language group. 



The next culture group to come was 
the domlnlcan padres. Their activity 
was largely confined to a few valleys 
in wlilch there was water. They had 
seven missions and about 1000 In- 
dians to each mission. Meigs made a 
study of the missions, though they 
were practically in ruins, having been 
made of adobe. Junipera Serra built 
his first mission in Lower California 
over 250 miles south of the border and 
then crossed over to San Diego, where 
he built his second, says Meigs, 

The land is now In the possession 
of Mexican frontiersmen, who engage 
in cattle ranging on the dry plains 
and mesas, Meigs says. There are a 
few little villages scattered at great 
distances and confined to the valleys. 
The people are friendly and hospita- 
ble, Meigs found. The worst element 
is right around the border, he says. 

The most important sources of the 
wealth of Lower California today^ is 
the sea products along the coast^nd 
on the nearby Islands, Meigs fouifd. 



Indians^ Theory oi Creation 
Obtained By Two U. C. Men 

BE-rfKELEfi', I\r,ay 21. — There rmeii and 
liave been mfny theoiies advance'*! pleted, tl 



as to the ci^eation of the world, 
but the latest to come to liKht Is 
the >veird hiistory of the "begin- 
nu.K of thiiiss'' ^vhic]i isr the belief 
of the Al<wa*ala Indians of Lower 
California: - 

The Akwa'ala version of crea- 
tion has just been obtained by Dr. 
R. M. LoAvie and Dr. K. W, Qifford 
of the University of CMllfornia an- 
thropology department from an 
ny:rd '*6ham;in." or dortor, of Mie 
tribe, l-cnown only ns "Jackrabbit." 
INDIANS. 

His story goes thus: 

"There \vfi« nothing but water in 
the beginning, and there wer^^ two 
men swimming- jnder tlu; surface 
searching for land. As one of 
thcni reaclut the surface land 
camo up from the bottom of the 
sea. This man'« name was Mitipa, 
Tlie otlier man opened his eyes 
too quickly and >va.s blinded by 
the salt water. He «ank to the 
bottom of the sea, and thus the af* 
fliction of blindness came Into be- 
ing. 

"iSlitipa made four men and. 
eig:ht women. Thetie were of dif- 
ferent tribes — Mohave, Yuma, Ma- 
ricopa, and Cocopa. Each man 
had two women. After thefie four 



eight women Were com- 
the creator Mitipa men- 
tioned the north, tlien he men- 
tioned the west, fcio that tliosQ liv- 
ing in the mountains could use tlic 
wild foods, the seed of which were 
thrown to (he west, so tlic people 
could use them. Then he men- 
tioned the south. People were 
created in the north. In the south 
the same food was thrown as in 
the west, seeds-', all kinds of seed«. 
lie threw seeds to the ea.st Just a^ 
he did in the west, wild seeds fui* 
tlie people. 

MARKS MOON, SUN. 

"The creator had a moon. Jle 
made it in the wetst. Then he made 
the sun in the east. He put the 
moon in the west and told tlje peo- 
ple he had made it. He said the 
moon would ^o down, but there 
would be a new moon. He named 
tlie months. After that he made 
the sun. 

"Moon was made, but fir^st was 
taken out and put on the hand to 
»lio\v to men. 'This is the moon* 
Then he took it up in the air and 
left it there. The creator had thf. 
sun on hl« hand In the sam way. 
When people see it in the ea.st, they 
know It Is sunrise: when in the 
west, they know it will soon be 
dark and lime to go home." 



eEWKH^L.EV. CALIF. ^ 

MAY Jl. 1^^^« 



jiUUUUl^<BI 



J i/A 



iTORY OF CREATION 



■•*■ ^v 



Anoth«:r /version cf the creation 
story, explaining how the earth and it£ 
-nhabltanta came into existence, as be- 
lioved b/ the Akwa'ala Indians ol 
Lower Call forniaTlias just b3en pub- 
lished by Dr. E. V7. Gifiord, curator cf 
the University of California museum 
of anthropology, and Professor R. H. 
iLowi3, of tlie anthropology depart- 
ment, from information furnished by 
an aged shaman cf the trabe, known 
las Jackrabbit. 

According to the Aliwa'ala explana- 
J:ioh as given by Jackrabbit, there was 
Inothlng but water in the beginning 
and there were two men swimminj? 
under the surface searching for land. 
.IS one of them reached the surface 
land came up from the bottom of the 
Isea also. This man's name was 
iMitipa. The other man opened his 
leyes too quickly and was blinded by 
Ithe S9lt water. He sank to the bot- 
Itom of the sea, and thus the affliction 
|of blindness came into being with man. 
Tald Ey Indian 
In Jackrabbit's own words, then. 
"Mi ipa made four men and eight 
women. These were of different tribes 
— Majave, Yuma, Maricopa and Co- 
cooa. Eaxjh man had two women. 
After these four men and eight women 
were completed, the cre?.tor Mitipa 
mentioned the north, then he men- 
-.ioned the west, so that those living in 
the mountains could use the wik^ 
toods, the seed cf which were throv/n 
tx) the west, so the people could use 
them. Then he mentioned the south. 



People were created in the north. In 
he soutli the lanie food was thrown 
is in the west; seeds, all kinds of 
5eeds. He threw seeds to the east 
just as he did in the v/est, wild seedt 
or the people. 

Blade the Moon 
"The creator had a moon. He m.ade 
it in the v/ost. Then he feiade the sun 
in the east. He put the moon in the 
west and told th? people he had made 
it. He said the moon would go down, 
but tiiere would b3 a new moon. He 
named the months. After that he 
made the sun. 

"Moon was made, but first was tak- 
en out and put on the hand to show to 
men. 'This is the moon.' Then he 
took it up in the air and left it there. 
The creator had th- sun on his hand 
in the same way. Wlion people see it 
in the east, they knov/ it is sunrise; 
when in the west they know it will 
soon be dark and time to go home. 

"Men were made like doUs, wliich 
, after a while became like men. Each 
Iwas given the nam.e of hio trib^ and, 
lineage." 

Told Through Intcrrre^ers 
Professor Lowie and Dr. Giflord met 
with Jackrabbit while making a study 
of the Cocooa tribe. They persuaded 
him to accompany them to the Coco-jt^ 
3amp near S.^mercon, and there helci 
•conversation with him through two in- 
terpreters, a Cocopa Indian translat- 
ng the Akwa'ala into Yuma, and a 
Yuma translating it into English 
Jackrabbit also furnished more in- 



niation concerning shamanism and 
A«r customs and rites of his people, 
fese have been* published in bulletin 
fm by the University Press, Under 
title, "Notes on the Akwa-ala In- 
ms of Lower California." 



ITliat good coal. Whitney and 
litney. Berkeley 687. Adv. 



CHICO, CALIF. ENTERPRISE 
OAN. 14, ll>3ii . -. ... 



Meigs Speaker 
At Lions Club 



Peveril Meigs, assistant professor 
of geography at the teachers col- 
lege, addressed the Lions club to- 
day with an illustrated lecture on 
the Indians of Lower California. 
Meigs spent several ^ftttftflftfT^Tn 
that region representing the de- 
partments of geography and an- 
thropology of the University of 
California. He studied Indians of 
the interior who have never been 
^studied by white men. 
|- The speaker «poke of the--4an- 
juage, food, houses, and culture of 
|the Indians, and told of their 
legends and folk lore, illustrating 
bis remarks with lantern slides. 

Dan Webster was fellowship 
chairman. Harry Deirup presided, 
li. D. McCabe was inducted into 
lembership in the local organiza- 
tion. 



BE/^KI^LEV. CALIF 

(;AZETTa 

?;ar. 17, rjua . 




Explorer Tells of 
Mexican 




S H. Parsons, 1069 Peralta Street, 
scientist and lecturer who has Just re- 
turned from directing an expedition 
among the Serl Indians in Mexico wa* 
the speaker at the quarterly luncheon 
of the Major Clubs of the Armstrong 
College this noon at Pex. , 

The Seri Indians of Tiburon Island i 
are considered by the bureau of eth- i 
nology as the most primitive type re- 
maining in North America. For nearly 1 
400 years they have resisted all at- i 
tempts to civilize them or to bring 
them under the control of the Mexican 

government. ^ , j. , , rrsi^ ! 

Parsons said: "The interior of Tib-, 
uron Island is absolutely unexplored 
and unknown to the outside world. | 
having been visited by not more than j 
half a dozen men since the Seris were ■ 
first discovered by the early explorers 
of the west coast of Aemrica. 

"There are records of several at- 
tempts to invade this jealously guard- 
ed homeland of these Indians by nien 
who have lost their lives In their de- 
sire to search for the gold which is 
reported to exist in the interior 

"Tiburon is the largest island in the 
Gulf of California, with an area of 
something over 500 square miles It 
Ues 180 miles south of the mouth ot 
the Colorado River and is separated 
from the mainland of Mexico by a 
narrow, tempestuous channel called 
significantly by its discoverers Es- 
trecho Inflernlllo" (Straight of Little 
Hell). Excepting after a rare rairifall 
there Is not one drop of running 
water on the whole island. ^^„. ^ 

The Seris have always been reputed 
cannibals but Parsons says that none 
of the present tribe indulge in this 

kind of diet. ^ „„_ 

Twenty-two years ago Parsons was 

commissioned by the "^^jj^^^^^^fea^^ 
of Sonora to negotiate a Peace treaty 
^tw^en the Seris and the government. 
Du^^^iig the negotiations he spent sev- 

eral months with the Ind^aii« % J^^^^ 
of which time he was accompanied oy 
Mr! Parsons who was initiated into 
?he TuttlTcian with an elaborate cer- 

'™Parsons' recent trip to the Seris 
he conducted a party to study the.r 
h^tory ceremonies, language and 
mvth7 which have never before been 
recorded The whole party was in- 
S to witness an ancient ceremony 
which w^ a plea to the fish gods to 
Tend them food. ^The singing /^^ 
dancing continued for four nights 

For more than a month not a flsh 
had beTn caught but the day follow- , 
IrTcr +ViA conclusion of the dance every , 
lanorcame to loaded ..1th giant sea 

^^ParsonI''^?s contemplating another' 
trK The seris In J^e near ftiture 
when the great feafits of these m 
dlans will take place. 



«> 



FEBRUARY 6. 1936 



RIVFRSTDR. TAL-TP.. 

^1 EBRUARY 7. 1936 





Large NiimSer o\ Im- 
provement Projects 
Being Undertaken 



Recent heavy rainfall in the jur- 
isdiction covered by the Mission 
Indian agency has required much 
work by Indian emergency conser- 
vation employes on reservations in 
Riverside and San Diego county, 
it is disclosed in reports for Jan- 
uary on file in the office of Supt. 
John W. Dady. 

A mile of truck trail had to be 
repaired on the Soboba reserva- 
tion, east of San Jacinto, and 979 
rods of fencing were required to 
be repaired on the Cahuilla reser- 
vation, on the south side of the 
San Jacinto mountains. Seventy- 
five rods of new fencing were also 
constructed on this reservation dur- 
ing the month. 

New Fence Built 

New fencing constructed for the 
month on various reservations tot- 
aled 2361 rods, in addition to the 
repal of 97P rods. 

New work included the construc- 
tion of 9.8 miles of horse trails, 3.84 
miles of truck trails, and 7.34 miles 
of firebreaks. In truck trail main- 
tenance activities, 16 miles were 
covered. Nearly a mile and a half 
of trailside clearing was accom- 
plished and 5 miles of firebreak 
cleared. 

Three new springs were develop- 
ed, a work that has been in prog- 
ress ever since the ECW work was 
carried on over an area of 64 acres, 
set up. Fire hazard reduction was 
carried on over an area of 64 acres 




Large N u m K^ r \of Im- 
provement Projects 
Being Undertaken 

Recent heavy rainfall in the jur- 
isdiction covered by the Mission 
Indian agency has required much 
work by Indian emergency conser- 
vation employes on reservations in 
Riverside and San Diego county, 
it is disclosed in reports for Jan- 
uary on file in the office of Supt. 
John W. Dady. 

A mile of truck trail had to be 
repaired on the Soboba reserva- 
tion, east of San Jacinto, and 979 
rods of fencing were required to 
be repaired on the Cahuilla reser- 
vation, on the south side of the 
San Jacinto mountains. Seventy- 
five rods of new fencing were also 
constructed on this reservation dur- 
ing the month. 

New Fence Built 
New fencing constructed for the 
irtonth on various reservations tot- 
aled 2361 rods, in addition to the 
repal of 97^ rods. 

.New work included the constru^ 
tion of 9.8 miles of horse trails, 3.84 
miles of truck trails, and 7.34 miles 
of firebreaks. In truck trail main- 
tenance activities, 16 miles were 
covered. Nearly a mile and a hair 
of trailside clearing was acconi- 
plished and 5 miles of firebreak 

cleared. , . __ 

Three new springs were develop^ ^ 
•d a work that has been in prog- 
re;a ever since the ECW work ;jr^ 
carried on over an area of 64 acngs 
Bet up. Fire hazard reductloivAaa 
carried on over an area of 6^cres. 



OAKLAND. CAL.POST-ENQUIRER 
FEBRUARY 25, 1936 



Indians 



^ \ They All Want to Die 

Anthropologists bring back from Sonora. Mexico, the story ot 
the Seri tribe of Indians, apparently bent on race suicide. 

Once it was a great warrier tribe, proud of its courage and 
fierce conquests. But now war and the disease that follows war 
have reduced it to a small, weak band of discouraged Indians, and 
they have decided that they might as well stop breeding and so 
bring the tribal story to an end. ,«,Uwar 

The rest of the human race, moving toward the next world war. 
eacb-nation so proud and fierce, might remember the Sen Indians. 



l/kJUc^i^te -K M^^/^"n^ /v^tv) 



ii/ 



mi 



( 



< 



ALLEN'S 

PRESS CLIPPINQ 



«i 



ClippiBg from 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

BEE 
^ December 81, 1918 

^ FOR INFLUENZA IN 
DOXIE R< 



Nevada Tribes ^aini Ndne 

Have Died Who Save .^leen 

Treated ^^ I^yb 






(J|^.), Decem- 

I^ians here- 

a natural root 

the influenza 

: given a tryout 

and from dc- 

has been par- 



••doxie." 
and fiay 



APwSON 
bor 31. 
abouts 
remedy 
which is beiji 
by local physicians, 
velopments so far it 
tially demonstrated that it con- 
tains curative qualities. 

The local physicians have not 
vet classified the root or herb and 
Aave sent samples of it to the uni- 
versity at Reno and the authori- 
^'e3 at Washington for determina- 
don. 

Indinnn Call It Boxie. 
The Indians, however, call it 
or something like that, 
it is found in various 
places throughout the valley re- 
gion. 

The root, which it is said 
shoots out only a sparsity of stem 
and leaf, develops very close to 
the surface of the ground, and 
grows to the size of a good-sized 
parsnip. It is more or less spor^gy, 
and when fresh exudes on pressure 
a sort of oil. In taste it is peppery 
and has a bitter, though not un- 
pleasant, flavor. 

No ludlans Have Died. 
The Indians say that here and 
in Mason Valley not an Indian has 
died who has used the remedy, 
and that it is not only a cure for 
the influenza but for pneumonia, 
tuberculosis and throat trouble. 

The doctors are now applying it 
in several cases of influenza in 
this city and are very diligently 
watching its effects. 

In giving it to the patients it is 
served in the form of tea, though 
the Indians chew it as they would 
food. 



'iSSXO, CAt. RERAI-S Trt» 



- ^6 



mOF SANTI! 
IS FOU^WEI^ll 

THAT OF pttlFF 

Lingering Stragglers Of Fierce| 

Fighting Monos Have 

Two Visitors 



SHARITY, LAW AND ORDER| 

Following The Trial Of The 

Good Saint, Sheriff 

Seeks Justice 



Santa today paid a visit to 2000 
Tndians in the hills behind Fresno. 
They are the remnants of the once 
nerce tribe of fighting California 
Indians — the Mo no s,. 

Tomorrow, or as soon thereafter 
as he can reach the mountain re- 
treats to which the advent of the 
white man has driven the rew re- 
maining: stragglers. Deputy Sherifi' 
S. B. Williams will visit them, but 
for a different purpose. 

Old Santa went armed with 
Christmas gifts for the fast-disap- 
pearing tribe and carried the word 
of Christ's birth 2000 years ago and 
baptized a score of Indian children 
into the Baptist church. Deputy 
Sherilt Willaims has been delegated 
with orders to sejarch out an old 
medicine man and probe a reported 
''murder" due to doctoring by tribal 
custom. 

Civilization is making fast prog- 
ress among the younger generation 
of the old tribe; but the sages of 
other days and the wrinkled old 
squaws and bucks hold to their an- 
cient custom. Their grandchildren 
they permit the Rev. J. A. Brendel, 
Clovis Indian missionary and head 
of the California Baptist missiona- 
ries, to convert to the white man's 
religion » | d. custo;ns. 

But for themselves different tales 
have drifted in to Sherift W. K. 
Jones. That is why Deputy Hhc^t 
AV^illiams, a rancher living near xOU 
House, and himself a worker among 
the I)idians, is now en roVte to their 
last stand. 

When they become ill the old 
medicine man **cures" their levers 
with his ancient incantations, and 
in extreme cases resorts to more 
hazardous methods to supplement 
his witchcraft. 

At least one death among the 
venerable chiefs up above Syca- 
more the past few weeks has result- 
ed from "bleeding."' Influenza has 
made an inroad into )the elders of 
the tribe, which is scattered among 
rive separate settlements, living in 
makeshift huts partially buried un- 
der the snow. 

To relieve the fever the aged 
medicine man penetrates the jugu- 
lar vein of his patient and permits 
the "god of badness' to flow freely 
from the victim's sytem. When this 
*'Sod" is entirely released the flow 
will stop, according to tribal tra- 
dition. 

In the reports to Sheriff Jones 
there was tin undue amont of bad- 
ness in the dead patient. His blood 
di dnot cease to flow until the blood 
ceased to exist in the wrinkled old 
body. This, the Indians report, was 
not the fault of the medicine man's 
logic but the wrath of another an- 
cient deity who had waited for his 
time* of vengeance on the victim. 

The clash o ftribal beliefs and of 
occidental customs has given Sher- 
iff Jones a problem. 

Under our laws the medicine man 
is a murderer. 

Under his tribal laws he is the 
victim of a patient whose past deeds 
have overtaken him. 

Because of his knowledge of the 
Indians and the Indlau customs, 
Deputy Sheriff Willaims volun- 
teered today to follow the trail left 
by Santa Claus in getting to the 
tribes. Whether he will bring back 
the old medicine man for American 
justice or accept the verdict of tri- 
bal custom is left to Williains. 

The Rev. Brendel has been work- 
ing among California Jndian.-s for oO 
years anil has played Santa 'r\ud 
patron of Iho passing !ribcs for that 
many Christmases. This year cUibs 
and churches throughout the i^aii 
.loaquin united in filling his Christ- 
mas pack for them. 

There were trees, feasts and re- 
llirolus services held at Aub^rryt 
DunpaU Table Mountain. Toll House 
at Sycamore for the iril>^» 






y. -* vn 






Medicine Man Lived Dangerously 



JTa 



AV 



LOUse 



O'NEALS (Madera Co.). June 
23. — George J. Crammer, 77, 
who recalls vividly many in- 
cidents of the stirring days 
when the San Joaquin Valley was 
being settled by white men and who 
participated in various expeditions 
undertaken by the white men to 
pacify the restless Indians. In a 
reminiscent mood here the other day 
pointed out that the life of the In- 
dian doctor of those times was not 
what a modern insurance company 
would term a reasonable risk. In 
fact, he says, it's safe to say that 
no insurance company would take 
a chance on insuring a medicine 
man. 

To corroborate his conclusion, the 
old timer relates how, as a boy of 
eighteen, while working on the John 
Williams ranch near Tollhouse in 
1869, he was Instrumental in saving 
the life of old Dr. Charley, who 



gained more or less of a precarious 
livelihood by administering to the 
physical ailments of his tribesmen 
in that vicinity. Crammer isn|t 
quite siure just what the red man's 
law was on the matter but knows 
that after losing one or more pa- 
tients a medicine man's life was 
worth less than nothing. 

Accordingly, came Dr. Charley on*. 
day to the Williams ranch in much 
haste seeking sanctuary. One too 
many of his patients had died and 
the tribe was out for his scalp. 
Williams detailed young Crammer 
as bodyguard for the venerable Dr. 
Charley and Crammer says he didn't 
have much trouble with his protege 
who esconced himself In the darkest 
corner of the deepest cellar on the 
ranch and abided there until the ex- 
citement had abated. Tho tribe got 
tired of looking for their intended 
victim and forgot about their plan 
for vengeance in the course of time. 
Dr. Charley quit doctoring. 



OKLAHOWA INDIANS 
ARE ON "WARPATH" 

Fight Bill Banning Use of Peyote 
for B«ligious Cere- 
monies. 



Bv the AsTOciated Press. 
OKLAHOMA CITY, Okla., Febru- 
" l^^ILoklahoma Indians are on_ the 
"war Dath " Peyote, the sacred herb 
Jls^'he ^ounlatlon of tbeir^ native 

contr^t with the Primitive methc^s 
used a half century apo. Tecnnicai 
»v^rts legal representatives and elo- 
aufnt orato« have supplanted the am- 
hiKih and the massacre. 

The Indians say the Issue is peyote 
versus Christianity. 

White protionents of the m" tnai 
would proha.lt the use of the herb 
1- in Oklahoma say the only question 
' in-olved is the physical effect on Its 

"Teyote, a small bean Imported from 
Mexico Is the sacrament used in cere- 
monials of the native Amerl^n 
r-hnrch founded a number of years 
aeo to perpetuate the aboriginal r^ 
?il?ous rites of the Indians. Alfred 
' W ison of Weatherford, Okla., a 
Seyenne Indian, is president of the 

°*'He*'says It Is administered under 
the regulations of the church, and 
that each communicant takes four 
^ans at a ceremony. Wilson denies 
^at the bean, which Is chewed and 
swallowed, has any permanent patho- 

'"I'tatef enltor A. E. Darnell of Clin- 
ton author of the anti-peyote bill. 
says the bean has an exhilarating 
^.ffect on the user, causing him to 
"^e heaven." The after-effect he 
averts, is stupefaction during which 
the subject may be easily persuaxiea 
to part with his possessions. 



tAP5 FRANCISCO EXAMfNE*! 

FE]3r^UAIiY 25, 1929 



She'U Scalp thfe Germs 



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heVname and hardly from her looks, is an Indian maid of 
the KaVock tribe up in the Siskiyous. Her ambition is tol 
return to her tow n as a public health n urse. 

War Whoop May Resound 
In S. F. Hospital Wards 



If a war-whoop — or even so 
much as one tiny kl-yi or yip yiP 
—comes floating out of bt. Luke s 
Hospital any day from now on, 
Superintendent Howard Johnson 
is going to know just where to 

^"^He'll start right after Viola 
Humphreys. For it might be 
Viola, talking the language of her 

ancestors! ^, ^ *,. 

Though it isn't likely that Miss 
Humphreys will retrogress to such 
an extent. She is a very modern 
young Indian maiden, and she s 

going to be a nurse. 

If you started looking over the 
January class of probationers out 
at St. Luke's you probably 
couldn't pick out this daughter of 
the Karock tribe of the Siskiyou 
mountains. Kor Viola, after all, is 
half white. Both her father and 
mother are half Indian, but her 



grandmother Is a true Karock. 

This young lady who is deter- 
mined to be a nurse has a fair 
skin, although her hair is black. 
Her marcelled bob looks just like 
that of the other probationers. 
Yet all her life has. been spent in 
the mountain country near Happy 

Camp. ^ ^, , 

G. R. Humphreys, her father, Is 

postmaster. 

She is very happy in the hos- 
pital, she assured Miss G. M. 
Kennedy, superintendent of 
nurses. And some day she hopes 
to go as a nurse among her own 

people. 

"There is no doctor in Happy 
Camp." she said. **My mother is 
alway* called when there's a baby 
born, or any one is ill. It's my 
ambition to be a public health 
nurse, back in the town where I 
grew up." 



nnER^iDE, CAT , ruiiiss 




^4 h ^4— 

CallfffrnlS's first 



residents^, ike. 
Indians, will be troatecl for tuber- 
culosfjs for ttte first time in historj- 
as part of a serious effort to pre- 
vent extinction of the race. 

Suc]\ is the intention of the Cali- 
fornia Bureau of Tuberculosis- of 
the state departiWiif of pul)lic 
health, according to Mrs. Edythe 
Tat(- Thorn p^son, chief. 

More than 1000 Indian oliildren 
in the Sherman Indian "STtTTTTfl^ will 
be ♦examined in the traveling X-rny 
clinic maintained by the bureau. 

"This is the first time our In- 
dian wards have had the benefit 
of this advanced class of preventive 
practice," Mrs. Thompson declar- 
ed. "When the examinations are 
made they will be followed with 
provisions for adequate care and 
treatment. 

"It is hoped that eventually this 
sort of treatment may be extend- 
ed to all our Indian wards, among 
whom tuberculosis is making gre; 
inroads." 



TERNiDALE. CALIT. 
ENTERPRtSe 

MARCH 15, 1^29 J 

INDIAN EQUIPMENT 
FROM HUMBOLDT 
SENT TO UNIVERSITY 

Bringing back memories of the 
davs when the Wiyot Indians of Hum- 
boldt Bay, California, cured their ills 
by sucking them through a tobacco 
pipe or dancing and singing, accord- 
ing to the mystic rules laid down by 
their ancestors, a complete, remark- 
ably well-preserved medicine mans 
.outfit has just been acquired by the 
University of California Museum of 

Anthropology. ,, , , u- , 

In place of the black bag, shmy 
instruments, and years of scientific 
study with which the modern physi- 
cian equips himself, the Shaman or 
doctor of the Wiyot Indians wore a 
pair of feather dusters draped on 
each side of the head, and carried a 
bundle of condor feathers, an elk- 
hide belt, and a pipe. 

E. W. Gilford, curator of the ."lu- 
seum, explains that among the Wiyot, 
unlike the modern custom, doctors 
were chiefly women. Some of them 
[diagnosed the ills of their tribespeo- 
ple by dancing or singing, others 
sucked out the pain through their 
magic pipes. The condor feathers 
were pushed down the throat, much 
as a sword swallower would handle a 

knife. 

This particular Shaman's outfit is 
an authentic one, used many years 
ago by the gi^andmother of Mrs. Ed. 
Buckly, a Wiyot Indian woman now 
living at Humboldt Bay. Arrange- 
ments for the transfer of the relics 
to the museum were made by Mr*. 
:e Herrick of Loleta. . / 



COLUSA, CALit'. SUN 
AFKIL h IW* 



SACftAMEfrrO. CAUF.--»K« 

MAY 24, im 





CUTED BY 




SACRAMENTO, Aj^v. 5 (United 
Press)— The skeleton i of an Indian 
medicine man, executed 400 years 
ago by a primitive bow and arrow 
squad because his power over evil 
spirits had failed, has been unearth- 
ed by B. H. Hathaway, California 

curator. 

The find was made in an Indian 

mound buried six feet deep on the 

1 Edison C. Shrader ranch in the delta 

district. 

Lodged in the breast bone and the 
vertebrae were seven gem point ar- 
row heads, mute testimony of the 
fate of the tridesman. 

The relic will be placed on exhibi- 
tion in the museum room of the state 
library building here. 



Death Of Indian 
Child In Ukiah 
Starts Probe 



Investigators Believe Girl Vic 

tim Of Ancient Custom Of 

Torture To Drive 

Away Spirits 

UKIAH (Mendocino Co.), May 24 
(;P)-_Whether the Indians o" this 
district have ben invoking a cen 
uries-old tribal custom of torture to 
drive evil spirits from the persons 
of their tribesmen was being inves- 
tigated by government agents to- 
day as a result of the death of 
Katherine Williams. 8 years old. 

Miss Lucy Keenan, government 
Indian nurse, announced last night 
that lacerations covering the upper 
part of the little girl's body had 
been found shortly before her 
death in a hospital here. 

Sister Also Dies. 

The little Indian girl died just a 
week after her 18-year-old sister, 
Geral line Williams, succumbed to 
tuberculosis. Geraldine Williams 
had been widely known as an In- 
dian beauty. 

Miss Heenan declared that the 
younger Williams girl had been 
treated by tribal medicine men who 
had used rites several hundred 
years old. The nurse also asserted 
that torture often played a promi 
nent part in the tribal attempts to 
treat disease, and that she feared 
the younger girl had been a victim 
of this custom. 



$AN' ri^ANciseo examinsm 
MAY 25, 1929 




HELD VICTI 
OF ANCIENTf 

PAGAN RIIE^ 




Death Sifted 



Child Mistreaterto Rout Evir 
Spirit, Investigator Charges 
As Two Inquiries Open^e 



Brutal Ceremonies Revealed as^^J 

Officials Launch Drive toss 

End Rule of 'Medicine Men",' 
u 






t 

B 

B 



UKIAH, May 24.— Pagan rited, asi- 
practiced by Indian medicine men** 
before the first *'palefaces" came to^^ 
America, were linked In an official ^h 
report today with the death last it 
Sunday of 6-year-old Katherine^^ 

WiUliams. .e 

Medicine men of the Yojsahg n 
tribe, Jiccording to the report, n 
sought to cure Katherine, the^^ 
daughter of Chief Tall Mountain. „ 
But their incantations, conducted j 
I with all the shocking and brutal I- 
I ceremonials of tribal witchcraft, * 
were futile and the child died. 
REPORT FILED. 

And tonight two Investigations, 
one under the auspices of the Fed- I 
leral government, and the other di- | 
jrected by the State Department of lit 
Health, were being made at the 
reservation here. As a result of 
the two inquiries, it was declared, 
the authorities hope not only to fix 
the blame for the death of the little 
Indian girl, but to stamp out for all 
time the practice of "magic" and 
"torture healing" among the In- 
dians of California. 

Principals in the investigation of 
the amazing story of alleged abor- 
iginal sorcery in Twentieth Cen- 
tury California, as it developed to- 
day, were Miss Lucy Keenan, gov- 
ernment Indian nurse, vvho filed 
the report stating that she believed 
Katherine died after "treatment by 
a medicine man," and Col. L. A. 
Dorrington, California director of 
the government Indian Bureau, 

WILL HOLD QUIZ. 

It was to Colonel Dorrington that 
Miss Keenan submitted her report. 
He arrived tonight in Ukiah. to 
personally direct the investigation. 

Geraldine Williams, 18-year-old 
sister of Katherine and a widely 
known Indian beauty, died a week 
ago Sunday, according to Miss 
Keenan. When she visited the house 
she saw that Katherine was ill, and 
came back on Monday to see her. 
The girl had tuberculosis. 

On Friday Miss Keenan returned, 
and it was on this visit, according 
to her report, that she witnessed f 

The WMlliams family Is one of the 
most prosperous of the tribe and 
its home one of the most modern 
and best kept. , 

County authorities have taken no 
action m the a^se as yet, it was 
revealed tonight, pending l^^^i ?« 
report from State and Federal in- 

^^Thf c^".- of Katherine v^iU re.ult 
In airing the entire problem of 
imedicin'e men" and »ndi«n torture 
methods In treating *]^« •'^T', *^^, 
cording to • ttat'^ment by Colonel 

Dorrington. «*«♦/» 

"I intend to confer with State 

health authorities," he said, and 

ascertain what l^^^l ^^^2" .JI'uv 
have to curb the practice of ci^uelty 

by tribal medicine men. 

BELIEF 8UPP0RTED, 

"Barbarous treatment of sick per- 
sons to drive out 'evil spirits' is un- 
questionably going: on among the 
Indians, despite every c^^^^t to 
•llmiftate their tribual superstitions 
ty education. Medicine men are 
•tin practicing in the various In- 
dian communities throughout the 

The bruises and lacerrMons found 
en the Indian girl's bo^y- ^t'^";! 
Dorrington si^ld, support the beliet 
that she had suffered harsh cruel- 
ties before Miss Keenan removed 
her to the Mendocino County Hos- 
pital here. , 

Details of Miss Keenan's findings, 
Colonel Dorrington said, will be 
withheld until completion of the 
Investigation. If It Is definitely es- 
tablished that she was subjected to 
inhuman treatment, he declared, 
evidence will be turned over to the 
county authorities, with a request 
for prosecution. 

Despite Miss Keenan's report, 
and the Indian agent's admission 
that age-old rites are being prac- 
ticed among the tribes In California, 
efforts were made today to make it 
appear that Katherlne's Injurle 
were the result of a fall from ' 
hammock. 




GERALDINE WILLIAMS, 18- 
year-old Indian beauty, who died 
two weeks ago, and sister of 
Katherine, whose subsequent 
death is blamed upon "Medicinf 
Men." 



-U"'^ out «•>"*'•'•* .vuO >"l' 




State, Government Open Inves- 
tigations of Pagan Rites 
Practiced by Medicine Men 



(Continued from Page Onv.) • 

the rites being practiced on the 
yowng sufferer. 

^Although it was a vsry hot day^ 
little Katharine was wrapped up 
in heavy blankets/' said Miss 
Keenan, ''and thera was a great fire 
burning In the room. Tha mother 
ivaa lying on tha floor on one side 
of the child, and a woman witch- 
doctor of tha tribe was on the 
other aide. 

"The Indians place great store 
In the healing powers of the Earth 
Mother, and in sickness the patient 
invariably is placed on the floor or 
ground. 

**The girl's throat and body were 
bruised as though she had been 
bitten about the throat and beaten 
upon the body. Her mother ad- 
mitted to me that she had called in 
the medicine man of the tribe in 
an effort to cure her daughter." 

Miss Keenan took the girl, blan- 
kets and all, to the hospital, where 
she died on the following Sunday. 
According to the nurses, the bar- 
barous tribal tortures to which she 
had been subjected were to a large 
extent responsible for her death. 

Dr. S. L. Rea, who treated Kath- 
arine when she was brought to the 
county hospital, declared tonight 
that tjie marks on the child's body 
were undeniably made by a medi- 
cine man. He said, however, that 
he was not certain that the treat- 
ment in itself might have caused 
death. 
PAIN INFLICTED. 

The "medicine" of the California 
Indians, it was pointed cut. In- 
cludes the Infliction of pain on the 
sufferer, on the theory that the 
pain will drive out the demon of 
sickness. In the case of Katherine 
Williams, this alleged "torture 
cure" was declared to have brought 
on an internal rupture which 
hastened the child's death. 

Mrs. Keenan declared today tnat 
^ there are three medicine men in the 
il vicinity. These are Toney Metock, 
5 80-year-old ''practitioner;" Topsy 
' I Petit, aged Indian woman, and a 
third, unnamed. She said It was 
not known "for sure" who admin- 
istered the treatment. 

The girl's father. Chief Tall 
Mountain, is also known as W. D. 
^\'illiams. Katherine's sister. Ger- 
aldine, was known for her beauty 
throughout Northern California. In 
April. 1927, she was chosen by the 
Northwestern Pacific Railway Com- 
pany to represent the Yokaho tribe 
at the christening of the "Men- 
docino." one of the company's new 
auto ferry boats. * - , 

Adhering to the beliefs of his 
forefathers. Chief Tall Mountain 
today said he believed his little 
daughter's death was the result of 
"an evil charm" placed upon her 
by an envious member of the tribe. 
The Williams family is one of the 
most prosperous of the tribe and 
its home one of the most modern 
and best kept. 

County authorities have taken no 
action in the case as yet, it was 
revealed tonight, pending the final 
report from SUte and Federal in- 

^^Thfcrss of Katherine will result 
In airing the entire ^'•<^'''f"2*,.pl 
-mtdicins men" and Indian torture 

irtethods In treatmg th\ ••%*^', "Vi 
cording to m stat-ment by Colonel 
Dorrington. 

"I intend to confer with State 
health authorities," he said, ''and 
ascertain what legal powers they 
have to curb the practice of ci^uelty 
by tribal medicine men, 
BELIEF SUPPORTED. 

"Barbarous treatment of sick per- 
sons to drive out 'evil spirits' is un- 
Questionablv going on among the 
Indians, despite every effort to 
•liminate their tribual superstitions 
by education. Medicine men are 
•till practicing In the various In- 
dian communities throughout the 

State." . ^. - . 

The bruises and lacerr^ions found 
an the Indian girl's body, Colonel 
Dorrington said, support the belief 
that she had suffered harsh cruel- 
ties before Miss Keenan removed 
her to the Mendocino County Hos- 
pital here. , ^ ^, 

Details of Miss Keenan*s findings. 

Colonel Dorrington said, will be 
withheld until completion of the 
Investigation. If it is definitely es- 
tablished that she was subjected to 
inhuman treatment, he declared, 
evidence will be turned over to the 
county authorities, with a request 
for prosecution. 

Despite Miss Keenan's report, 
and the Indian agent's admission 
that age-old rites are being prac- 
ticed among the tribes In California, 
efforts were made today to make It^ 
appear that Katherine's Injuri 
were the result of a fall from 
hammock. 



Death Sifted 




GERALDINE WILLIAMS, 18- 
year-old Indian beauty, who died 
two weeks ago, and sister of 
Katherine, whose subsequent 
death is blamed upon "Medicinf 
Men." 



MAVWARD, CALrF.*i-WIV1«W 

MAY 25, im 



Tf 



The American 



i V 



Indian Problem 



PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 

Reference has been made in pre- 
vious ai tides to the present-day in- 
fluence of the medicine man among 
practically all tribes of Indians. A 
few illustrations of the difficulties 
wTiich are fully confronting the medi- 
cal department of the Bureau in its 
eufieavors to care for the sick and 
needy Indian, will be enlightening. 

•Again quoting from Dr. Guthrie's 
article: " 'Treatment' vailed accord- 
ing to the individual prowess of the 
medicine man employed in any par- 
ticular case atid consisted of de- 
positing prayer sticks, a plea to the 
patient's totem, the use of 'sings', of 
rubbing, kneading, and blowing to- 
bacco smoke on the patient, 
bacco smoke on the patient, together 
with other ceremonial observances 
and rites .Commands and exhorta- 
tions, the shooing away of evil- 
spirits, have been and aie popular 
forms of Indian medicine. Extrac- 
tion of the cause of disease by strong 
■ucking with the mouth Is often prac- 
ticed. When this form of treatment 
has been employed, the spitting from 
he mouth of the medicine man of 
an insect, a worm, or frog shows 
the credulous patient and his friends 
and relatives the tangible result of 
such skilled procedure." 

"This is the type of competition 
which has to be met by the physician 
and nurse who minister to Indians 
on the reservations today. A failing 
competition, it is true; but the In- 
dina medicine man is still altogether 
too influential ... he opposes the 
introduction of sanitation and resists, 
so far as possible the spread of mod- 
ern doctrines as to the origin and 
dissemination of disease and their 
many instances, his own efforts at 
proper treatment among Indians. In 
the treatment of the sick have the 
effect of propagating rather than 
limiting infection. Too often the 
medicine man 'officiates' until his 
InTJian patient is in extremis at which 
time the Indian Service physician is 
called in as a last resort or to accept 
the burden of responsibility for a case 
beyond all human aid." 

"While individual instances of re- 
fusal of the services of modem medi- 
cine and Indian Service hospitals are 
miiny, in relatively lew cases, for- 
tunately, are such refusals encounter- 
ed for an entire group or tribe. The 
following instance will serve to illus- 
trate a gioup refusal and shows how 
the situation is sometimes met: A 
trachoma (a chronic infectious eye 
disease, very prevalent among the 
Indians) specialist at an Indian pueb- 
lo in a southwestern State was pro- 
hibited from performing any examin- 
ations for the detection and treat- 
ment of trachoma by the tribal gov- 
ernoi and his coterie of Indian medi- 
cine men. The physician then directed 
his ministrations to the inhabitants 
o!* a near-by pueblo, more friendly 
and cooperative in their attitude. He 
hoped that the effect of example and 
beneficial results in the friendly 
pueblo would in time win over the 
objections of the recalcitrant group. 
Thus far, however, his efforts have 

failed." 

"The Indian field nursing service 

is considered of major importance 
in public health measures among Im- 
dians. Through this agency there is 
being taught something of the value 
of sunshine, fresh air, cleanliness of 
person and home^ a proper dietary, 
and particularly the care of infants 
and small children. It is not an un- 
common sight to find an Indian 
home, a teepee, a wickiup, or a 
hogan, with a dirt floor and no win- 
dow, with lack of ventilation and per- 
haps with an advanced case of tuber- 
culosis living therein. Spitting on the 
fJoor under such conditions is com- 
mon, and infants crawl around in 
the dust. . . Under such conditions 
^8 it not surprising that epidemic 
(libeases exact a heavy toll. In- 
estinal diseases are far too prevalent, 
and massive infection from tuber- 
culosis prevails in many households. 
The characteristics of these differ- 
ent Indian groups vary exceedingly. 
The Navajo of the desert lands ot 
Arizona and New Mexico presents a 
different problem from that of the 
Sioux Tribes of the Dakotas. Like- 
wise the Puebla Indians of New Mexi- 
co leads a different existence froia 



that of the nomadic Navajos. One is 
a community existence, the other is 
extremely individualistic." 

(Concluded) 
(Contributed by the Hayward De- 
partment of Health) 



SAN PRANCIftCO EXAMINen 

MAY 26, 1929 




Aged 'Doctor' Nods Head in 
Solemn Pledge to Observe 
Ultimatum of White Father 

Inquiry Into Weird Case Con- 
vinces Authorities That Brutal 
Rites Sped Child From Life 



SIIRS U. S. BUN 



By ETHEL B0GARDU8. 

Examiner Staff C""'«""*!,"*\„^k. 
URIAH, May 25.-Tony Metock. 

oldest and most revered of Indian 
medicine men In the Uklah valley, 
has laid away Ws charms. His In- 
cantantlons will be heard no more 
among the rancherlas. 

The white father has 9'v*n h s 
warning, and Tony mu.t »bey. * 
was because little Catherine Wil 
liams died that the order has come, 
forbidding Tony Metock to pracfce 
the rites taught him by h.s an- 

"Korit was Tony. S2.year-old 
medicine man and one time chief 
of the Taddo tribe, who " reated 
Catherine-wT.e„ she '^^^ f _^i*,^ 
tubercular peritonitus on the Guldl 
vm^ rancherla. Tooth marks and 
Cises on the child's throat and 

body ^^-^^ j°""^- s MANDATE. 
AGENT DELIVERS w/m^"" 

Col L. A. Dorrlngton. Indian 
agent, with Mrs. Lucky Keenan 
public health nurse for the nd^ns 
^vent today to visit the little glr Is 
family. Billy Wililams. part white 
fafher of a family that once num- 
■bered nine, and the on<=« "^J^^^ 
Indian woman who Is his wife bad 
gone to work in the hop fields. 
^ There the visitors found them. 
The mother, garbed in ..bape'- 

gingham dress, and w.th a faded 
handkerchief over her head re- 
gained crouched by the vine, she 

was training. „»„-» .he 

.•Wo had the Indian doctor, she 

admitted. '« ,-f r„% tried t'o 

^°'°":? dlstse but " was too 
cure the disease, oui. 

WHITE PEOPLE'S DISEASE. 

"But you must not have the medi- 
cine man for the children." In- 
slsted Mrs. Keenan. "Perhaps the 
medicine man could treat the Indian 
diseases, but they do not know 
about the white people's diseases. 
You must call the white doctor. 
"The sickness comes," h« »•'<». 









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K^K*' .'vt^i'.'X •■>■■•• ■ •• •. 



Ancient Indian Medicine Man 
Loses Stoicism, Shows His 
Sorrow} No Charge Likely 

(Continu ed from P age One.) 
and sometimes the whit, doctor. 

•• Vwen';rve"mlleraway. In Pot- 
t J villey live Tony Metock and 

his 7Sear-old wife ^'^ Keenan 
lonel Dorrlngton and Mrs. Keenan 

^T' hoTr *of^1be visitors Tony 
donned his S^'^, ^f'^'^^^ rS 
-r^^nd\^be"atdr:-ssTf%h.cken 

nL >,iTYi— and the name has 
'cmntto'^hTmrnihe "Metock" of his 

present surname. 

charml again tor the little children^ 
.Catherine died. You did not kill 
her— but you hurt her." 

The old man's lips quivered. Col- 
onel Dorrington turned away. 

"I do not care if you make medi- 
cine for the g'*o^";"P,.P*^P'triInd 
dcr,tand--blg people, ike you and 
me." she went on. But for the 
^hTldren-no. If you hurt the htt e 
children, we must send you to ja.l. 
You must not do it, Tony.' She fin- 
ished gently for all the «"^^^^;;"9 °^ 
his race darkened the somber, fad- 
ina eyes of the old nian. 

•'He won't do it again," she said 
to the colonel, as they drove away. 
NO ACTION PLANNED. 

The agent said he eontempla ed 
no action against Metock orKath - 
erine's parents. The girVs death has 
reopened the whole' subject of the 
practice of tribal magic ^^"'J}^.^^': 
California Indians, however Colonel 
Dorrlngton said, and it will be the 
starting point for a new campaign 
to abolish the age-old customs. 



M 




ONY MEBOCK (Chief Me Talk), 
Potter Valley Indian medicine 
man, who tried primitive redskin 
methods to cure Kathcrinc Wil- 
liams, 6. Indian girl who died of 
tubercular peritonitis, but whose 
death was hastened by the medi- 
cine man's treatment, Lucy Kee- 
nan, government nurse^l^^ 









aV 



t'\ 







J-*^" ^ {*►. 






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^tfcIicineMan! "ap Sorry| ^^ '(j Q[^ 



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ONSORCERl 



Ancient Indian Medicine Man 
Loses Stoicism, Shows His 
Sorrow; No Charge Lil^ely 

(Continu ed from P age One.) 
and .om.t!m.s th. v.hite doctor. 

'' Vwl';rve"mUesVway. In Pot. 
J J Valley live Tony Metock and 
III 7? veai-old wife. Louisa. Col- 
l;'o'e? Dorrington and Mrs. Keenan 

'"Z^ honTr ^ofthe visitors. Tony 

E3Ua^r/5n1s%.^^oSrre| 

featners auu «a Talk" they 

''"nZd'^Mm-^and' th^ name' has 
cfung toTm Tnihe "Metock'' of his 

^'^EoSlc here. Tonyl" and Mrs. Kee- 
nan put her hands solemnly on his 
BhouSers "You must not make 
charms'agaln for the little children^ 
Catherine died. You did not kill 
her— but you hurt her." 

The old man's lips quivered. Col- 
onel Dorrington turned a^^^- ., 
-M do not care if you make medi- 
eina for the gpown-up people— un- 
dcrstand-big%eopIe, Jike you and 
me," she went on. "But for the 
chlldren-no. If you hurt the htt e 
children, we must send you to ja.l. 
You must not do 't»T^"y- „^^* !"!r 
ished gently for all the «"^^«;;"9 f 
his race darkened the somber, fad- 
ina eyes of the old man. 

"He won't do it again." she said 
to the colonel, as they drove away. 
NO ACTION PLANNED. 

The agent said ^^e contemplated 
no action against Metock or Kath- 
erine's parents. The girl's death has 
reopened • the whole' subject of the 
practice of tribal magic among the 
California Indians, however Colonel 
Dorrington said, and it will be the 
starting point for a new campaign 
to abolish the age-old customs. 



■ .% * *-'-'-*-SfV-^- -T-7Tr[iTrT~_Tiinii^nT •» V^HH 



-.v.v.-: : 



"m 



ONY MEBOCK (Chief Me Talk), 
Potter Valley Indian medicine 
man. who tried primitive redskin 
methods to cure Katherinc Wil- 
liams, 6, Indian girl who diad of 
tubercular periton'.tis, but whose 
death was hastened by the medi- 
cine man's treatment, Lucy Kee- 
nan, government nurse^har|^ 






I 



SAN FMANftltee BXAMINKM - 

MAY 27, W» 

Mystery Death 
Witches Facing 
Grand Jury Probe 



UKI\H, May 26.-PosslbiUty of 
la grand jury investigation ^ 

th-^ circumstances surrounding -he 
death of Katherine Williams. 8- 
year-old Indian girl, alleged to have 
Ibeen tortured by tribal medicine 
len and witch doctors, loomed .ere 

:oday. . 

Miss Lucy Keenan, government 

Ldian nurse,- who reported the part 

illeged to have been played ly ^e 

Indian witch doctors, will demand, 

that the matter be laid before -he 

;rand jury, which convenes tomor- 

'ow District Attorney Lilburn 

Mbson will be asked to have the 

rrand iury investigate, it ^^ 

;[atfd: If he consents the body • H 

Ibe exhumed. . ^^/lo,, wi«; 

Another development today was 

the issuance by Colonel L. A. uor 
ngton, head of the .^dian welfare 
bureau for California, of an edict 
to an Indian tribes of Lake. Men- 
docmo. Modoc and Sonoma cou 
ties that the harsh practices ot 
medcine men and women on ^hil- 
i^ren must cease. 



SAN PRANCISCC EXAMtNEH 

MAY 28, 1929 



ROUS m 




Mendocino Indian Case Sifted 
bv Official Group; Acton 
Against Medicine Men Looms 

took cognlxance o the d ^^ 

tit« Indian t''^»' * ^/„ent nurse 
Lucy Keenan, 5°^®^"^ to uncov- 
whoM investigation led to ^^^ ^^^ 

^t .«Ct"trinVn ".«-e 

E'earnA^-^'--^"'^""''" 
other doctors. 

ACTION LOOMS. ,j 

What action th«0^,"4,"2though 

«ak« waa P''*5'*'r*Jd today that 

•"ran^d'yVo'r'asX' criminal action 

&:^'^(^'-^^^%\'::s:'.. curing 

After hearing wun ^^j^^rned 

the entire "l^y. the jury ^^,^0^. 

to consider the case as ^^^j^^ 

row. Today's w^^^f^f rancherla. In- 
indians "vl"g on the ra ^^^^ ^^^_ 

K-- ^o^^f.. has claljne^ 

i^tually Killed the ^^^^tn^ent of 
fhtidfermurst Vf IS ^o.n.^to 

rnfnd^Torn'hlJvUeen warned 

of this. 

INDIANS >W''RNEO- ^ 

Mrs. Keenan added ^^^^^ 

porlngton. head of in ^^ ^ 

tot California, has m ^^^^^^ y 
the Indians that m >- ^i^me xnan 
one calling "P^^nt^treat a ch d 
or medicine wo'".?^ Isponslble with 

E\ratrth;" -^^^^^^ «' --'■ 

^^^Vmiains. known also^ 
?;n Mountain, -had ^^^ the 
treatment ^o^ .^^i"! «« the girl's re- 
rve/;* IslaK'h^ve sent for In- 
S?:r]^edlclne me|v ^ 






n.r^TF.ppRiss 



i^:oVi:::iL;i,L: it. li'Oi 



Indian Doctor's 
Plea Under Fir( 

SACRAMENTO, Nov. 16.— (/P) 

William Jennings Conway, 

Chico herb '^doctor*' who has 
been investigated by the state 
medical board, may not succeed 
in incorporating himself and 
members of his family into a 

company. 

Conway asked the state cor- 
poration commissioner to siinc- 
tion his issuance of a stock to 
incorporators, none to be sold 

to the public. 

State Corporation Commission- 
er Edward M. Daugherty asked 
Attorney U. S. Webb the extent 
of his powers in investigating 
applicants. Daugherty informed 
Webb he believed Conway want- 
ed to incorporate because of his 
clashes with the medical board. 

Webb replied Daugherty's de- 
partment could investigate and 
use its discretion in refusing any 
application. 



CHICO CALIF. RECORD 



'INDIAN DOCTOR' 
MAY BE DENIED 

STATE PERMIT! 

— / 

SACRAMEISTTO, Nov. 16. — 
Ti'ouble loomed today for William 
Jennings Conway, Indian herb 'doc-| 
tor" of Chico, in his attempt to| 
incorporate himsc-if and members 
of his family into a company. 

It apipeared probable that the 
state division of corporations may 
refuse a permit to the Arrowhead 
Indian Remedies Company, Inc., of 
which Conway is the president. 

Conway asked for permission to 
issue the company's stock to the 
incorporators, none to be sold to 
the public. 

State Corporation Commissioner 
Edward M. Daugherty, in a letter 
to Attorney General U. S. Webb, 
expressed the opinion that the for- 
mation of the company was at- 
tempted solely because of Con- 
way's frequent brushes with the 
state board of medical examiners 
as an individual. 

Attorney General Webb informed! 
the division of corporations that it ;| 
is within the province of the office ' 
to investigate an applicant for a 
permit, and may use its discretion 
in refusing to grant him the right 
to issue stock. 



I- 



Case Closes 
Abruptly on 
Technicality 



The trial of J- W. Conway, ^ 
Indian **doctor'' accused of; 
practicing medicine without a ^ 
license, came to a sudden end f 
this afternoon when an ob-k 
jection of Allison Ware, a- 
defense attorney, was upheld, 
resulting in a motion by As- ^s 
sistant District Attorney J. 
M. McPherson that the case'' 
be dismissed. A similar,. 
I charge against Conway on^, 
I August 14 also was dis-«- 
I missed. 

i The matter came to a head when 
1 McPherson made his opening ad- 
dress to the jury -in which he 
i pointed out that he was prepared 
I to prove violation of the medical 
I act by Conway on August 14. Ware 
immediately objected, declarixig 
that Conway was in court on a 
charge dated September 1 and 
asked that the case be dismissed. 

After an argument between op- 
i posing attorneys. Justice of the 
i Peace L. E. Newton suggested that 
-ithe best thing to do was to dis- 
^miss the case, whereupon McPher- 
ison made a motion to that effect, 
i including also the charge of August 
14, on the ground that the trial 
on the latter charge would b<» im- 
possible because Conway already 
had been in jeopardy on this 
i charge. 

Indications that the case will be 
bitterly fought came this morning 
when the trial of W. J. Conway, 
local Indian, on a charge of violat- 
ing the state medical act, opened 
before Justice of the Peace L. E. 
Newton. 

Conway was arrested September 
1. 1931, by J. W. Davidson of the 
state board of medical examiners. 
It is charged that he diagnosed, 
treated and prescribed medicines! 
for human ailments without a cer- 
tified license. ^ 

Due to the large number of 
witnesses and spectators, the court 
convened in the council chambers 
of the Municipal building when it 
was found the police court cham- 
bers were too small to accommo- 
date all. 

The entire morning session and 
part of the afternoon session was 
consumed in selecting a jury with 
at least 24 persons examined be- 
fore the jury was accepted by both 

In the questioning of prospective 
jurors it was apparent that the 
defense will contend that Conway 
did not violate the provisions of 
the medical practice act because 
he did not pretend to diagnose 
ailments of his patrons and mere- 
ly sold them "Indian herb reme- 
idles" much as a "storekeeper dis- 
: penses herbs and remedies from 
! his shelves." 

The prosecution will contend that 
Conway did attempt to diagnose 
diseases and ailments much after 
jthe manner of licensed physicians 
' and did prescribe and administer 
remedies for specific ailments as- 
sumed to have been detected by 
the practitioner and that he had 

(Continued on pftge 2. column 2> 






'!oi 



^^? ^jf''^r''''-f 



no 



^^ o.^./'^^'riHr^ 



^41 







^/ 















O-^^i 












f<^^/ 



^ ^'/r-ntitiued from uace IV 
Uo c^tlffidunrevoked license to 

\ SO practice. ^ / 

,„eads Not G^ty Y ,,iied. faon- 

•-i,rV ware - def^nd^n. 

! ''""'r^^t Srict attorney, and J- 
; assistant district a j^^ggtlgator 

;W. Davidson, specmi 
for the state medical boara, 

length as ^^ /;; . rhedical prac- 

follows V ' j^ Harring- 

t.f Tiene F SeiSed/ Mrs- Wa 
ton, UiUgeue *^- — Welch, Ade- 

t». Ball, Benjamin ^- ^^'^^^gtnan. 

! Shlirchill. Char es K Dugg^, Ma ^ 
; bel E. Inman. Newton Hanson. 



CH!CO. CALIF. EMTE^PRlSr 

NOVEMBER ID, 1031 




\ 



Doctor' and 
Son Charged 
In Complaint 



Charging W. J. Conway 
and his son, Dewey, with vio- 
lation of the state medical 
act on October 17, 1931, a 
new complaint was signed 
this morning by J. W. David- 
son, representing the state 
board of medical examiners, 
and warrant was issued for 
their arrest. Conway and his 
son could not be located 
this afternoon and win be 
taken into custody as soon as 
their whereabouts become 

known. . .„. 

The warrant was issued 

by Justice of the Peace L. f- 
Newton. 

The new complaint came foUow- 
!tng the dismissal on a technlcaUty 

iof two charges against W. J. Con 
i way yesterday when the trial of the 
' Indian "doctor" suddenly came to 
an end through protest by At- 
,torneys Ware and Ware, represent- 

i'"irst?t?^d prepared ^ prose- 
cute the charge of August U but 
discovered that the charge of Sep- 
tember 1 was contained in the case 

before the court. - „ *i,ot 

Davidson said this mo™^^ *bat 

jhe has evidence against Conwaj 

that the concoctions he uses m 
'treatment of Patients catmot with_ 

the ^»de«t imaginauon be CO _^^ 

.trued as in^ oi any otn^ ^^^^ .. 

of herbs. One is <* 6 ^^ j^ 
I Davidson declares, and anothei 

mixture of ammonia water P^e 

! scribed as snuff. .j ^ 

^^^'^f ha? tearned tSal ccSsider^ 
Chico he has learnea t" 
^ able influeace^f ^uslneM men 
hM.n used in behalf of conway »^ 
l^^ise" he brings business to Chico. 
' "if the residents of this city want 
bus" esT brought in by this method 
^hlvlhould open the saloons gam- 
itpey biiuuiu i- -prtUeht district, 
bling houses and redUgm ^i 

'Davidson said. They are t^^ 

'legal." „ ,^ ' 
Refers to Brother 

!'l!efmS"to the state's posltionl 
' ui, r^«ence Brother Isaiah's col- 
^nv neS OrovlTle. assuming Isaiah 
has confined himself to practice ol 
.religion. Davidson said:^ _^ ^ 
I "If prayer can be legaiaeu « 
practicmg medicine and ^ an im- 
Imimitv the medical practice vx.^\ 
\ Xws every person-man. woman 
ot rwiSch immunity, and the 
l^ihf S pray fo the^f .-yM^ 

nraver Whether such ^^^®«:^^^^"M 
S anything is not for u^^^S 
but the privilege of P»^„^*PH\^on [J 
treatment or such supphcation ^ 
granted and allowed to »"• Jhej 
scripture abounds with instancel 
^nich. if accepted, tend to sho» 
that prayer in the treatment of d s 
ease was deemed efficacious aiidl 
helpful. In the Kpistle of James it 
te said: -Is any sick among you J 
Let him call for the elde.^ of thj 
church; and let them pray o^m 
him. annointing him with oil m i"*1 

name of the Lord.' nivine 

•Those who believe that Divint 
Power may be evoked by prayeij 
belTev'e Tlso that God is all poweH 
ful. Patients receiving then mm 
istrations know this, and therttou 

I no fraud or injury may be prat 
ticed upon such persons by reaso 

f of any lack or skill by the healer^ > 
determining the nature of the ai., 
eases to be treated. ' 






- ■■•(.-"■J/- 



COINING, CAMF. 
OBSE.WEIR 



^; 






CHICO INDIAN 
DOCTOR FACES 
NEW CHARGES 



Dismissal of tw0 charges on a 
legal technicality was followed 
Thursday by the filing of a new 
charge against W. J. ConwayJ 
widely known Chico Indian ''doc- 
tor." Conway's son. Dewey, was 
accused with him in the new com- 
plaint. 

J. W. Davidson, agent of the 
state board of medical examiners, 
swore to the complaints; against 
Conway and his son, charging them 
with violating the state naedical 
practice act on October 17, 19^1. 

The new charge against Conway 
is one of many which he has faced 
during the last two years. Con- 
way has numbered among his pat- 
ients many Yuba and Sutter coun- 
ty residents. 

Conway was on trial at cnico 
Wednesday on a medical act viola- 
tion charge when his trial sudden- 
ly came to an end through protest 
of the defense attorneys. The 
state had prepared to prosecute 
him for an offense alleged to have 
been committed August 14, but it 
was discovered that the charge 
contained in the complaint named 
September 1 as the date of its 
commission. The technicality re- 
sulted in dismissal. 

Davidson, as he signed the new 
complaints at Chico, said that he 
had evidence against Conway that 
the concoctions he uses in treat- 
ment of patients cannot, "with the 
wildest imagination be construed 
las Indian or any other kind of 

herbs." 

One concoction, Davidson de- 
clared, is a "garlic stew," and an- 
other is a mixture of ammonia 
v/ater prescribed as snuff. / 



WHY FIGHT FAKE 
HEALERS? ' 

Every now and then some 
fake **doctor" becomes the quar- 
ry of the State medical authori- 
ties Prosecution usually results 
in added popula^rity of the fake. 
Their methods always are the 
same. With them a wen be- 
Cfomes a cancer, a cold is tuber- 
culosis, a pain somewhere in the 
interior is cfiagnosed as a deadly, 
almost incurable malady, jjhey 
usually know just what the mat- 
ter i» as soon as the patient steps 
into the room. They show their 
knowledge by diagnosing the 
l/rouble as the same ligitimate 
(phy^fcialnal have done after 
months of study. Or they show I 
iheSr superior knowledge by| 
knowing that it is something al- 
together different, showing that 
Ihe regular doctors knew noth- 
ing at all about it. And the 
fake is always distinguished by 
the number of cases * 'given up 
by all the doctors" that they 
cure out of ha-nd. 

Is there any use in going 
after such men? They usually 
are Chinese, descendents of the 
wise men of old who prescribed 
tiger bone3 for strength, drag- 
on's blood for wisdom, ojr toad's 
entrails for persistence. Maybe 
they are Indians^ whose native 
school of medicine depended 
upon such herbs as the wonder- 
fully intelligent jsquaws dug ou^ 
of the ground where they hap- 
pened to camp, but whose chief 
dependence was the Medicine I 
Man who found loud noise, ter- 
rifying disguises and massages 
yvrith clubs most effective in driv- 
ing away the devils that madej 
Irouble. Such fakes are largely| 
pat^ronized, and often their vie- 
tims die happy ip the belief that 
they are cured, cured of some 
thing they never had.. 

Is there any use in going aftei 
such men? Not as long as peo 
pie believe in fqjretelling th< 
weather by **goQse bones,'' oi 
put faith in the shape of th< 
shaded portion of the moon ii 
a^gricultuxal investment, or fea 
to set out on a journey on Fri 
day, or take off theiir stocking i 
Ihey have put on the wrong onl 

first. 

And still there are children t| 
be considered. — Orland Unit. 



^^OVTLl.r. CAf IF 

^o^XMI:i• n 2.'. (031 

STATE DENIES 
INDIAN MEDIC 
STOCK PERMITl 

Commissioner Holds Conway] 

Seeking to frustrate State 

MerfjffeaKBoard 



CHICO— Dfjnied a permit to issue 
capital stoqfe in the recently or- 
ganized Arrowhead Remedies Com- 
h-patiy, attorneys of W. J. Conway, 
Indian medicine man, were await- 
ing word from their client Wednes- 
day before further steps were tak- 
en. 

Conway's request to issue stock 
in the company, capitalized at $25,- 
000, was denied by the state cor- 
poration commissioner, after he had 
received reports of Conway's en- 
counters with the law on charges 
of practicing medicine without a li- 
cense. 

The corporation division stated 
after its investigations: 

"Prom information that has been 
obtained from sources outside the 
'application, it appears this corpor- 
ation has been formed for the pur- 
pose of enabling Conway to avoid 
further difficulties with the state 
medical board." 

Conway is at present facing a 
charge of practicing medicine with- 
out a license, preferred by j w 
Davidson, Inspector for the state 
medical board, after his recent ac- 

court '''' ^^"^ ^""^^^ ^^ J'^^^^^^ 

Philip Ware, one of Conway's 

counsel, declared he did not believe 

ttie commissioner was within his 

^?o^H "^^""^ ^^^ ^^^"^st without 
granting a hearing on the matter. 

Wliat further action. If any, will be 
taken toward seeking a corporation 
permit rests with Conway, The Z 
jorney added. 



ss McClintock states that there 
is but one h ospital, the building at 
Soboba Indian re servation near 
San Jaci nto, To^ serve the 31 res- 
ervatioiiy f3l' J^ttUthern California, on 
which it is^^,„6stimated there are 
2763 InrJians living. There are 
eight 1 / 'sicians in the territory 
who attend to the health of the 
Indians when called, and the one 
visiting nurse. A dentist also 
makes annual visits to the reser- 
vations For the fiscal year ending 
June 30, the sum of $34,154.89 had 
been spent by the government for 
health work among the Indians. 

Better housing for the reserva- 
tion residents is the aim of the 
health program at present, and 
some progress is shown, althoi^gh 
due to their superstitious ideas 
many of the older Indians, even 
though they can afford to do so, 
either cling to the brush wickiup 
or to the two-room shack which 
the?.r forefathers have favored. 
Some modern homes are now being 
built by the younger Indians. 

The Riverside county clinic, with 
its snow-white exhibit, at the left 
of the main entrance in this tent, 
is calling particular attention to 
the proper care of infants. Miss 
Minnie L. Freeman and Miss Alice 
P. Attride, nurses employed by th 
clinic, which maintains headqu 
ters at the Community hospital" in 
Riverside, are in attendance g^ the 
booth. 



U<'-^' iMon^6^ 



I 



/gc 



' /7/Cx 



^ 



/- ^ 



^ 



c 



\ 




V 



The Simcoe Inman Reservation.— ' 
Through the kindness of General McKenny, ^ 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs, for this, 
territory, we are enabled to give the fol- 
lowing facts in regard to the workings o 
the Simcoe Indian Reservation, under the 
very efficient management of Rev. J . n- 
Wilbur, agent : The crop harvested in the 
Bummer of 1866 : yielded of corn and 
xvheat, 10,000 bushels ; oats, 2,000 bush- 
els) peas, 1,500, with potatoes and alloth- 
-er vegetables in a great abundance. Ihat 
vear the Indians cultivated 1,500 acres of 
iand. The crop harvested in the summer 
of 1867, which is reported for the fascalt 
year ending June 30, 1868, was : wheat, 
20,000 bushels ; corn, 4,000 bushels ; oats, 
r2 ©00 bushels; potatoes and other vegeta- 
1, es in quantities exceeding the demand 
for home consumption. During this year, 
the Indians have plowed and P«t - -J ' 
• tivation with their own teams, 500 acies 
■of new lands. They have two Methodist 
. churches^native-with two hundred mem- 
bers ; ba've built 25 houses, 30 barns, and 
report as belonging to the Indians on the 
reservation, 1,500 head of cattle and 11,- 
000 horses. The number of Indians on 
the reservation is given at 3,400. The 
.vield of crops for the present summer s 
tarvest, which will appear in the report ^ 
ending June 30, 1869, is wheat, 25,000 
■bushels, and other grains and vegetables in 
a proportionate degree of increase. These 
.statistics speak a volume for the faithfu 
-efficiency of Mr. Wilbur, and we are most 
.happy to hear that he has j«r^ received a 
..reappointm^t for anothcr^e^gof four 

:years. J^^ ^^ 



mcE. 



3S 



V^ 



i^D^mtuT 



form which is believed to be the oldest in 
Europe. It is represented most perfectly by 
the remains found at Spy. The characteristics 
are : uncommon length, moderate width, very 
limited height, retreating forehead, prominent 
but depressed su^ir a- orbital ridges and narrowed 
post-orbital diai^eter. Dr. Fraipont argues 
sharply for the genuine ancient character of the 
Neanderthall skull, and Dr. Schwalbe does not 
regard that found at Egisheim as a good type. 
As for modern examples simulating the Nean- 
derthal skull the latter asserts that, while they 
may resemble it in one or another point, they 
never present the group of inferior criteria 
which characterize its measurements. 

THE SUPPOSED ' OTTER TRAP.' 

Dr. Eobert Munro in his excellent work^ 
Prehistoric Problems, has a chapter on a curious 
object found in the peat bogs of Europe, from 
Italy to Scotland and North Germany. He has 
recently supplemented that chapter by an article 
describing further examples. {Jour, Eoy, Soc. 
Antiquaries of Ireland, September, 1898.) 

The object is a thick board or plank, two to 
three feet long, in the center of which is an 
oblong aperture four to six inches wide, closed 
by one or two valvular doors. The purpose of 
this arrangement is obscure Dr. Munro argues 
that it is an otter or beaver trap, while others 
have explained it as a boat-model, a sluice-box, 

a float for lines, etc. 

The suggestion which I would offer for its use 
differs from any I have seen. It is doubtful 
that the valves could hold firmly an otter or 
any such animal. The purpose for which it 
would be entirely suited would be that of the 
inlet to a fish-weir. The valves, opening in- 
ward, would allow the fish to enter and would 
prevent their exit. Similar, though not iden- 
tical, devices are in common u^.^^.^^;^^^ 



118 



SGIE. 



ical factors of the deficiency, and the physical 
examination of the subjects. 

While the report is very instructive on many 
individual features, it admits of few general 
conclusions other than that we need much more 
extended investigations than have heretofore 
been prosecuted, in order to reach positive 
opinions as to the causation and the status of 
the feeble-minded ; and this is Dr. Hrdlicka's 

own decision (p. 95). 

D. G. Brinton. 

Univeksity of Pennsylvania.^ 

_ ■ / 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. 
M. Van Tieghem, the eminent botanist, 
succeeds M. Wolf as President of the Paris 
Academy of Science, while M. L6vy has been 
elected Vice-President. / 

At its meeting on January 11th the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences elected 
Charles Doolittle Walcott, of Washington, an 
Associate Fellow in place of the late Professor 
James Hall, and Oliver Heaviside, of Newton 
Abbot, England, a Foreign Honorary Member. 
It is proposed to erect a monument in mem- 
ory of Felix Tisserand, Member of the Institute 
of France, and of the Bureau of Longitude, and 
Director of the Observatory of Paris, at Nuits 
Saint-Georges (Cote-d'Or), his native place. 
Subscriptions will be received at Nuits-Saint- 
Georges, by M. Desmazures, Receveur Munici- 
pal ; at the Observatory of Paris, by M. Frais- 
sinet, and at Dijon, by M. Ragot (rue Colson). 
Surgeon-General Sternberg is at present 
in Cuba inspecting the hospitals and arranging 
for a new yellow fever hospital and a depot for 
medical supplies in Havana. 

The Permanent Secretary of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Dr. L. O. Howard, would be glad to learn of 
the address of Jos6 de Riviera, who was electe^ 



June 9, 1899.] 



SCIENCE. 




795 



would be invisible. One of the dealers 
selling these packages was brought before 
the Committee and testified that some of 
the richest people living in Chicago were 
his customers, buying this substance and 
knowing that it was oleomargarine, but 
who desired that the fact of its use by them^ 
should be kept secret. / 

The ethics of coloring butter and oleo- 
margarine was also discussed before the 
Committee, and it was brought out in evi- 
dence that if oleomargariijfe was colored 
pink or any ot^er color tljan butter color 
its use as butter would bre practically de- 
stroyed. H I 

Evidence was Mso giwn in the matter of 
making artificial whifekies from cologne 
spirits, burnt sug^r and the ethers of the 
organic acids, tog^t^r with the essential 
oil to give the prk)er bead. It was de- 
veloped that the t^ade in these synthetic 
drinks was very laVg^, and that the natural 
products suffer si/erejy in competition. 

Much testimony wasi^lso given in regard to 
the adulteratioi)''of the ii^rdinary condiments, 
such as groun^ pepper ,\mustard, cinnamon 
and so forth, /it appeai^ed that these bodies 
were largely/mixed wit^ inert matter, so 
that the pu/chaser wouk really get very 
little of i\f condiment f hich he desired. 
It was sh^n that ground\coffee was mixed 
largely whih chicory and (|bher substances, 
and that^nhe coffee bean w^ mixed with an 
artificial bean or with a cei^ain proportion 
of the dead or imperfect beabs, which were 
^ not only useless for fiavorin| the beverage, 
/ but, on the other hand, were\)itter and un- 

palatable.\ 1 

iThc session of the Committ|e in Chicago 

had for its object the outlinin^of the scope 
of the investigation which will^e continued 
during the summer months in ^ther locali- 
ties of the United States. Thff final pur- 
pose of the Committee is to obtain material 
on which to base a report in fVivor of a na-. 
tional pure food and drug bill, having for 

I 



its object t^e regulatioi|>of traffic in the 
adulteration \of fopd^n the District of 
Columbia and Wi^erritories and the con- 
trol of inter-Sfatefeqmmerce in adulterated 
food and drug products. 



\ 



AMERIND— A DESIGNATION FOB THE AB- 
ORIGINAL TRIBES OF THE AMERI- 
CAN HEMISPHERE, 

A PART of the proceedings of the Anthro- 
pological Society of Washington, at a meet- 
ing on May 23d last, seem destined to 
produce permanent influence on ethnologic 
nomenclature ; this part of the proceedings 
taking the form of a symposium on the 
name of the native American tribes. The 
discussion was opened by Colonel F. F. 
Hilder, of the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy, with a critical account of the origin of 
the misnomer * Indian,' applied by Colum- 
bus to the American aborigines; he was 
followed by Major J. W. Powell, who advo- 
cated the substitution of the name Amerind^ 
recently suggested in a conference with 
lexicographers. A communication by Dr. 
O. T. Mason followed, in which the various 
schemes of ethnologic classification and no- 
menclature were summarized and discussed. 
Contributions to the symposium were made 
also by Dr. Albert S. Gatschet, Dr. Thomas 
Wilson and Miss Alice C. Fletcher. At 
the close of the discussion the contribu- 
tions were summarized (by President Mc- 
Gee) as follows : 

1. There is no satisfactory denotive term 
in use to designate the native American 
tribes. Most biologists and many ethnol- 
ogists employ the term * American ' ; but 
this term is inappropriate, in that it con- 
notes, and is commonly used for, the pre- 
sent predominantly Caucasian population. 
The term ' Indian ' is used in popular speech 
and writing, and to a slight extent in 
ethnologic literature ; but it is seriously ob- 
jectionable in that it perpetuates an error, 
and for the further reason that it connotes 



796 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. IX. No. 232, 



and so confuses, distinct peoples. Various 
descriptive or connotive terms are also in 
use, such as * North American savages,^ 
* Red Men,' etc. ; but these designations are 
often misleading, and never adapted to con- 
venient employment in a denotive way. 

2. In most cases the classifications on 
which current nomenclature are based, and 
many terms depending on them for defini- 
tion, are obsolete; and the retention of the 
unsuitable nomenclature of the past tends 
to perpetuate misleading classifications. 

3. While the name * Indian ' is firmly 
fixed in American literature and speech, and 
must long retain its current meaning (at 
least as a synonym), the need of scientific 
students for a definite designation is such 
that any suitable term acceptable to ethnol- 
ogists may be expected to come into use 
with considerable lapidity. In this, as in 
other respects, the body of working special- 
ists forms the court of last appeal; and it 
cannot be doubted that their decision will 
eventually be adopted by thinkers along 
other lines. 

4. As the most active students of the 
native American tribes, it would seem to be 
incumbent on American ethnologists to pro- 
pose a general designation for these tribes. 

5. In view of these and other considera- 
tions, the name Amerind is commended to 
the consideration of American and foreign 
students of tribes and peoples. The term 
is an arbitrary compound of the leading 
syllables of the frequently-used phrase 
* American Indian ' ; it thus carries a con- 
notive or associative element which will 
serve explicative and mnemonic function in 
early use, yet must tend to disappear as the 
name becomes denotive through habitual 
use. 

6. The proposed term carries no implica- 
tion of classific relation, raises no mooted 
question concerning the origin or distribu- 
tion of races, and perpetuates no obsolete 
idea ; so far as the facts and theories of 



ethnology are concerned, it is purely deno- 
tive. 

7. The proposed term is 8ufficie»tly brief 
and euphonious for all practical purposes, 
not onh' in the English but in the prevail- 
ing languages of continental Eu^rope ; and 
it may readily be pluralized in these lan- 
guages, in accordance with their respective 
rules, without losing its distinctive sematio 
character. Moreover, it lends itself readily 
to adjectival termination in two forms (a 
desideratum in widely- used ethnologic 
terms, as experience has shown),, viz. : 
Amerindian and Amerindic, a»d is suscep- 
tible, also, of adverbial termination, while 
it can readily be used in the requisite 
actional form, Amerindize^ or in relational 
forms, such as ];ost Amerindiioiy etc. ; the 
affixes being, of course, modifiable accord- 
ing to the rules of the different languages 
in which the term may be used. 

8. The term is proposed as a designation 
for all of the aboriginal tribes of the Ameri- 
can continent and adjacent islands, includ- 
ing the Eskimo. 

The working ethnologists in the Society 
were practically unanimous in approving 
the term for tentative adoption, and for 
commendation to fellow students in this and 
other countries. 



EXPLORING EXPEDITION TO THE MID- 
PACIFIC OCEAN, 

The unusual activity now being exhibited 
by various ^ropean governments in scien- 
tific ex ploratW of the seas is soon to be 
supplemented by the Uni1^(i Stat/es, for ar- 
rangements are \being perfected ^y the 
United States Coljimission of Fish and 
Fisheries for one of the most important 
marine scientific expeditions ever under- 
taken in this country. The association of 
the name of Professor Alexander Agassiz 
.with the expedition is a guarantee of its 
high scientific standing, and the employ- 



^^MPIMA INDIANS ^'^?7*^TP;*-.A 

Wlilte Settlers Have Diverted tHe 
^Wn^er From Tliotr Canalti. 

PHOENPC, Ariz., June 18.— Eight thousand 
Pima Indiana on the Gila reservatk>n» thir- 
ty miles from Phoenix, are destitute and a 
Ilk© number of Papagros are on the verge of 

starvation. 

For generations the peaceable Pimas raid- 
ed large grain crops, and the Papagos an- 
nually flocked north to work In the harvest 
fields with the Plmas, sharing the crops. 

A few years ago white settlers began di- 
verting the water which the Plmas origin- 
ally appropriated, and by degrees the flow 
of the Salt river has been entirely pre- 
empted by them. * ^* fi,^ 

S H McCowan, superintendent of the 
Phoenix Indian Industrial School, has been 
directed by the Indian department to make 
an examination into the condition of the 
Pimas He declares that the sole salvation 
of the Indians is In federal appropriation 
for the construction of a storage reservoir. 

"An appropriation of 133.000," said Mr. ^ 
McCowan. "has Just been made for the re- ^ 
lief of the destitute Pimas. Rations will be I 
distributed before the end of the summer, 
but the appropriation will not preclude a 
recurrence of the famine." 



A FlCtldn-writer's Indian Policy. 
Mr. Hamllft Garland takes a grreat In- 
jJterest in the so*callod Indian problem, and 
CUmiiueslionably from the hi&hest motives. 
*^BuL he approaches it from the point of 
^departure of the novelist and incidentally 
3oC\ti^ ethnologist, and not from that of 
•-i^the practical man of affairs. A recent 
*i nSvel from, his pen shows us the Indians 
firot, paint and feathers on their picturesque 
side— the side that Cooper saw. An arti- 
cle in the North American Review deals 
I i^ with another phase of the subject, the 
K^ attempt to civilize the semi-barbarous 
\f^ tribes as we find them in those parts of 
IpF* the West where thej' have been settled by 
l# the government on individual holdings of 
land, as» farm*?rs. JMf. Garland wishes to 
see these Indians gathered into little 
groups and. communitiei, instead of scat- 
Z tered over a large space, as they needs 
^ must be when living each on his tract of 
100 acres. 

Thefe is no doubt that In a general 
wiiy Mr. Garland is headed right. He 
loolcs forward to the time when the In- 
dians will be less isolated and will en- 
joy more social life. But he falls to 
reflect that It takes a people of some ac- 
cumulated stamina to enter safely into 
social enjoyment without restraint, es- 
pecially when they are moving from a 
condition in which leisure— or, rather, ab- 
stention from productive labor— is the 
rule toward a condition in which labor 
must be the rule, and leisure and pleasure 
' only the occasional sweetening of the hu- 
n.an lot. To the Indian in his present 
stage of ., development in the farming I 
West, too clos6 neighborhood with his fel- 
lows might present some rather danger- 
ous temptations. A little later, probably, 
the natural drift of things will bring this 
..about, and h^ may then be ready to im- 
prove bv it. 

#or the present, which is really the 
period with which we , have tO deal, the 
white frontiersman is the best neighbor 
the Indian can have. The Indian, in other 
Wcfr^s, does better on his isolated tarm» 
with- a white man for his nearest com* 
pt^y oh either iside, than he would do in 
a -Village made up of hla own race. He 
has the example of the whites— not al- 
ways, if 'must be admitted, the best that 
could possibly be set before him, but in- 
spiring as compared with the example 
exclusively of men trained in the same 
domestic school with himself; he gets the 
white view of evory subject that arises— 
liot strained through the economic 
philosophy of the universities, of course, 
but with no small element of common- 
stnse in it; he is, in short, fitting by de- 
' grees for the life which he and his chil- 
dren will be compelled to live some time, 
ih a white people's country and under a 
whit© people's laws.. His posterity may 
attain such personal pre-eminence as will 
carry them put of the society of the fron- 
tier and into that of the older communi- 
ties ;;b«t just now he is undergoing a dis- 
cipline; which is suited to his needs, and, 
till he passes out of the stage of develop- 
ment where this is valuable for its tem- 
rorary effects, he had better have the 
companionship of men who are a little 
above him than that of men who are 
going "through the same process with 

himself. 

One of the most hopeful signs we have 
seen for a long time is the request of the 
Omaha Indians to have their agency 
boarding-school closed as no longer a ne- 
cessity and now a mere expense to the 
tribe. The Indians do not purpose giving 
up the attempt to educate their children, 
but they prefer sending them to the 
same free schools with the white chil- 
dren, so that the members of the young 
generation of two races can grow up 
side by side, speaking the same tongue, 
accustoming themselves to the same hab- 
its of life, and in every way getting ready 
for the time, not very far distant, when 
they must join In all the common activ- 
ities of citizenship. The boarding-school 
exclusively for Indians may carry its 
instruction a little higher up the scale, 
but it keeps the children always con- 
scious that they are Indians and not 
m-erely Americans. The white people liv- 
ing among the Omahas apparently desire 
the propo5;ed change as much as the red 
people do, so probably it will be made. If 
the experiment proves successful, it will 
doubtless be only the beginning of a new 
era in the history of the Indian, when 
he will be recognizable as an Indian only 
by reference to his ancestry, and not by 
any distinction from the white man in his 
life or thought or i'.iierests. 



«1«>^ieTi« are united in awarding to the 
Infi ISs' of California the palm for fine 
handiwork, ingenuity of ^^^^^V/^ 
artistic feeling in design as well as 
the application of the ornamentation. 
The beautiful handicraft seems to have 
been brought to its highest develop- 
ment under California's ^unny slues 
helped forward, it may ue by her rich 
and varied resources. Patent to the 
inquiring eyes of even a primitive folk 
The numerous tribes which inhaoitea 
?he Stafe as far back as history dates 
appear to have developed their several 
handicrafts along lines so widely vary- 
ire that, if it were not for the similar 
ty "of material employed the uneducat- 
ed observer might imagine the articles 
they produced to have come from the 
LntlDOdes. The beautiful baskets of 
tSe'^Kfamath and the Porno makers 
two tribes whose territory is not "^ 
srparated. differ In weave form deco- 
rative design, colors and motive. in« 
one seems generally to have aimed 
•>t shaoes suggestive of utuiiy 
and durability, making many small 
articles but excelling In the pro- 
ductton o? mammoth baskets nota- 
ble for their conscientious work, 

coloring surprising in the almost totaJ 
absence of glaring tints and the prev 
aience of soft tones, dear to the eye oi 
fhA artist The Pomo squaw, on the 
other hand, unquestionably surpassing 
aboriginal or civilized weavers In her 
workf te always reaching out for the 
beautiful, weaving often with micro- 
scopic St tches. loving delicacy of tex- 
?S?e airiness of form, eraceful designs, 
^pressing a Passionate love of dp^or 

despoiling the r^'^-ylh^f^^^.^ly^^'o, 
bird the bluebird, the oriole, oi 
their glory to apply their daln- 
tfest and deepest dyed feathers In 
the development of decorative fancies, 
with the let-black nodding plume of the 
mountain quail, and perhaps brolder^ng 

the whole with barbaric beads, "was 
I Pomo squaw, an ancient crone bent 
tndTrooked, but with undlmmed vi- 
sion queen of all the basket-makers her 
?r?b; has ever boasted, who last year fin-, 
ffi whir will probably evermore be 
reckoned the masterpiecesof allbasket- 
rv— that dainty nest of three iiiiie 
baskets; perfectly woven with stitches 
wh'ch ordinary eyes can only count by 
aid of a strong glass, the largest t 
^•hich can be passed through a lady s 
fin^pr rinK These little beauties, "the 
dafung"bfskeTs.- as Dr. Mason, the em- 
inent ethnologist calls them, are tne 
ones which created -"^h a^sensatlon at 

the Smithsonian in ^ ^8^]?^?^°!* J^^^ 
winter, and now repose wUhin a ^ass 
case in the museum a* Golden uate 

Park 

Cailfornla Indian baskets become 
rarer and higher-priced every year. It 
[s manffest to the most careless ob- 
ier^er that the tribes, like all aboriginal 
rices will soon be extinct, and already 
otd customs and industries are pass- 
fng The girls of the present generation 
have imbibed Occidental Weas and dls- 
allnth^ exquisite art P'-acticed by the^r 

^.Xs srrh v^^f t^w 

wrought the unuttered aspirations and 
fancies of their meager lives. To-aay 
fhe handicraft Is in the hands of a few 
om women, and bids 'air to be num- 
bered among lost arts when they. too. 
shall have joined their ancestors. 

ft was with the thought of rescuing 
an important and Interesting Uidus ry 
^-^rv, oYtinction. as well as witn ine 
furttier very natural desire to adorn 
tSlir homes'^ with the work of their 



wards to find their level according to 

Ihelr merits, winning permanent vo- 

aries from' those PO/>^esslng special ap- 

'tl'n"^^- t^se'^^Jh^o K-^fo^l^rS 

-ll k 'tl ^a^-ewhone^es at 
Va^'lls^ street Ban Franclsco^was 

^tTi^ m^"^aVtVn"<^elUtful handi- 
craft and "was the first to bring it to this 
c[ty.A.n earnest and progressive wonrian 
ind' an amateur artist of no mean abil- 
fty .4e sees in the new occupation not 
only a delightful diversion for Ameri- 
can women, but a home mdustiy weu 
worth assiduous application capable of 
imrnpasurable development and holding 
a^^conor^ic promise. She Pronounces 
fh» work extremely fascinating and an 
Je\remVoym^nt?or invalids wh^ 

oursue it In comfortable POStures. a" 
?he Tme seeing a beautiful artlc e of 
permanent value growing beneath their 
tou^ and feeling cheered with the 

tSht"?hat their llYf„ are ho^.j^^n'the 
Realizing the Ke"eral Interest feU in tne 

Sfa" oS' MisT Barrows kfndly permiUed 
matlon. MISS D ,^ j^p^g of her own 

m^ufic Sre^[o b'^ photographed, and 
rscHbeTlhe Industry In "s Present 
«^ao-A A.a it has been transiateu 
?Jon -aboriginal methods Into civilized 

" For translated asavage art must needs 
he when takln up by the dainty hands of 
white women Civilization reckons with 
Mme and no sane person would consent 
lo procure ?rom the great woodwardla 
ferSof Californla-s shaded canyons the 
lone fibers forming the center of each 
stem which to the Indian women are 
tht basis of the basket, nor would it be 
rcom^ly thing for an American woman 
Tn sit in her parlor, and, holding in ner 
mouth the grasses with which she pro- 
•!^»/^o +n mflke her colored ngures, aye 
them the "tslred tint by slowly mastl- 
l.t.^c. the n\tive root which furnisher 
?Se n^eedld"dy'e, the superfiuous Juice 

kT'r'iTi'l t"h/ w"Iy"o"f the'?ndla^ 
Touaw b«t'!t is not the .vay of the white 
^H^r^ Tn the nresent somewhat crude 
Ttage^of Se'cra7t*ln Caucasian circles 

r!vrng'"lfd^Ves'e^rrch^rp%"n£ 
I^nf and exceedingly easy to Procure 

-d'efa-n^d'^^^Llan^-^^^^^ 

«^^^l ^^Jn^d X'to^ b%'oristraf so 
SaVoSndWeU employed by many 
f^r tying fancy packages in Place of 
cord When colored grasses are desired 
$nr the working of fancy patterns, the 
fhrlttv woman resorts to ordinary dyes, 
to be bought at a low price of any drug- 
gist but those who do not observe small 

Iconomles pay a ""le X\int "^ 
■•^^h^'pal^tfuir wravfrnos^t popular 

i-rr^nYtot stltch, consistmg merei> ut 
whatls caVled in Indian basket parlance 

^t\;rery" v"r Pra^U"e%"roun/^ 

iif ^?n*%?d^^arr ^rXg^ "neXe 

"-S£^s^-'ti!sT/p^;a^n%^e^ 
Xrf nee'd"d! Vakes a small puncture 
with a lit*' awl. putting the fiber 

^^°"fn worS -t a^'Satferirrh^c^ol': 
or°ed grlsl°rs^cafri°ed straight along the 
VI r.r. "ctirk *' except when it is 
"ill^d to show ll on the outside, when 
The whlte%rasT is carried along the rat- 
tan and ?he colored grass takes its place 

m the weave. hnsket of which 

Miss Barrows first basKec, oi. 
she herself is not at all proud. Is really 



N#^.Vdg:- 4 ! 



s>.^-^V^'^'^^(See Pictures on Page 12.) 




^^^"^^7 



-^3^ 



. !l W«\03.. 




NCLE SAM has to-day, is to counterfeit, so far as their 
^pent a handsome untrained fingers and cruder materia s 
«um In teaching may. the aboriginal basketry which is 
;wrts of civiliza- the pride of the pacific Coast tribes and 
tion to the Ameri- which has made them celebrateed the 

world over. 

Although the native tribes of every 
land have expended their skill and fan- 
cy in devising various forms of baskets 
with attractive ornamentation, collec- 
tors who have gathered treasures from 
the Orient, from the South ^fa islands 
from Africa, from within the Arctic 
circle and beneath the turning sun of 
the equator, and who have made 



can Indian, with a 
view to making of 
him a useful mem- 
ber of society. It 
has remained for 
California wom-^n 

to discover that the Indian has arts of 

his own which it is well worth c.viUza- 

iiors while to acquire. The newest tad 

among women, the most Popular__ac- closes^t ano^«..=^^^^^^^^";-^---^-^- ,^tive 



the 



most discriminating study 



complishment among California women 



iiands, that a party of women at Santa 
iMonlca, in Southern California, last 
summer determined to learn Indian 
basket-making. They were bright, cul- 
kured women, possessed of ample lei- 
sure to carry out their ambitions, and 
most of them had in their own homes 
examples of the handicraft for which 
ithey had paid a pretty penny. The 
[closest study of these baskets had 
ailed to reveal the secret of their fab- 
..ication, nor could they master the in- 
tricate weaves from published plates 
illustrating the manner of the weaving. 
So they betook themselves in a body 
to an old Indian squaw in the locality, 
and bribed her to give them lessons. 
Had the squaw remained obdurate, like 
many of her kind in former days, this 
story might never have been told, but 
the chink of the ladies* coin and the 
guile of their tongues won her over. 
AVhen the summer was ended the white 
women departed for their homes, each 
with a new and charming occupatiDU 
and a new interest in life. The friends 
who saw them working were eager to 
learn the craft, and each in turn served 
as an amateur instructor to a dozen 
more, until the demand for systematic 
instruction became so insistent among 
the women of the South that classes 
were opened in LOs Angeles, which are 
now liberally patronized. Indian bas- 
ket-making promises to take its place 
as a popular fad as a successor of por- 
celain painting, art embroidery and 
other fashionable accomplishments, 
each of which have for a time monopo- 
lized the attention of women, after- 



t. notable production, because of its 
originality of coloring. Of simple bowl 
shape and designed merely to ho.d 
spools, the made it in flame tints wholly, 
working it in irregula • bands of goiden 
yellow, orange and golden brown. With- 
out any pretension in the way of deco- 
ration or shape, it is a thing of beauty 
nevertheless, glowing like an autumn 
:eaf in the darkest nook of a room. 

Following no set design in subsequent 
work, it is interesting to observe that 
this American woman has given an 
original stamp to each article of her 
fabrication, a plan of work which sug- 
gests interesting future possibilities in 
her own i.«*^ other hands. Upon ont^ 
square bowl the brown ornamentation 
is traced in an odd zigzag pattern, which 
might have occurred to the aborigines, 
but, in point of fact, is unlike any In- 
dian basket in cny collection. A waste 
basket, ornamented in a Greek pattern, 
has a star with seventeen points on the 
bottom. A ring of conventionalized hu- 
man figures, with hands joined, en- 
circles another ba.sket. In another she 
has created a new stitch by putting her 
grass twice over between .^titches. pro- 
ducing an open-work effect. 

As in a good many other accomplish- 
ments, the chief difficulty in the weav- 
ing of these dainty baskets lies in mak- 
nl the beginning. A false begmnin^. 
and it is impossible to make a passable 
basket Once fairly and properly be- 
^nn ard M . Barrows declares that a 
^oman of^ntelUgence wiM easUy mas- 

'"' 'flora HAINES LOUOHEAD. 



HX^ FRAlSrCISCQ CHBOJS^ICLE SUKBAY. AUGTrSl 24, 1902. 



•i-t-.>^' 






,..J. 



Ti->. •: -I 










r- 






■m 









Indian Education. 
Congress Is now In the midst of Its an- 
nual wrestle with the Indian ar propria- 
Uons. and the same crude notions about 

tne education of the ^^^^^*^^;;f .^^^"^^^'^ 
be manifesting themselves as of old The 
government appears to be resolved to go 
on. year after year and generation aner 
generation, spending money on Jine 
'choels for teaching the Indian children 
iine things, but paying scant attention 
to the humbler but more solid acqulre- 

""kvI^ one acquainted with Indian affairs 
knows that a great deal of the so-called 
-educatUn" of the race Is a humbug. An 
Indian child is coaxed away from its 
home by one form of persuasion or an- 
other, and entered at a school a long 
distance off. No people are ^^^^J^^^^^l 
of the comfort ef their progeny than the 
red people of the West, and unless the 
children send home glowing accounts of 
their life and doings at school, the parents 
insist on bringing them back again 
Hence, as the color of a child's skm 
makes little difference in his love of lux- 
ury and his craving for a good time, the 
school authorities coddle their Indian 
charges beyond the last extrem.e ever 
practiced In the case of the children of 
white farmers and laborers, with whose 
general worldly condition the Indians 
most nearly corresponds. When the su- 
perintendent of an Indian school is ques- 
tioned about this policy, his usual answer 
is that the first great desideratum is to 
.ret the Indians to consent to their chil- 
dren's coming to school at all; and that 
it Is wise to make any reasonable con- 
cession to keep the youngsters contented, 
so as to maintain a hold upon them. 

Hence, when we see the children from 
tepees and rough cabins herded together 
in schools kept clean by hired janitors 
and supplied with all the modern con- 
veniences; living daily on food which is 
cooked lor them by servants in huge 
ovens and cauldrons; wearing clothing 
which Is washed and ironed in a big 
laundry with running water, automatic 
boilers, stationary tubs, and steam and 
electric appliances galore, we are expected 
to admire the generosity of a great and 
good government. It does not suggest 
itself to the ordinary mind to inquire to 
what all this tends. But we may as well 
be frank when we do pause to ask the 

question. ^i^^^xr 

Take a little white girl out of a dingy 
tenement, with no surroundings through 
her earlier life save those of poverty, 
and no tradition inherited from her an- 
cestors except a struggle for the neces- 
saries of existence; put her into a se- 
lect school for young ladies" for two or 
three years, teach her rQadlng. writing, 
arithmetic, geography, algebra history 
and what-not. and then-turn her loose 
No, send her back to the tenement AA hat 
becomes of her? Kven suppose, for the 
sake of keeping up the forms of a prac- 
tical training, she has been allowed to 
do some of the superficial work of the 
school-a linie sewing, an occasional 
table-setting, a turn at the n^^^^^^f^^ ^"^ 
the laundry; how much does all this 
help hor in her future as a tenement- 
dweller'' She despises her environment. 
If she is married, it is cither to a man 
whom she has learned to look upon as a 
clod, or to one who. like herself, has 
hcon "educaled" out of his sphere and 
who finds himself a stranger when he 
goes back to it. Her position is perilous 
in the cxtieme. One girl in a hundred 
has character enough to stand such a 
strain; the other ninety and nine are 
likely to succumb. 

On the other hand, take the same tene- 
ment-child and teach her how to wash at 
a common tub, press with a flatiron 
heated on a cook stove, cook well with 
the appliances of a poor man's kitchen, 
and you can afford to let the elegances 
.^o till the next generation comes along. 
You have started a new home and a new 
family on a sound basis, and that is 
enough for the present. 

Yet we expect more character in the 
aboriginal children than in our own. \Ve 
fondlv fancy, without stopping to think 
of the absurdity of it. that human na- 
ture is absolutely different urjder a red 
nder a whitel ^V^^*^- J^^^^ )03 






INDIANS AT FUNERAL. 

Red Men Eulogize Late Harriett max- 
well Converse. 
A dispatch from New York last night 
says: In the presence of many representa- 
tives of the people to whom she had de- 
voted her life, the last rites were perform- 
ed today over the body of Mrs. Harriett 
Maxwell Converse, "The Great White 
Mother" of the Six Nations of the great 
Iroquois confederacy. 

Eulogies were pronounced by the deaa 
woman's pastor and by chiefs of the vari- 
ous clans of the Seneca Nat)on. by whom 
Mrs Converse was adopted when but a lit- 
l tie girl, and one of the chiefs performed the 
ancient rite of "the passing of the horns, 
which consisted of taking the string of 
sacred wampum beads, the insignia of of- 
fice from the lid of the casket and present- 
ing' them to Joseph Keppler. long associat- 
ed with Mrs. Converse in her work among 
the Indians, by which act Mr. Keppler was 
nominated by the chiefs present as the 

successor of the dead woman g^necas 

Mr. Keppler was adopted by the ^enecas 
years ago. and Dears the Indian name of 
rv Ont-Wa-Ka. or "The Planter." 

Tn addition to the delegates from the Six 
Nluons'^'here' were present representatWes 
from the Hurons, Sioux, AblnKi, A'gon 
quins, Aztecs of Mexico and several other 
tribes Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Sill of St. 
Chrvsostom's Chapel, the dead woman s 
„rlf^r rpad the Episcopal services for the 
Seadkfter which William Crow, a Seneca 
warrior made a brief address in his native 
Tongue! 'Umenting the death of "The Great 
White Mother." 






m 



PUT TO FLIGHT BY 

INDIAN TRIBESMEN. 



Brnven Recent an Vftenipt to TaUe 

water Ri»lit« Which Have 

Beep Their« for Years. 

SAN BERNARDINO, September 26.- 
W F Plinney recently posted a notice 
on the small reservoir belonging to 
the Manuel Indian reservation near 
i here, locating all the water flowing 
I into the reservoir from the sprmg near- 
' by, and has so stirred the Indians that 
he has been compelled to flee from his 
homestead, two miles distant, to save 
his life. Three days ago the Indians dis- 
covered the notice and Immediately the 
entire population of the village swarmed 
up the mountain to look at it. Later 
they tore down the notice. 

Plinney was s^en near the spot ana 
suspected, and that night twenty young 
braves started for his houre He is sa d 
to have heard their approach and barri- 
caded the windows and doors. Late at 
night he slipped away and has not been 
seen since. The Indians l^ave owu ed 
the water from the sprmg for tweiity- 
flve years. It is their only suppb. but 
' numerous attempts have been niade by 
^vlfltes to appropriate the f ^w. Fl n- 
nev's notice was to-day sent to the In- 
dian agent at San JacintoJ^Mtov.— ■ 
John Brown. 



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Mr. J. H. Monteith, of Montana, w-ho 
represents the government as Indian 
agent for the Blackfeet tribe in that 
State, was seen at the Shoreham last 
evening. Mr. Monteith is here with some 
representatives of the tribe who had 
business with the Secretary of the In- 
iterior. With the noble red men oime 
White Calf, a famous chief of the Piegans, 
who also are classed with the Biackfoet 
clan. I^nfortunately While Calf develop- 
ed a serious case of pneumonia after he 
reached the Capital, and Mr. Monteith 
had him taken to one of the city hos- 
pitals. ,^, ,,, 

♦'White Calf," said Mr. Monteith, is 
over eighty years of age, and I fear he 
will never see Montana again. It is sad 
that the old chief should come so finr to 
die among strangers, and should that be 
his fate there will be a sad story for his 
Ibrethren to carry back ta the reserva- 
tion." 



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skin and under a white 




>H4A.^3Uv^e:U^ S:^::»j^- ^P*^^>so^\<\oH^ 





Where She is the Equal of 
Her Sisters. ^ 



BMTE?S OFtNION 



.N INSIGHT INTO THE DAILY 
TKIALS AND JOYS. 



Jgiimmed Up, It Contrasts ?retty Well 

With the Best of the 

World. 



uno iP5;pect the Imlian woman is tbe 
^lal of all other women. The men of her 
J. -e hold her as tholr inferior. 
:o one accepts tliis wtandard more r^ail- 
fTy th-in the squaw her.self. To ride last in 
parades seems to her as mnch as a v.oman 
should CXI ect; to jrin wilh the men in their 
<lances would be a distinction far beyond 
her; and to wear moccasins with be. ids 
upon them-well, that is a form of orna- 
mcntatirn reserved wl.olly for tlie braves. 
The ro<l woman's plain, unbcaded font- 
wear is cue mark of lu-r s?x. 

In tlu« young Indian woman's beariii??. 
howrvn-. there is the s ime freedom an<i 
pii(ic as in that of tlie brave Her life of 
constant exercise has been her Delsarte. 
Slh' li->- Trilby !*■ * '■"' notiiinff h;y,V.r 



she paints upon the top of her head where 
her hair parts a red stripe. 

The Indian girls marry youngr. Fifteen is 
the usual age at whicli they become wives. 
Daughters are the property of their fathers. 
The bucks exchange ponies for sweethearts. 
Although many of the old families of Vir- 
ginia—among them the Randolphs, wlio are 
descendants of Pocahontas— boast of Indian 
]);ood. the huml^lest Indian girl considers 
it a degradation to marry a white man. Ey 
all the tribes it is held a mark of degen- 
eracy to possess the mingled blood of white 
and red. 

Their Marriage Bites. 

Few Christian marriages ^re celebrated 
on the reservations. Most of the young wo- 
men prefer to follow tlie simple rites of 
their race. These ceremonies are but two. 
The first one, naively romantic, is the be- 
trothal. The lover goes by night to the 
maiden's tepee, and sings her a love ditty. 
She comes out in the moonliglit and joins 
hands with him. Thus the engagement is 
announced. 

The marriage ceremony, however, is more 
prosaic. Two blankets are spread in the 
middle of the tepee. The bride and groom 
sit upon these and they are married. The 
wedding guests bring presents and heap 
tliem up between the couple. 

When the Indian maid becomes a wife 
she obeys and loves her brave. Lift the 
flap of a tepee and you will often see the 
sfiuaw. with a look of contentment, tender- 
ly combing and smoothing her warrior's 
long hair. Her lave Is not unrerpiited. I 
have seen the lui.sband painting with great 
care \ipon ills .squaw's head the adorning 
Vermillion stripe. The red mother is de- 
voted to her chlldien. Of the little girl she 
is fond. She fasliions small boards and 
fl.ins In which to tie up her doll-])apoose. 
'I'o tlie little l)oy slie gives the kind of care 
th;.t traineis give to tlieir fine colts. In his 
infincy slie takes measures to make the 
future brave strong and straight. Slie dis- 
ciplines him fli'mly. but gently: no liarsh 
wo'd (»r blow must break liis spirit. 

Tjje hauglity reserve of the Indian war- 
rior appears in the woman as a most en- 
gaging modesty. A girl on tiie reservation 
will cast her eyes down, and in pretty lO'n- 
u'li.-"^;!. if .she Ins l>eon to .seltool. -msv-'-r a 



dweller in the city flat. But the red man 
summons no van. The squaw takes down 
the tepee, and packs poles, covering and 
blankets upon ponies. Then leading her 
pack animals, she follows in the wake of 

her lord. 

In times of peace the squaw goes with her 
buck upon the chase. The men shoot down 
the antelope; the squaws do the rest. They 
akin the animal and cook or dry' the meat. 

Rven in warttme the squaws do their part. 
THey hold the ponies while the warriors go 
forward to the attack. Or when the braves 
capture a band of horses the squaws ride 
them off. They even fight sometimes like 
t hV (>- m ng;(; rn^ f^f ^ Ul, "rbn Wc^v. i>er»|eq figri-m 
of Chief Josopli "fought like mei# when he 
made his famous campaign against the 
I.^nited States army; 

The red woman who clasps her blanket 
on her shoulders, and alings upon her back 
her baggy-cheeked papoose, bound upon his 
board like a huge cocoon, Is more often 
now the educated than the wild woman. 
Why she returns from school, straightway 
removes her civilized garb and goes back to 
the blanket, is a puzzle to her white neigh- 
bors. However, they know but their own 
life. She has known both. She' makes her 
choice. 

Jennie, the daughter of Chief Pio, grad- 
uated from Chemawa, the Indian colleg 
near Seattle. Wiien she returned to h 
tribe she resumed the blanket and her oil 
manner of life. She soon became the squaw 
and the property of an Indian buck. 

Knew When to Talk. 

Indeed, it Is dangerous now to assume 
that any squaw one meets Is the untutored 
savage woman. I saw an Indian woma 
))lanketed and with a silk kerchief on 1 
head, in a store out west. When, out 
curiosity. I asked her some childish que 
tion. she replied: "Thank you, I don't car 
to talk this morning." 

In short, the life of the Indian woman i 
one unbroken camping out. No one wl 
deny that such an existence Isolds some of 

tlie lovs we all covet. 

To explnin the fasv-inatlon that untamed 
nature lias for all men. it has been said: 
"V'h» n (iv'lized man goes to tlie mountains 




\^\fe,gJ^^^Jv.j;;^;^>^^ S^>^^ 



.SOyWOH. 





I she paints upon the top of her head where I ^wellej^in 
l,Pr h-iir parts a red s.ripe. „,._„_ ,„ ,hf. teuee. 



Where She is the 
Her Sisters. 



I lie I»U\. .vr> «...vv 

I Although miir 
ll.QUa»i 01 I descendants o 

4 



ira 



NION 



N INSIGHT INTO THE DAILY 
TRIALS AND JOYS. 



^^ummed Up, It Contrasts ?retty Well 

With the Rest of the 

World. 



one respect the Indian woman is the 
PTual of all other women. The men of her 
LiL-e hold her as their inferior. 

[o one accepts this standard more read- 
Ky than the squaw herself. To ride last m 
parades seems to her as much as a v;oman 
should exiect; to jrin with the men in their 
dances would bo a distinction far beyond 
her- and to wear moccasins with beads 
upon them-well, that is a form of orna- 
mentation reserved wholly for the braves. 
The red woman's plain, unbeaded foot- 
wear is one mark of her S3X. 

In the young Indim woman's bearing, 
however, there is the same freedom and 
pride as in that of tlie brave. Her life of 
constant exercise has been her Delsarte. 
She ha.'; Trilby feet-lor nothing harder 
than undressed leather has ever confined 
tliem Tiie figure of the Indian maiden is 
straight and lithe. Her bl.ick hair is abun- 
dant and coarse, her teeth faultless, and 
her bi^- dark eyes are soft and shy. 1 he 
rolor of the wild girl's skin is a blending ot 
brass, copper, bronze and California gold 
—a rich mixture and a rich effect. 

The InSau squaw-^iust like other women 
-would enlumce her natural graces. And | 
think not that she has a soul ^^ ^^.^.^^^^ t^ 
»he recks not of 'the style." ^^.^^^^^^^ ^ ,^;V 
which is the most prized portion -ol hei 
"'attire, is subject to many changes m lis 
colors and de.sigrns. A blanket may be thick 
and warm, but only one of the newest 
weave and dye will serve an up-to-date 

S(juaw. 
The ordinay Indian woman wears a big- 



The Indian girls marry young. I< if teen is 
tho usual age at which they become wives, 
daughters are the property of their father.s. 
The bucks exchange ponies for sweethearts. 
Vlthough many of the old families of Vir- 

them the Randolphs, who are 
f Pocahontas— boast of Indian 
blood, the humblest fndian girl con.siders 
it a degradation to marry a white man. l:.y 
all the tribes it is held a mark of degen- 
eracy to possess the mingled blood of white 

and red. . _.. 

Their Marriage Kttes, 

Few Christian marriages are celebrated 
on the reservations. Most of the young wo- 
men prefer to follow the simple rites of 
their race. These ceremonies are but two. 
The first one. naively romantic, is the be- 
trothal. The lover goes by night to the 
maiden's tepee, and sings hef a love ditty. 
She comes out in the moonHght and joins 
hands with him. Thus the engagement is 

announced. , , . ^^^ 

The marriage ceremony, however. Is more 
prosaic. Two blankets are spread in the 
middle of the tepee. The bride and groom 
sit upon these and they are married. The 
wedding guests bring presents and heap 
them up between the couple. 

When the Indian maid becomes a wife 
she obeys and loves her brave. Lift the 
flap of a tepee and you will often see the 
squaw, with a look of contentment, tender- 
ly combing and smoothing her warrior's 
long hair. Her love is not unrequited. I 
have seen the husband painting with great 
cn-e upon his squaw's head the adorning 
Vermillion stripe. The red mother is de- 
voted to her children. Of the little girl she 
is fond. She fashions small boards and 
i flans in which to tie up her doll-papoose. 
ro the little boy she gives the kind of care 
that trainers give to their fine colts. In his 
infancy she takes measures to make the 
future* brave strong and straight. She dis- 
ciplines him firmly, but gently; no harsh 
wo'-d or blow must break his spirit. 

The haughty reserve of the Indian war- 
rior appears in the woman as a most en- 
gaging modesty. A girl on' the reservation 
will cast her eyes down, and in pretty hm- 
gli«;h if she has been to school, answer a 
visitor's prying questions. If given a little 
present she will softly say, "Thank you, 
iind however red tlie ribbon or the kerchief 
may be, will lay it aside without looking at 
it while the donor is near. 

They Are Very Shy. 
This shyness, which is not bashfulness 
nor awkwardness, but rather a sensitive 
reserve, attracts one to the Indian girl. I 

o 



the city flat. But the red man 

no van. The squaw takes down 

the tepee, and packs poles, covering and 

blankets upon ponies. Then eadlng her 

pack animals, she follows in the wake of 

he**' lo*'d. 

In times of peace the squaw goes with her 
buck upon the chase. The men shoot down 
the antelope; the squaws do the rest. They 
wkln the animal and cook or dry the meat. 

Even in wartime the squaws do their part. 
Tliey hold the ponies while the warriors go 
forward to the attack. Or when the braves 
capture a band of horses the squaws r de 
them off. They even fight sometimes like 
tlU^ Auaion ii of QU I, Tho N n, 7 V r rjP'H «q rT i 
ot Chief Joseph "fought like merF when he 
made his famous campaign against the 
L^nited States army. 

The red woman who clasps her blanket 
on her shoulders, and slings upon her back 
her baggy-cheeked papoose, bound upon his 
board like a huge cocoon, is more often 
,iiow the educated than the wild woman. 
Why she returns from school, straightway 
\ removes her civilized garb and goes ba;ck to 
the blanket, is a puzzle to her whjte nel^h-. 
bors However they know but theii* >Own 
life. She has known both. She makes her' 

choice. _. , f 

Jennie, the daughter of Chief Pio, grad- II 
uated from Chemawa, the Indian colleg 
near Seattle. AVhen she returned to h 
tribe she resumed the blanket- and her ol 
manner of life. She soon became the squaw 
and the property of an Indian buck. 

Knew When to Talk. 



1 



"she 
The 



flowered calico dress. She covers her head 
with a bright silk handkerchief or a grass- 
woven, basket-shaped hat. An Indian girl 
whoHi I visited on her reservation was clad 
in a 



remember how Ruth, when I asked her 
so dead tliat ^ome to Whirlwind's tepee with me, drew 

hack, begging to stay behind, because 
didn't like to go before so many men.' 
red maiden displays also in her love af- 
fairs the world-old coyness. Josephine 
came to a white friend to ask him to write 
for her a. letter to her favored brave. As 
she left to mail the letter her last words 



Indeed, it is dangerous now to assume 
that any squaw one meets is the untutore^ 
savage woman. I saw an Iirdian womaj 
blanketed and with a silk kerchief on \i 
head, In a store out west. When, out 
curiosity, I asked her some childish queJ 
tion, she replied: "Thank you, I don't cai 
to talk this morning." 

In short, the life of the Indian woman ii 
one unbroken camping out. No one wil* 
deny that such an existence holds some 

the joys we all covet. .,,-.,, /, i 

To explain the fascination that untamed:] 
nature has for all men, it has been said: 
"When civilized man goes to the mountainsj 
or to the forest, he is. simply going, home. 
Tlien why do v/c marvel that the civilizedj 
red wom.an i)ecomes homesick for the tepee 
beside the winding stream; that when shej 
reurns to the old surroundings, the spell of 
the mountains and forests is stronger upon 
her than the laws of conventional hfc? 

The real problem of the Indian wonian is, 
can we educate her, give her of our best, 
and still not take from her all the old free^ 
dom and joys of her wild life? 

♦ : — 

"Out-of-Work'^ British Workman. 

From tho U)1k1oii IHill M all GR? .O ttC. "^ 

The "out-of-work" British workman, witi 
his hod and shovel carefully arranged on] 
the top of a barrel organ, is again per 
ambulating the streets of the West Knd 
Last winter the scandalous state of affaln 



dark blue sateen that she had made 
herself. The dre.ss was a simple slip, curv- 
ing in to the waist, and just reaching the 
lop of her high, laced moccasins. The 
neck was cut rounding and a little low. and 
the .sleeves were short and flowing. A 
wide, beaded belt clasped the girls wa'st 
loo.sely. The garment was Greek In out- 
line. ' This Indian girl liad achieved one 
ideal of dress— the combmatlon of clas.si • 
simplicity and modern utility. 

A Chieftain's Daughter. 

'!'(». s;e real elegance in dress, however, 
ihat can be rated at a money value of 
several hundreds or a thousand dollars, one 
must leek upon some chieftains daughter, 
in her gala buckskin robe decorated with 
elk-tooth pendants. As acces.sories to this 
robe of state the chieftain's daughter wears 
.1 collar of elk teeth and a beaded belt from 
which hangs a fox skin or that of a weasel. 
In her hand she carries a figured g ass- 
woven basket. 

Although our Indian sister does not re?d 
the beauty columns of the Sunday papers, 
she is not averse to using heroic measures 
for the purpose of rendering her.self at- 
tractive. Often she goes into the little skln- 
« overed hut that the Indians use when they 
take their sweat baths. Here, shuttin- her 
(^yes, she smokes herself for hours In the 
fiunes of willow twigs. This incense per- 
meates her body with a delicate perfume. 
[She also spends much time In combing ner 
glo.«^sy hair She braids it into two lOng 
plaits, which* she lets hang down upon h-r 
bosom. As a last touch to her coiffu"e 



were: "Don't tell mother." 

Has anyone ever told you that the Indian 
woman has no sense of humor? Smile at 

her and she smiles back. ."How much are j ;';;i;i7c°toThe "appelils led 'to a strong pro- 
these moccasins?" I inquired of a s^qjiaw^ I ^^st Jhig made on behalf of the^ verj 



She knew that I only wanted to ma! 
talk. Although moccasins were sold for 
much less, she twinkled and replied: "Post 
tlmpt"— $10.0D. Yet, when one means busi- 
ness, the sq\iaws are keen traders. The 
merchants out west, who buy the squaw's 
handiwork, will tell you that no one can 
get the best of her in a bargain. She is 
likely to hold out for more than the value 
of her wares. 

The worst trait in the character of the 
squaw, however is her love of gambling. 
This vice Is inherent in her race. The hus- 
band teaches the wife to play cards. The 
chilidren look on while their mothers draw 
around a blanket in the tepee and follow 
the chances of the game. 

The sciuaw despite her gambling is indus- 
trious. She chops and carries on her back 
the firewood. She does all the cooking. She 
has not broiled and roasted for centuries 
In vain. Travelers in the northwest who 
have eaten with these Indians tell of the 
dellciousness of the squaws cooked salmon. 

She Does the Work. 
The Indian women make the grass baskets 
that we see in Indian stores. They also tan 
buckskin and make of it gioves and m.occa- 
sins. .The celebrated Navajo blankets arc 
worn by the women of that tribe. The wo- 
man not only do the light work; the men 
leave all the heavy toll to them. If a crop 
la to be raised the squaw must be the la- 
borer; is a new tepee Is needed she must 
build it. To this nomad-wife moving day 
comes with more frequency than to the 



resulting from the generous but indiscrim- 

inating response given by a sympatheti< 

to the appeals led to a strong 

veryl 



class these men were supposed to represent. 
Success appears to have emboldened them 
and their conduct in many of the principal 
thoroughfares is such as to warrant polic 
interference; but the refusal of the publlj 
to encourage such methods would probablj 
be amply effective. 

<^Obelisk'' of 

From tho Ix>ndon Gloly 

The "obelisk" 
or shaft of roj 
1,000 feet abj 
5,000 feet a] 
phenomei 
from thci 
a bottle 
first e: 
the li' 
risen 
redd! 
pui 
for: 
th< 



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Boulder Over Grave of Indian Chief Tomachichi, 
Erected at Savannah, hy Georgia Colonial Dames 



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Boulder Over Grave of Indian Chief Tomachichi, 
Erected at Savannah, by Georgia Colonial Dames 



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"^Ms^IMIesI^^SW 



Proclamation Issued Giving Conditions 
for Sale of the Lands. ^ 

Owing to a conflict of date with the 
pale of tlie Chippewa Indian lands at: 
Crookston, Minn., on June 15. Conimis- 
3ioner Richards, of the General Land 
omce, yesterday directed that the sale of 
the Red Lake reservation lands at Thiei 
River Falls, sixty miles from Crookston, 
begin June 20 instead of the date origi- 
nally tlxed. The register and receiver of 
the Crookston land office will be at both 
openings to expedite the work. 

With the approval of the Secretary of 
the Interior, the Commisaioner of the 
General Land Omce on Tuesday issued a 
proclamation stating the conditions un- 
, der which the ceded lands of the Red 
[ Lake Indian reservation; in Minnesota will 
be disposed of as provided for in the act 
for the sale of these lands passed at the 
last session of Congress^ 

The lands, will include 255,000 acres, and 
they are to be disposed of under the terms 
of the hoirlestead law, except that the en- 
t^yman will be required to pay not less n 
than $4 per acre, and will not be required 
to show, that he has exhausted his rights 
under that law. The sale Is to take 
place at Thief River Falls, Minnesota. 
The sale will be by public auction, and 
the land will be disposed of Ini tracts of 
IGO acres at not less than $4 per acre. The 
sales will begin at 9 o'clock each day, and 
slxtv tracts will be offered the first and 
second days and eighty tracts on each 
succeeding day. Purchasers will be re- 
quired to pay one-ftfth of the price agreed 

on In cash. 
I Much, Interee-t is manifested in the sale. 
' It Is expected that some of the lands will 
; bring considerably more than the price 
flxed. All the funds realized In excess of 
$;l,000,000, the sum to be paid to the In- 
dians, will be covered Into the Treasury. 

A warning has been Issued by the Inte- 
rior Department against trespassing on 
the portion of the Crow Indian reservation 
In Montana recently ceJed by the Indians. 
Reports to the department are to the ef- 
fect that a number of "sooners" have 
gone on the lands and selected some of 
the choicest portions. 

The Secretary notifies them that tney 
will acquire no rights by this course, and 
he cautions all people to keep off the res- 
ervation until the opening proclamation 
is Issued. 



* -^ 



*^i«L'«^i^:c'Ssaai' 






AI THE WHITE HOUSI 

Starr-Ma^3, 1904 
Proclamation Opening Lands 
to Settlement. 

ROSEBTJD RESERVATION 

EEGTJLATIONS OF GENEBAL I*AND 
OFFICE FOR DRAWINGS. 






w'l'-i/' 



A Biief Cabinet Meeting Today— Post- 
masters Agreed On— Western 
Tariff Sentiment. 

The President today issued a procjlama- 
tion for the entry of the ceded lands of the 
Rosebud Indian reservation in South Da- 
kota, beginning on August 8 next. ihe 
lands will be selected by lot, and a drawing 
will be established for that purpose. There 
are about 400.000 acres of the ceded land 
and some of it is very fertile. Much Interest 
has been manifested on the part of the 
would-be settlers, and Commissioner Rich- 
ards of the general land office said today 
that he had received no less than a thou- 
sand letters of inquiry concerning the open- 
ing. For the purpose of greater conven- 
ience to entrymen the land office at Cham- 
berim win be temporarily removed to Bone- 
steel, which is only four miles from the 
reservation. The entries at Bonesteel will 
continue from August 8 to September 1^, 
and afterward will be continued at Cham- 
berlln Opportunities for registration for 
?he drawlnrwill be afforded at Chamber, 
lin, Bonesteel, Yankton and Fairfax and 
registration will begin July 5 ^ext and 
f.insG Julv 23. The drawing wlU take place 
at ChamheVliri, July 28 under the su^r- 
vision of a committee of thr^« ™f5J; ^^^^ 
uniform price of lands during the first 

ihree months of the opening ^i" ^J^ ^^ 
acre, and the choice of selections will be 
regulated by the drawing. 

Provisions of Proclamation. 

The proclamation provides that the lands 
shall be entered under the general pro^i- 
Blons of the homestead and town "fte ^aws. 
and all entries under the homeste^ law 
are to be made In perrson, except in the 
case of e-soldiers and ex-sailors, who may 
employ an agent. Entries JJ^^er the home- 
stead law will be permitted at the rate oi 
inn T^Ar AA^r from the day of the openmg. 
^A^rtons desiring to establish townsites 

^ f^2 r«f«rvat^on will be permitted to 

«^Xr d"tairof -the proclamation are as 

shall be P«"n'"®^>°J'l„a landB except In 
or enter any of »!:»f,°«,nhU proclamation 
the manner prescribed In this proc^ 

?n"e"'t.^nJr wh^ertrS fr/'o^ptne/to set- 
tlement and ®"*^y* .,^_ ^m the said period 

Sirs srs.=«;«»es «i 

entry, as »»e'«\"V^f°Er u^aigposed of may 
said lands '•en»a.lnlng unaispose 

be settled «Pon'°J=Xn|* of the homestead 

the f«n«''^'^l^l*of the United States in 
and townslte laws or »"\^ ^t ejecting 

like manner as »*„"^f_™oy and entry had 
such settlement occupancy *"°^^«d,e^eo to 
not been prescribed herein in OD ^^ 

law. suWect. ho';«r«''^i^*^ entered. In the 
$4 per acre for the lw«i » ^^^ ,, t^e 

manner a-"* «•* *^f'g ^ve mentioned. Af- 

sald act of 9*"!?^ „f fhree months, and 

ter the ««P«";f "^" ufthe expl?atu,n if six 
not hefore, and until me e y ^^^ 

""""'ijf fnrlettlement and entry, as afore- 
opened '°' A®"',a Jands remaining undls- 
?^s%%"fmV^f3;eaet.leduP^^^^^ 

$llfon.n'f tCsaio^lat's Ind In the same 
^anneV subject, however to the^^^^^ 

"" ^ r and at ?he times required by the 
manner and ^^"I , ^.fter the explra- 
same act <>' Congress^ a ^^^^^ 

tion of 6lxni°n^«'/^^n" opened for set- 
the same shall have °«« j^^esald. any of 

tlement an'*,„??5^,nK undisposed of may 

"?"* tV^"be TtUedup^on? occupied, and en- 
alBO to be »«"'*" "»l'j provisions of the 
lered "nder the gener^^ pr^^_^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

same. a"^„ '"he payment of »a.60 per acre 
however, to ""> P^^",„ the manner and at 
for the land enterea in v « ^^^_ 

the time reQUh-ed by the same^j^^ 

B*"*"^- *,^m the taking effect of this act. 
J"^^".! hSore any of said lands remaining 
and not ^efore. any disposed of 

undisposed of BhUl be s i^uons to 

^'"' '^^^^Hh^d by the Secretary of the In- 
^erlo" no't^more^han «40 acres to any on. 

purchaser.'* 



i.\\^'' i 

.'^v-'- 



When the Cree Indians Went 
^ c On a Strike.^ 5^ .« 

FACTOR HAD HIS SAY 



RAISED THE PRICE OF THINGS IN 

THE STORE, 



So They Profited Not by the Increase 

in the Value of 

Skins. 



Special Correspondence of Tlie Evening Star. 

EDMONTON, N. W. T.. August 25, 1904. 

The union is spreading— the labor union 1 
mean. It has broken out lately among the 
Bush Crees on the upper Athabasca. 

At one of the Hudson Bay posts, pre- 
sided over by a sturdy Scotch factor, the 
labor question has been fought out and the 
Indian's sense of humor, also his rights to 
sell his labor and his furs, found out and 
fixed. 

Whatever of by-laws and constitution the 
red men possess is preserved in the un- 
erring memory of the men of the union. It 
was all due to the eloquence and enterprise 
of a Cree prince, named Paul Forchet. His 
elder brother was a chief, but his seven 
younger brothers were all respectable work- 
ingmen, voyagers, hunters, trappers and 
fur catchers. The northern Indian is not 
lazy. The father of Paul was a Hudson 
Bay trapper, "his grandfather, too, and his 
father also," as Dr. Drummond would say. 
For more than a hundred years the 1^ or- 
chets had rendered allegiance, good service 
and skins to the company. But conditions 
were changing. Also the Crees were pick- 
ing up pointers from free traders and trav- 
elers. Paul had been out to Edmonton, had 
tasted liquid lightning that xan be called 
across a polished plank by the music made 
fn the clatters of coin. He had learned the 
magic of money, scraps of painted PfPer 01 
bits of silver, that had the purchasing power 
of many skins. It made Paul restless 

Now of a truth, it is the easiest thing on 
earth to convince a man that he is getting 
the worst o? it, Is being bilked and buncoed, 
and that he is, and of a right ought to be 
-aK'in the government." Therefore it was 
easy for the eloquent Cree to interest the 
Indians in their own affairs 

When he had them well In ^^"^,^1^^ 
waited for the factor. Paul was a born 
rDell-binder and he knew the value of 
b?fngTacked by a goodly company of his 
fellows in full sympathy. 

Amazed His Hearers. 
An educated half-breed, -who was present 
upon that occasion, says P'-l"c^e Paul 
amazed his hearers, the old Scotch factor 
and himself. In language that flowed lull 
and strong like the peace river he told the 
•tory of the Redman, his devotion to duty, 
his loyalty to the company He entranced 
the traders and amazed the I."f 1^"«„*^ .{^* 
portrayed the tragedy of ^'"t«^- °/ ^^* 
lone hunt for food when the post was 

l^Sfving of' the ^r'"fiffl'.nuv attenmni 
?h"f i?aVJn^^-'ortll'"?a^rir%mS 

^\^^r\rhi^- them going he sh«t 0« 

ravine to the post of a "free trader. His 
hushed auditors leaned forward to ca^ch 
and weigh each sentence, each word. For 
half ^n hour the eloquent Cree followed 
?his stde tmil. which they all knew would 
J^ci ft the door of the free trader or the 
French company. If he fanc^d hi^^^-thers 
were losing Interest he would swing, halt 
facing them and call attention to the scars 

upon their foreheads, f^ ^,^^^^^,,"}?;^^im^ 
the headstrap. but ^^^tributed by the im- 
nassioned prince to their crown of thorns. 
And ?hlir bent backs-you know what did 
that, he would say to the factor. It was 
carrying the company's cross. . ^ , 4^ 

Another quarter of an hour was S^yen to 
a recapitulation, bringing him back to the 
Dolnt which could have been reached and 
co^rel by a Yankee in three words, viz: 
**Tiiere are others." 

New Schedule of Prices. 

Another pause, and then with perfect 
French politeness he unrolled his ^Iti"^^- 
tum which had been written out in full by 
an interpreter, and which is treasured by 
the old factor as a relic of the company s 
first strike. The following was Forchet s 

schedule: old prices. New prices. 

Skies. Skins. 

Bestbeavcr ^^ §0 

Otter ^S 12 

Fox'';;::::::::'''''-*--'---* ^ ^^ 

The reader should have in mind that 
while an article to us is worth so mnny 
doi ars^ to the Indians it is so many skins, 
and that a skin always means 50, cents In 
American money. That is the Indian s dol- 
lar—skin or 50 cents. f^^tnr after 

•*Verv well," said the old factor aiier 
a moments reflection, and the eloquent 
CreT nodded, which was Indian for bow, 

and led his band away. ^:„tpr and 

TiiP hiintinff was good that winter, ana 
pJul whUen^ot hunting himself, was busy 
figuring with shells and shining peb_bles_lhe 
rfsults of the harvest when the catch 
should reach the post. To be sure, the In- 
fli^ins had to have tea and toT^acco, guns 
and knives and as there were no other 
-hops in the wilderness, were almost obliged 
to buv them at the bay store. 

One fine May morning the factor's bureau 
g,^w dark with Indians. Bravely in the 
fore stood Forchet. the Eugene Debs of the 
north backed by his brotherhood of brown- 

^^-What now. Prince Paul?" asked the fac- 
tor, innocently. 

Turned the Tables. 

"My people," said Paul, "complain that 
you have raised the price of goods. My 
brotlier tells me that you took twelve skins 
for these t\s^ed trousers, for which my 
father used to pay eight skins." 

"And did your brother forget to tell you 
that I allowed him eighty skins for a fine 
bear for which your father would have 

^'^•My^uncll'says dress goods have gone up 
from four to six skins." . , , - ^ 

-And silver gray fox," said the factor, 
-h^ve gone fr?m sixty to '.W sknis in a 

single season." «. «„ "ata, 

Paul paused. Then he went on. My 

neople contend that you have no right to 

change the price of tobacco. That never 

""^'-sfv^o vour people, as you said to me 
when last year's leaves were dying. 'These 
are their ^00^^' "^^ ours.' They have a 
right to say what price shall be the price 
nf their own. Voila!* 

Snddenlv the whole band set up a great 
shout and began filing out of the post. 
f.;,;^hin- gesticulating and saying over 
^'^^^^^\??; olain "Bien. bien. Paul is one 
big fool' t^^^^^^ has made of him fun; 

"^AndThat was the In^i^^;?/^^/^^l^^?J^^- 






lESDAY, NOVEMBER 



-^ 



INDIAN COMMISSIONERSHIP. 

Correspondent Leupp Likely to Be Put 
at the Head of the Bureau. 

Iwrnprn""^""'?" ''"^'" °* ^"•''"n -'^■ffa'rs. Mr. 

head n^ ^h "^k"^^' ^^° «*^ *>««" " the 
„f D .^ bureau since the beginning 
of President McKlnley's flm admlnlstra^ 
tlon, has given notice to Secretary Hltch- 

ofhlaTtLmeT""' ' "^" '^^ '""^ ^^'^ 

mf^-^ZlT^ *"t *" P'-obabimy will be 

w„'=kT^ ?° ^ ^- ^'^"PP- "le well-known 
Washington correspondent of the N^w 
York BvenlDff Post, who is a member ol 
the Indian Rights- Association, and °s 
thoroughly familiar with Indian nues! 

I of°"the Pre-sl&"hv'"-'°^^ '"^^ confld "n'ce 
^i„.,i *.. !.'" ,?,"* by reason of long upr- 

with /nec?at'll,'?U?"'^ has been fntk,^t% 
witn gpeciai missions of Imnnrtinrp -.f 
I fectlngr thejnter ests of t he IndSns. 

Cavalry Leaving Fort Myer. 
Troops E, F. Q. and H, making up the 
Second Squadron of the Flfteerfth Cav 
airy, with the band of that regiment Z] 
leave Fort Myer this afternoon for For 
lEthan Allen, Vt.. the new station of the 
n,?. "Ju ^^"^ ""arters vacated by the 
Fifteenth Cavalry will be occupied by tho 
)and and a squadron of the Seventh Tav 
ilry which have been In camp at Fort 
^lyer for some time past. °" 

The Arlington Eiiropean plan restaurant 
fnd supper rooms kow open. Music" 



r 
U 



t^o 



mo"-] 



LEUPP TO BE GOMMISSIONEh 

Newspaper Correspondent to Head 
Bureau of Indian Alfalrs. 



Appointment from President Roosevelt 

Came to Him Unsought— Will Enter 

Upon New Duties Next January. 



President Roosevelt yesterday announced 
the appointment of Francis E-. Leupp. or 
this city, to be Indian Commis-sioner, vice 
Wllliami A. Jones, resigned. Commission- 
er Jones' resignation andi Mr. Leupp's ap- 
pointment will take effect January 1. Mr. 
Leupp is) the Washington correspondent ji 
of the New York Evening Post, and has 
been identifi&d with Indian affairs lor 

maniy years. 

The appointment, of course, came to 
Mr. Leupp entirely unsougtht. It was ac- 
cepted by him reluctantly. He has de- 
clined) several proffers of office under dif- 
ferent administrations, preferring his 
work as a correspondent, to which he is 
most devoted, and) in which he has earned 
an enviable reputation. His retirement 
Irom Journalism will bring genuine regret 
to the new.spaper corpsi in Washington, 
who hold him in highest esteem. 

Mr. Leupp is not a faddist on Indian 
affairs, or on any kindred subject. He be- 
lieves simply in giving both races, where 
they come in contact, a square deal on 
comm.on-s.ense lines. He has been i^n the 
habit of visiting Indian reservations from 
time to time during the last nineteen 
years, and has very definite ideas about 
the proper treatment of ihe red man. In 
these ideas he and President Roosevelt 
thoroughly agree. 

President Cleveland appointed Mr. Leupp 
a member of the Board of Indian Com- 
missioners, where he served for about 
three years. That appointment came ro 
him unsought and quite as unexpectedly 
as the present appointment from Presi- 
dent Roosevelt. The first news of the 
appointment by Mr. Cleveland, which car- 
ried no salary, came to him in the news- 
papers. 

The first suggestion of his name for tne 
Indian Commissionership was made with- 
out his knowledge, and he finally con- 
sented to accept only for tlio purpose of 
carrying out certain policies in which he 
and Mr. Roosevelt are deeply interested. 
A few months ago he investigated alleged 
irregularities among Indians in Oklahoma 
at the President's request. 

Mr. Leupp is a native of New York, and 
will be flfty-six years old in January. He 
is an alumnus of Williams College and 
of the law department of Columbia Uni- 
versity. After service for four years as 
an associate editor of the E<\'ening Post, 
and several years' experience as a part 
owner of the Syracuse Herald, he came 
to Washington in 1885 for the Evening 
Post, and) in 1889 took charge of its 
Washington bureau, in which position- 
I'e has remained up to the present time. 
He has written much, apart from his 
newspaper work. His book, "The Man, 
Roosi-v.ilt," is generally pronounced the 
1j. St iif€-sketch of the President ever 
written. The President and Mr. Leupp 
have long been warm personal friends. 






♦ ♦ » 



^•^o 



WALLEJO. November 21. — The 
Chamber of Commerce tendered 
a banquet to Charles H. Darling. 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy, to- 
nig-ht at the Barnard Hotel. The guests 
included United estates Sena-or Perkins. 
Congressmen Knowland. Kahn, Hayes, 
and Admiral McCalla, heads of the de- 
partments, foreman of -the navy yard 
and members of the Chamber of Com- 
merce. F. R. Devlin, president of the 
chamber, presided. Covers were laid for 
nfty. The banquet was arranged at 
short notice to suit the Secretary's con- 
venience. Speeches were made by Secre- 
tary Darling. Admiral McCalla, F. R. 
Devlin, Senator Perkins, ai: the Con- 
rf>asmen orejent, Mayor Roncy. Yard 



REMARKABLE RUG/ 



Owned by Indian Was Made From 
Seventy-Seven Human Scalps. 

From the Dallas News. 

A rug which took seventy-seven lives in 
the making Is owned by an Iowa Indian liv- 
ing in Stroud, Okla. It is 150 years old. and 
consists of seventy-seven scalps torn from 
the heads of as many human beings. The 
rug, which is barely five feet square, is oZ 
many hues, for the scalps are red, gray, 
black, white, biov.n and auburn. They be- 
longed to peaceful people, too, and are saia 
to have been taken by special command or 
the Great Spirit from the finest specimens 
of men, women and cliildrcn belonging to 
the white, red and negro races. As soon as 
the scalps were secured they were sewn to- 
gether, and the rug was from that regarded 
as the remedy for all trouble. When an In- 
dian was taken sick he was laid on this rug, 
and if he did not recover his spirit was as- 
sured of a pleasant journey to the happy 
hunting ground. This remarkable creatiorj 
can be seen but once a year. At the annual 
wild onion feast, which comes on April 1, 
the Iowa Indians make the rug play an im- 
portant part. The onion is freely used, thQ 
Indians saturating them.^^elves from head to 
foot with tlie juice. This was their success- 
ful way of driving away the evil spirits. 

A praver rug belonging to the Shah oX 

Persia is another valuable mat. Though 

o foet square, its design is most 

It is worked throyghout In 

;:es, and the effect is dazzling", 

is formed of rose diamonds, and 

Lc-iiicr is a large bird, whose neck is 

of am»'fliysts and its body of rubies* 





M 






bar<»ly 
elabi' 
preci' 
Tht^ K. 
in the 

made^ v'l <iiuviij^^%.:. — - — - 

The vinos, which form a network, through 
which the bird may be seen as through a 
cafeo arc made of emeralds, while theband« 
which connect the stones are of seed pearl. 
Tbe floral emblem of Persia is worked out 
in h\ue yellow and pink stones, this design 
i'-cina- known as the Mlna Khani design. It 
r's drfl[iciilt to determine even the approxl- 
' mate value of this small rug, but it haS 
I eon estimated that if it were sold the pro- 
ceeds, plac^-^d at 5 per cent Interest, would 
bring in an income of at least $250,()00 pey 
iinnum. 
li 



PIMA INDIANS' NEEDS 




Hoped for Irrigation That 
Would Be BeneficiaL 



NO WATER FOR LANDS 



UNABLE TO GHOW CltOPS FOB 
THEIB SUSTENANCE. 



Story of the Tribe and the Alleged 

Diversion of the Water 

Supply. 



Attention has been called to what Is des- 
Ignated as a fact that during the past fif- 
teen years the Pima Indians of Arizona, a 
nation of industrious, self-supporting, pro- 
gressive people, have degenerated into a race 
of idle, vicious, ration-fed nomads, because 
Congress has failed to heed their request 
for help and give back the water which 
the "white man was permitted to steal from 
them. For centuries a tribe of Indians has 
lived and tilled the soil In Pinal county, in 
southern Arizona. There, in the valley of 
the Gila, following in the footsteps of their 
forefathers, whoso crops were harvested 
generations before a white man set foot on 
this continent, the Pima Irdians have bat- 
tled with the desert. 

First knowledge of these aborigines comes 
from a mention of them by Cabez de Vaca, 
an adventurous Spanish explorer, who vis- 
ited them in 1535, and who fovmd them 
much as they were until a few years ago. 
They had always been industrious and suc- 
cessful farmers and irrigators. Their aver- 
age crop was 2.0<X),()00 pounds of wheat a 
year, besides which corn, pumpkins, beans, 
sorghum and vegetables were raised in 
large quantities. They manufactured ol- 
las, or earthen jars, and .baskets, and their 
blankets and cotton fabrics have always 
been of fine quality. Their lands were held 
in severalty, and the tribe lived in small 
villages. Their onlyjenemies have been the 
Apttchea, whose hands have often been 
against every other tribe and nation. The 
friendship of the Pimas for the white man 
has been unwavering. It is their proud 
boast that their hands were never stained 11 
by the white man's blood. Their villages ' 
have always furnished havens of safety for 
various members of other tribes In times 
of famine and warfare. 

The Water Supply. 
Inseperably linked with the land of these 
wards of Uncle Sara Is the supply of water. 
Their agriculture depends wholly upon irri- 
gation. Without It their lands become a 
desert; with an ample water supply no moro 
fertile region lies out of doors. 

The Gila valley Is of great extent, and of 
late years has been gradually settled upon 
by stockmen and farmers. Villages and 
towns have sprung up, and throughout its 
entire length the signs of agricultural 
growth and progress are apparent. Fif- 
teen years ago at Florence, a few miles 
above the eastern limit of the lands belong- 
ing to the Indians, a dam was constructed, 
and the waters of the Gila river were di- 
verted to irrigate the farnls of the white 
men In that community. This was done, it 
is said, in tlio face of protests of the In- 
dian agents, and In spite of the fact that 
it was claimed to be evident that such di- 
version of the water supply would render 
the Irtflians helpless and destitute. As con- 
structed, it is claimed this dam deprived the 
Indians of water during the period when it 
was most needed to mature their crops, and 
since its construction, It Is claimed, there 
has been a progressive decrease of water 
supply for the reservation* The condition 
of the Indians U said to have become piti- 



sowed and Irrigated only to lose all through 
9^ inadequate water supply when the crops 
m(y&t needed It. Discouragements finally 
brought on demoralization, and they gradu- 
aily gave up the struggle and, with a fe^- 
exceptions, it is said, lapsed into Indolence, 
waat and vice. Today they are said to be 
more or less dependent on charity, or have 
become wanderers over the country, thieves 
and vagabonds. A description of their pres- 
ent condition is given in a report which the 
Indian agent submitted from Sacaton, as 
follows: 

Report of Indian Agent. 

"Approximately G,000 Indians— Pimas, Pa- 
pagos and Marlcopas— are dependent for 
their subsistence upon the lands of the Gila 
river reservation, which reservation con- 
tains 357,120 acres. It is estimated that half 
of the land could be made productive with 
water to Irrigate It. The water supply in 
the Gila river, owing to its use for lands 
above us, has not been sufficient to irrigate 
1,000 acres. Fully half the crops planted 
have not produced enough for seed. This 
land is very fertile. The condition of af- 
fairs here shows that in the past three 
years there has been a large falling off In 
the water supply for Irrigation. The rea- 
son Is apparent in the absorption of the 
water by additional cultivated lands above. 

**I notice In the Indians a restlessness as 
they realize their helpless condition, and I 
am confronted with the solicitous queries: 
•What are we to do? If we plant what we 
have what assurance have we of getting 
it back?' Under favorable conditions these 
Indians, being agricultural and pastoral, 
would soon become independent, prosperous, 
civilized citizens. Otherwise, discourage- 
ment, hunger and destitution are their lot. 
A nomadic life being taken on, their old 
tribal nature asserts itself, and the expendi- 
tures hitherto made by the .government for 
their education provea curse to them rather 
than a blessing. 

Must Issue Subsistence. 

•■It is now necesvsary to issue considerable 
subsistence to the Indians whose crops 
have been a failure, and this aid will have 
to be largely Increased under the existing 
limited water supply. A supply of water 
would permit of the Pima Boarding School 
establishing a model farm, greatly reduc- 
ing the cost of maintaining the school of 
200 pupfls, and be a most valuable educa- 
tional factor In the school life of the pupils. 
The available Indian labor In the construc- 
tion of the reservoir is an important fac- 
tor, as It Is much better to provide them 
labor with pay than keep them a« paupers. 
These Indians are willing to work, and 
their moral status is good. Their attitude 
toward the United States has always been 
friendly. They have saved the govern- 
ment In protecting early settlers from the 
ravages of the Apaches. They have kept 
themselves within the bounds of law and 
order, and they are now left upon the 
desert without water. Humanity speaks, 
economical administration for the suste- 
nance of the Indians speaks, and nature. In 
her wise provisions, says: 'Let man's 
means and intelligence be made operative, 
that these Indians, whose claims are meri- 
torious, be reinstated in self-sustenance, 
and lifted to the plane of prosperous Ameri- 
can citizens.' 

Remedy for Evil. 

"In order to remedy the evil which now 
exists, the United States geological survey, 
in co-operation with the Indian bureau, has 
made an exhaustive investigation of the 
water supply of that section with a view 
to ameliorating the present deplorable con- 
ditions. An examination of the Indian 
lands revealed the fact that there are large 
quantities of underground water which can 
be made available by pumping. The con- 
struction of the Salt river project will de- 
velop a large amount of electrical power, 
which can be transmitted to the rej*ervation 
and utilized for bringing this water upon 
the Indian lands." 



WANT BIG FEE HELD UP 



Indians Seek to Stop Payment 
of Law Firm's Bill. 



PETITION FOR AN INJUNCTION 



Choctaws and Chickasaws Object to Pay- 
ing Indian Territory Counselors $750,- 
000 for Service in Citizenship Cases. 
Ask Restraining Ordiers Against Secre- 
taries Shaw and Hitchcock. 



An Injunction was asked for yesterday 
In the Supreme Court of the District of 
Columbia by Robert McLish and others, 
Indians at Viola, Indian Territory, to 
restrain the Secretary of the Interior and 
the Secretary of the Treasury from draw- 
ing an order, and the Treasurer of the 
United States, Ellis H. Roberts, from pay- 
ing an order for $750,000, to Mansfield, 
McMurray & Cornish, attorneys for the 
petitioners In citizenship cases. Justice 
Anderson Issued an order for the defend- 
ants to shew cause why such an Injunc- 
tion should not be granted. This order 
was made returnable February 28. 

The petitioners are Choctaws and Chick- 
asaws, and are represented in the Dis- 
trict Supreme Court by Attorneys Dole 
and Balllnger. 

Order Granted by Court. 

The petition states that the Choctaw- 
Chickasaw Citizenship Court, before 
which the citizenship cases of McLish and 
others, included in the petition, came, 
granted an order just before adjournment 
sine die, on December 15, 1904, for the pay- 
ment to the attorneys for the petitioners, 
out of funds deposited for the Indians in 
the United States Treasury, of the sum 
of $750,000 for salary of the attorneys, 
and to cover expenses in securing the en- 
actment of the law creating the court, 
and for presenting the case of their 
clients before this court. 

It Is stated that Mansfield, McMurray 
& Cornish informed the court that they 
had been at extraordinary expense in 
having the bill passed. The petitioners 
claim that' the court was misled, and is- 
sued the order for the payment of the 
$750,000 under misrepresentations. The 
court did not know, it is alleged, that 
$15,000 had already been collected by the 
attorneys as salary, and that $200,000 had 
been given them to defray the expenses 
cited. The order was issued. It Is said, 
just before the court adjourned sine die, 
and that no opportunity could be had by 
the petitioners through that court for 
redress. 

Charge Held to Be Excessive. 

By this order, the petitioners claim, the 
Secretary of the Interior Is coerced in 
drawing a warrant for the money. They 
have reason to believe, it Is set forth, 
that the Secretary of the Interior, whom 
the law intended to draw the warrant as 
the guardian of the Indians, considers 
the charge excessive, and that the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury ha» no right to 
draw the warrant without the initiative 
teing taken ^by the Secretary of the In- 
terior, nor the Treasurer of the United 
States to pay without such a warrant. 

Under an opinion from the Attorney 
General, it Is stated, the officials asked to 
be enjoined will pay the sum: named by 
the Citizenship Court, unless the injunc- 
tion is granted and time given the peti- 
tioners and their attorneys to prove their 
allegations that the charges are glaringly 
excessive and absurd, and that the court 
was misled In granting it by conceal- 
ment and misrepresentation. 

One of Largest Fees on Record. 

Mansfield, McMurray «& Cornish have 
offices at South McAlester, I. T., and they 
have been connected with eeveral impor- 
tant cases before the Interior Department 
Involving funds of the Five Civilized 
Tribes of the Indian Territory. 

The award of the Citizenship Court is 
said to be one of the largest ever made as 
a fee by a court In this country. The pay- 
ment of It has been in controversy for 
several weeks. It wae held up first at 
the Department of the Interior, then at 
the Department of Justice, and later at 
the Treasury, as It was referred by Sec- 
retary Shaw to Comptroller Tracewell for 
an opinion as to the legality of the act 
under which the order of the court was 
issued. f 

Discussed in Congress. 

The controversy has '"Lso reached Con- 
grese. Recently Reprei itative Stephens, 
of Texas, one of the Dt.. ocratic members 
of the House Committee on Indian Af- 
fairs, offered a resolution providing for 
an investigation by the Secretary of the 
Interior of the circumstances under which 
the award was made. Mr. Stephens, In 
course of the debate on the Indian appro- 
priation bill, strongly intimated that cer- 
tain persons in the Indian Territory were 
in collusion with the lawyers, and he de- 
clared that the Indians should be pro- 
tected. 

The House Committee on Indian Affairs 
had the Stephens resolution under con- 
sideration Thursday, and decided not to 
recommend its adoption. 



OSEOf 





-■u 



The President's Direct on to 
Secretarv Hitcjcock. 



PRACTICE TO CONTINUE 



CONTKACTS WiTH THE DENOMIN- 
ATIONAL SCHOOLS. 



Passage Urged of the Lacey Bill, Au- 
thorizing the Allotment of Annui- 
ties in Severalty. 



President Roosevelt has sent a letter to 
Secretary Hitchcock on the subject of au- 
thority for granting contracts for the edu- 
cation of Indians in denominational schools. 
The President says that inasmuch as the 
legal authority exisis to grant the request 
of the Indians, un(4uestionabiy they are en- 
titled by moral right lo have the.r moneys 
u.sed to educate the children at the schools 
they choose. The President directs that the 
Interior Department coniinue tiie practice 
unless Congress directs otherwise or the 
courts hold that the decision of the De- 
partment of Justice to this effect is wrong. 
The President aiao urges the passage of the 
l^acey bill, authorizing the allotment of an- 
nuities in severalty to the Indians in the 
.^ame way as their land is allotted. The 
letter follows: 

The President's Letter. 

•White House, Washington, D. C, Feb- 
ruary 3, ltj05. 

"To the Secretary of the Interior: 

*'I have received from you the letter of 
tl]e commissioner of Indian affairs of Jan- 
uary ;u, 100^, in relation to the inquiries of 
tlie Hon. James S. Sherman as to the au- 
thority for granting contracts for. educa- 
tion of Indians in denominational schools. 
This letter of the commissioner of Indian 
affairs asks that the general questions 
raised in Mr. Sherman's letter of January 
'2:\ be united with the special question 
raised by the commissioner in his letter of 
January 21 and presented to the President 
for submission to the Attorney General. 

"The letter of January 21 concerning 
the payment of a claim filed in the office of 
Indian affairs in connection with the con- 
tract with St. Labre's school on the Tongue 
river reservation stands by Itself and will 
be submitted to the Attorney General for 
his consideration and report. 

"As regards the general question. I have 
received from the Attorney General, under 
date of February 2, a letter, a copy of 
which is enclosed. Early in VJ02 petitions 
on belialf of various Catl^olic and Episco- 
pal schools were brought to my attention 
by certain ecclesiastics and laymen, who re- 
quested the Interior Department to dis- 
tribute the rations and annuities through 
the mission schools of their several 
churches when the children were in the 
care of those schools. The Attorney Gen- 
eral decided thaT^tliis reques t~^as~illegal 
and could not properly be granted. 

New Question Kaised. 
**Over a year afterward the request was 
made, originally on behalf of certain Cath- 
olic schools in 1803, also on behalf of a 
Lutheran school in 1904. that where there 
were Indian moneys held in trust for the 
Indians by the Secretary of the Inteilor, 
the interest on these Indians' moneys being 
distributed among the individual Indians 
or in such other ways as the Secretary of 
the Interior might direct, and where cer- 
tain of the Indians petitioned that the mon- 
eys so distributed to them should be used 
for the support of the particular denomi- 
national school which they desired their 
children to attend this petition should 
*>e granted. The question raised wa.', of 
course, wholly different from that ori^InaJ- 
ly raised on behalf of the Episcopal Church 
and of the Catholic Church. This new re- 
quest was submitted to the Department 
of Justice, and the department declined, as 
set forth in the accompanying report, that 
the prohibition of the law as to the uso of 
pubhc moneys for sectarian schools did 
not extend to moneys "belonging to the In- 
dians themselves and hot to the public, and 
that these moneys belonging to the In- 
<iian.s themselves might be applied In ac- 
cordance with the desire of the Indians for 
the support of the schools to which they 
were sending their children. There was, in 
my judgment, no question that, inasmuch 
as the legal authority existed to grant the 
request of the Indians, they were entitled, 
as a matter of moral right, to have the 
moneys coming to them u.sed for the edu- 
cation of their children at the schools of 
tnoir choice. 

Practice to Continue. 

"Care must be taken, of course, to see 
that any petition by the Indians is genuine, 
and that the money appropriated for any 
given school represents only the pro rata 
proportion to which the Indians making tho 
PC tuion are entitled. But if these two con- 
dltions are fulfilled, it is in my opinion just 
and right that the Indians themselves 
«.iould have their wishes respected when 
they request that their own money-not the 
TrTL""^ the public-be applied to the sip! 
port of certain schools to which they de- 

wm Z ^.^." M ^^^i"" ,^hil<i^^n. The practice 
TJ rV^ continued by the department un- 
less Congress should decree to ti)e contrary 
or of course, unless the courts should de- 
ciae that the decision of the Department 
01 Justice is erroneous. 

The Lacey Bill Urged. 
"It is, however, greatly to be desired that 
the bill introduced by Representative Lacey, 
and providing for permission to allot these 
annuities in severalty to the Indians, exact- 
ly as Is now done with land, should be 
enacted into law. Its enactment and ad- 
ministration would prevent the raising of 

3RL''"?y''i?. ^^ ^^'^ character, for each In- 
aiMdual Indian would then be left free to 

^?X}^^ money to which he is entitled out- 
right on his own initiative, instead of hav- 
ing It used for him by the Secretary of the 
interior in consequence of his petition. I 

J^^a'^f'li^ uM^^ ^^^^ Congress will at once 
enact this bill into law. 

„/ "^'5^ special case of tho St. Labre's school 
Btands by itself, the question being whether 
the contract entered into is one authorized 
t>y the finding of the Department of Justice 
in January. 19<M, or whether it Is one of 
those cases forbidden under the decision of 
rru ^f Pa^'tment of Justice of January, ilK)2. 
rhe Attorney General will speedily report 
the category in which this case comes. 

"THEODORE ROOSEVELT." 



SBCTABIANSCH0OL_SBABfED^ 

.Pr^^o^rd to prohibit XJse of Govex-n- 
V ment and Indian Funds. 

^ The mman aPPropHaUon bU, as agreed 

upon by the f «•«"''„" °te contains the 

and reported to^'^^.^^^/ed by Senator 

following ^":f'^«'^'^\.°hat no portion of 
Bard of California. That n v ^^^ 

the funds aPP'-^r'^tf of any Indian trust 
principal nor Interest of «;^y "j^^^ gt^tes 
^r tribal funds held by the V ^^^^^_ ^^^^^ 

lor the benefit of ^^^J" ^ jq, the sup- 

Ing: Authorizing the Secietary ^^y,e„t 
tefior to ^ investigate auegett ^^^^^^^^. 
leases or le^es /^fag'^frindian territory. 

^h a v^To » --it» the ap- 
pr^o^'SltfKrex^'o^eruLer the Dawes 

commission. nnenlng of tlie Uintah 

.e^^K Jn°'-|ahr^Se"ptel.ber X. instead 

tlon, from time to time to ^^^^ ^e 
Indian tribe or "iDes w advanced In 

may deem to be sufflciemiy ^^ 

civilization to be P[,^Pf ^lares of the tribal 
Manage their individual shares ^^ 

tunds then o'^^^'i^^tted States to the credit 
treasury of the Unlteci » thereupon shall 
of such tribe or tjibes. an ^ ^ 

cause the money held »" ^^ ^^ „ tted 

TstveUlirto \Ser for tt^ o^^ining of 
t.?rauf inllKBrvitlon m washing- 

ton. 



THE EVENIi^G STAK 




OSAGE IJDI_ LEASES 

Delegates of the Indian Tribe 

Protest. 



A FORMAL STATEMENT 



WANT MOBE BEMUNEBATION 
FOB THEIB LAND. 



Object to Benewal of Blanket Lease or 

Any Portion Thereof at 

Present Bate. 



In an authorized statement made today 
to a reporter for The Star Wm. T. Leahy, 
a member of the council of the Osage In- 
dians, specifically charges the Secretary 
of the Interior with breaking faith with the 
Indians in connection with the Foster blan- 
ket oil lease and with stating before the 
Senate committee that the Indians consent- 
ed to the renewal of the lease under tho 
conditions prescribed by him, when the In- 
dians had not only not approved this plan, 
but had specifically stated their disap- 
proval. In the statement to the reporter 
Mr. Leahy also charges that the modifica- 
tion of the lease approved by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, by means of which 
but one-third of the former territory held 
under the Foster lease is released, is just 
what the old lessors wanted and what the 
Indians did not want. At the time of the 
original lease. It is explained, a tract of a 
million and a half acres was Included in 
the territory held. This entire territory was 
prospected and oil was found in but about 
one-t'ourth of the country. Therefore, one- 
third of the old territory more than cov- 
ered tho ground where oil was found, and 
was all the oil companies wanted. 

The terms under the proposed reduced 
lease are the same as under the old lease, 
and this is wnat the Italians want changed. 
They do not care, it Is stated, If the whole 
reservation Is leased, provided they secure 
a decent royalty. As it is now, Mr. Leahy 
states, the Illuminating Oil Company, which 
holds the blanket lease, has subdivided 
its tract Into lots, each of which ia sub- 
elased. The company obtains from ;^1 to 
IplO per acre bonus for this land from the 
sublessees, and also exacts royalty at the 
rate of 16 2-3 per cent of the production of 
the oil fields. Ten per cent of this It is 
required to pay the Indians, keeping 6 2-3 
per cent, In addition to the bonus. 

Mr. Leahy, who makes the statement, is 
a prominent member of the Osage tribe, a 
banker and ranchman and a member of the 
tribal council. He is a member of a party 
of ten men from the Osage tribe who came 
to Washington to look after the interests 
of the Indians. All of the party but Mr. 
Leahy and Mr. Julian Trumbly, one of the 
best known Indians in the Osage tribe, 
have left the city. Both of these men are 
highly regarded in the Interior Department 
and Indian ofl^ce. and both are said to be 
the representatives of the very best Inter- 
ests of the tribe. A high official of the gov- 
ernment stated to a Star reporte** todaj^ 
without knowing what the statements 
might be, that what Mr. Leahy or Mr. 
Trumbly says can be absolutely relied on. 
While the statement which follows w^as 
made by Mr. Leahy, Mr. Trumbly was 
present, and frequently interrupted the 
speaker to explain certain statements 
which seemed ambiguous or misleadmg. 
The purpose of these two men is to obtain 
an Investigation of the l^ase question by 
the President, and so far they have been 
unable to reach the President or lay their 
case before him. 

The Statement. 



rands to the Inaiahs 
-^^^.rother object of the dele- 
^^^t^^ msist upon an adequate royalty 
Lium oil leases on our lands. In 1890 a 
blanket lease covering our entire nation of 
arbout L500,000 acres was given to one E. 
B. Foster for a period of ten years. That 
lease provided that a royalty of one-tenth 
of the oil produced should be paid to the 
Indians. 

"That lease finallj'- became the property of 
the Indian Territory Illuminating Oil 
Company and that company has divided our 
reservation into three tiers of lots. Each 
tier is made up of lots one-half mile wide 
by three miles long, and each lot contains 
from 900 to 1,100 acres. The lots are num- 
bered consecutively from 1 to 348. These 
lots are subleased to any company or in- 
]dipi^||MiLJDajecting the demands of the'pa.rcx^t 
company. 

u '*They make a demand of anywhere from 
$1.00 to $10.00 an acre as a bonus and re- 
quire a sublessee to pay a royalty of 16% 
per cent, which enables the parent com- 
pany to pay to the Indians the 10 per cent 
royalty provided for in their blanket lease 
and leaves 6% per cent of the production to 
go into their pockets, in addition to the 
bonus which the sublessees are required to 
pay before they can commence drilling. 

"This production at the present time is 
in the neighborhood of 150.000 barrels of 
oil per month. 

"The parent company, which owns the 
original lease, produces very little oil by its 
own operation. Fully nineteen-twentieths 
of the oil produced from the Osage lands is 
nroduced by the sublessees, and if the sub- 
lessees can afford to pay the heavy bonus 
required by the parent company and the 
t«% oer cent of the production as a royalty 
besides, we believe that in all fairness to 
the Indians and to the parent company 
that a larger royalty can be paid to the 
Indians than is provided under the original 

lease. 

Lease Approved Under Protest. 

••The original lease will expire in April, 
1906 and the Indian Territyy Illuminating 
Oil Company, owning that lease, are here in 
fr^rn^ with all the influence they can muster 
rnd%^th a number of well-paid lobbyists 
and lawyers for the purpose of having tneir 
fease renewed for a period of ten years un- 
der the same conditions as the original 
lease We will go back a little and say 
Iw the original lease was approved by the 
Secretary Of the Interior contrary to the 
wishes of a large majority of the Indians, 
^ ovnressed in a protest against the ap- 
^^ ^?f of the lease, signed by the majority 
Tthl tribe and filed^ with the Secretary 
nrlor to his approval thereof, but the lease 
^ o «nnroved nevertheless, 
^-rhe effort now being made to secure an 
;^r, nf ten years under the same con- 
Smons ^s protested against by all the mem- 

^^^Buf mView^of all of the results of our 

fpn^^s it appears that the desires of the 

fndfans, whS own the land, are to be ut- 

^^.^i^ ^T/^^lrue that there are many un- 
.i5 members of the tribe who require 
^^^^''^n^r^fa^^hip of the United States to 
^^^^u^nfter their interests and there is no 
^^>?-^Ption to the said guardianship if the 
Objection ^ot executed. I will say, 

trust IS \^/y;' tli^re are members of the 
J\^J|e tHbl of li^Lns who are thoroughly 
^^ -^rJd and are entirely competent to be 
^^"'nrfpd and to give advice as to what is 
^^^^nist DoUcy for the welfare or the tribe. 
Ind they "^re also competent to judge as to 
^hPther or not the sacred trust imposed by 
J^w upon the Secretary of the Interior, act- 
]^ ?or the United States as guardian for 
ingfor.tne ^ ^^^ faithfully executed. 



Original Defective 



by the Illuminating Oil Company, Senator 
Penrose proposed an amendment to the 
Indian appropriation bill, and upon that 
amendment the Senate committee on In- 
dian affairs had a hearing, at which hear- 
ing the supporters of the original lease, 
including the lessors and their paid repre- 
sentatives, and also members of the Senate 
and House, were heard, all with one object 
in view, to extend the lease for ten years 
under the same conditions as the old lease. 

Delegates Not Heard. 

"At that hearing our delegates expressed 
a desire to be heard, and while they were 
not allowed to employ a representative and 
were told that the department would look 
after their interests in all contemplated 
legislation, we felt that we were entitled to 
be heard and show our reasons for de- 
manding a greater royalty than is now be- 

^''-The^'^committee declined to listen to us 
and told us that we could make our state- 
ment to the Secretary of the Interior. 

-The Secretary of the Interior assumed to 
represent our cause before that committee 
Tt that hearing and stated that he would 
not thtnk of renewing the original lease, but 
nn^t he would be in favor of renewing the 
lease on ^0,00i) acres of the territory on 
te?ms similar to those of the origihal lease, 
thaT^ with a royalty of 10 per cent to the 

^'•?We will say for the information of tliose 
who are interested that a lease on 680,000 
^cr^s covers the entire oil district of the 
Se nation and it is all that the Ulurn^n- 
nttne- Oil Company desires. iney care 
nothing "or the balance of the territory 
?or thf reason that It is improbable lerri- 

%"n'?he"art^ori'appearlng In The Star of 
February 16 as an authorized statement 
from the Secretary of the Interior. It .s 
sXd that the Indians •consented' to such 
a compromise. That Is not a true state- 
ment of fact, because none of the delega- 
Uon and none of the Indians have ever 
r-nn^ented to any such a compromise or to 
any renewal of the lease of our lands or 
any portion of them unless the Indians 
tere paid a higher rate of royalty than 
that now paid to them. 

"We appreciate what has been done by 
the Indian Territory Illuminating Company 
and we appreciate still more what has boon 
done by the sublessees who have developed 
our country under leases taken from the 
parent company, and we are not objecting 
in any way to their development of our 
country, but we do feel that in justice and 
equity we should have a better rate ot 
royalty than is noW paid to us. 

"We have had to practically fight our 
battle alone in AVashington for the reason 
that we have no authority to employ as- 
fcxcept upon the approval of the 



justly dealt with in the granting of a new 
lease on our oil lands without our consent or 
a provision for a greater royalty than we 
now receive. 

**We have understood that the Indian, 
Territory Illuminating Company was will-^ 
ing to pay to us a greater royalty if we 
would consent to the renewal of the old 
lease, but the statement of the Secretary 
of the Interior before the committee on 
Indian affairs was to the effect that the 
royalty now paid, that is, one-tenth of the 
production, was enough. 

"The proceedings, which took place in 
this regard before the Senate committee, 
were as follows: Senator Teller asked the 
following question: **Do you claim, Mr. Sec- 
retary, representing the Indians, that the 
amount of royalty is too small?" The Sec- 
retary answered: *No, sir, I think the 
royalty is all right, it is large enough, and 
perfectly fair to the Indian.' 

**We are unable to reconcile the Secre- 
tary's statement before the committee with 
the position taken by him in his authorized 
statement published in Thursday's Star. In 
that article he states that the original lease 
was *an unheard of monopoly,' and *a p.'^b-, 
lie scandal,' and in the same artlc'.o he 
states that ihe department had 'vigorously 
opposed' the renewal of the lease. 

"But, right in the face of the published 
article, he sanctions the renewal of the 
lease on 680,000 acres, or practically tl 
entire oil district of the Osage nation, un- 
der exactly the similar terms of the origi- 
nal lease. 

*'The reduction as to acreage amounts to 
absolutely nothing because it gives to the 
oil company everything it wanted. 

Opposed to Renewal. 

"The Indians and our delegation have 
been unalterably opposed to the renewal of 
the lease or of any portion of the lease, 
unless a greater royalty was provided. 

•*Whate\'er is done, it is the desire of the 
Indians that the sublessees who have In- 
vested their money and developed our coun- 
try should have protection In their Invest- 
ments, and we feel that this will be done 
and that justice and equity will be meted 
out to the Indians if the matter is placed 
in the hands of the President to investigate, 
as the subject is one that should be in- 
vestigated, because without invei?tigation. 
the rights and demands of the Indians wili 
not receive fair consideration. 

"There Is no haste for legislation, for 
the reason that it will be nearly fourteen 
months before the old lease expires, af- 
fording ample time for a thorough Investi- 
gation, and while we do not hope to secure 
legislation or to interest the President In our 
matters by appearing in the public press, 
we feel that it is due to our delegation that 
we make reply to certain matters which 



Any Portion Thereof at 
Present Bate, 



In an authorized statement made today 
to a reporter for The Star Wm. T. Leahy^ 
a member of the council of the Osage In- 
dians, specifically charges the Secretary 
of the Interior with breaking faith with the 
Indians in connection with the Foster blan- 
ket oil lease and with stating before the 
Senate committee that the Indians consent- 
ed to the renewal of the lease under the 
conditions prescribed by him, when the In- 
dians had not only not approved this plan, 
but had specifically stated their disap- 
proval. In the statement to the reporter 
Mr. Leahy also charges that the modifica- 
tion of the lease approved by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, by means of which 
but one-third of the former territory held 
under the Foster lease is released, is just 
what the old lessors wanted and what the 
Indians did not want. At the time of the 
original lease. It is explained, a tract of a 
million and a half acres was included^m 
the territory held. This entire territory was 
prospected and oil was found In but aoout 
one-fourth of the country. Therefore, one- 
third of the old territory more than cov- 
ered the ground where oil was found, ana 
was all the oil companies wanted. _^ 

The terms under the proposed reducea 
lease are the same as under the old lease, 
and this is wnat the Italians want changed 
They do not care, it is stated, if the whoic 
reservation is leased, provided they secure 
a decent royalty. As it is now, Mr. l-ean> 
states, the Illuminating OilCompany, wh en 
holds the blanket lease, has subdividea 
its tract into lots, each of which is sub- 
elased. The company obtains from 5^1 to 
$10 per acre bonus for this land from the 
sublessees, and also exacts royalty at tne 
rate of 16 2-3 per cent of the production or 
the oil fields. Ten per cent of this it is 
required to pay the Indians, keepmg b --iJ 
per cent, in addition to the bonus. 

Mr. Leahy, who makes the statement, is 
a prominent member of the Osage tribe, a 
banker and ranchman and a member of tne 
tribal council. He is a member of a party 
of ten men from the Osage tribe who came 
to Washington to look after the interests 
of the Indians. All of the party but Mi . 
Leahy and Mr. Julian Trumbly, one of the 
best known Indians in the Osage tribt., 
have left the city. Both of these men are 
highly regarded in the Interior Department 
and Indian office, and both are said to be 
the representatives of the very best inter- 
ests of the tribe. A high official of the gov- 
ernment stated to a Star reporte- ted^y. 
without knowing what the statements 
might be, that what Mr. Leahy or Mr. 
Trumbly says can be absolutely relied on. 
"While the statement which follows was 
made by Mr. Leahy, Mr. Trumbly was 
present, and frequently Interrupted the 
Wker to explain certain statenients 
which seemed ambiguous or misleading. 
The purpose of these two men is to obtain 
an Investigation of the lease question by 
the President, and so far they have been 
unable to reach the President or lay their 
case before him. 



The Statement. 



ix V 



ds to the lrmtt»his 

■^inother object of the dele- 

Wst upon an adequate roj^lty 

rrnff'oir leases on our lands. In }^ ^ 
t^ket lease covering our entire nation of 
ii^XUo.OOO acres was given to one E 
^ FosieVfor a period of ten years. That 
feJetroJded that a royalty of one-tenth 
oT the oil produced should be paid to the 

^""^hat lease finally became the Pjoperty <)f 
♦v,« TrirHan Territory Illuminating OH 
'c^mplnyTnd SfaTcomVny h- aiv*ded^our 
reservation into three tiers of lots. ii.acn 
tfer ^ made up of lots one-half mile w de 
bv thre? mfles long, and each lot contains 
jy tnree ""^^^ aores The lots are num- 
from 900 to l,iuu acreb. ^t. „.<, These 

bered consecutively from 1 to 348. A."^se 
?ots are subleased to any ^f^^^'}l^L^U^ 
ijil^j^iljaieeting the demands of the pax^»*^ 

''^^^ray^make a demand of anywhere from 
$1.00 to $10.00 an acre as a bonus ana r 
quire a sublessee to pay ?• royalty o 
lev cent, which enaWes the Parent com^ 
pany to pay to t^e Indians tne y ^^^^^ 
royalty provided f°r 1" ^heir ° ^^ ^j^^ ^^ 
and leaves 6% per cent of the pro^^ ^^ ^^^ 

g^nrwh?ch'thr subll'ssees are recjuired to 

^^before they «- .T'tSl^re 'en «n " 



Original Defect 



by the inumlnatlng on company.^ Senator 

Penrose Pr°P°f,^,„^" bui and upon that 
Indian appropriation bill a ^^ j^^. 

amendment the f^nate con j^ j^g^r- 

aian affairs had a hearing. * . , j jgase. 
Ing the supporters of the or 5 ^^ ^^p^^. 
including the lessors an^tneiry ^^ 
sentatives, and also members .^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
r.nns Which the suDiessees »"= ■r.-?.-"- and House, were ?*=?'"',.„„- for ten years 

m the neighborhood of loO.OOO barrel., or Delegates Not Heard. 

oil per month. -«-- * .._ ^„io,rotps expressed 



- l-rhrprr^nt comPan wh,^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Of the oil produced from the us g ^^^ ^^^_ 

produced by ^^^.^^^^ ^IJ i^^^^^""^ ^''''''^ 
lessees can afford^opay^th^^^^ and the , 

required by J^^^jf^^p^oduction as a royalty 
1:6% per cent of the P^o 11 fairness to 

^nt^^ai- ^a^ teethe Parent^^c^^^^^^^^ 
rdUsSVp«ennd\\ ?he original 

''^^^^ase Approved Under Protest. 

..T,e original ^^^:Z,^^rinZ^^ 
1906, and the Indian Ternt^y ^^^^ .^ 

Oil company, own ng that 'ease. ^^^^^ 

force with all ^^I^^Xt^^^H^^ lobbyists 
and with a """jber of w p ^^^.^^ ^^g,^ 
and lawyers for the purp ^^^ ^ 

lease renewed for a P«' ^j^g original 

der the same conditions as x^^ ^^^ 

lease. We will f^J^^^l^ approved by the 
that the oriKinaUease w ^.^^^y to the 

Secretary of the Interior mdians. 

wishes of ^ large '^^^^^^V^ against uie ap- 
as expressed m a P^" ^ ^^y the majority 
proval of the l«ase f.gn^a y secretary 
°' ^^1„"h?s%PProval thereof, but the lease 

-The effort now "^ ^nder the same con- 
^.''^rs is ;^rcsteTa|ainst by all the mem- 

!Ks."w^rown^ II land, are to be ut- 



..M that hearing - ^^f^rt^/ w^re 
a desire to be heard. ^"^ TTj^^t^tl^e and 

not allowed to e'"P'°/^„" ^^^nt w""'* '°°^ 
^ere told that the department 

after their ''^tfj.^f^;, \e U^e entitled to 
legislation, we felt that we ^^ 

SanS'/.-i""- ~--~" '• ""' '•■ 

ing paid. „^,,... clecllned to listen to us 
"The eommlttee oec ^^^ ^^^ g^ate- 

and told us that w«;°o7 the i„terior. 
ment to the Secretary . . 1^^ assumed to 
"""The secretary of the Inter ^^^^jHtee 

represent our cause "^ateli that he would 
at that hearing and ^l^origlnal lease, but 
^ot think of ""^^"."Sfivor of renewing the 
that he would be »n lavu' territory on 

ease on CSO.OOO fjfj,\%f the orlgihal lease 
t-T1s' wUhVm aTty of 10 per cent to the 

^•ifem say f/,Thi?'a'""as'e°"on M ' 
^ho are Interested that a ^,^^^5^^ of the 
acres covers the entire niumln- 

br Ol"°-mtar If- They ^ car. 
bi"f /el'sorthaW^s improbable tern- 
torv for oil prospects. ^^^J. of 

'°.^rn\he article appearln^^^.^,^ 
February 16. as an ^ interior, it is 

from the fecrrtary of }^^^^^^^^. to such 
stated that the Indians ^ true stale- 

a compromise. That 's ^^^ delega- 

ment of fact, because "on ^^^^ 

tion and V^^ar.v such a compromise or to 
consented to any su"" 'i ^^^^^ or 

any renewal of the lease^^^^ the, Indians 



erto"''^' " h^wn the lanl. are to be ut- ---ewal "Pth'emTnless the Indians 
^."Aratsr^garded. ^^^^^ ,,, „any un- ' any port^n o^'^thp^,, ,, royalty than 

^^'ilt may be true that there ^^^ ^^ were P^ j^ to them. ^^^g t,y 

. *.„/! members or tne «. , o.-tes to tnai. ' „„„_p„iate what has oeeii 



' ..It may be true ^no.<- - ^ ^^o reaulre 
tutored members of the t ^^^^ gtates to 
the euardlan^ P^ of^^^hgf, and there is no 



ruuiPPed '^"•^^^/o^^ve advice aS to what Is 
consulted and to give a^ ^^ ^j^^ tribe. 

%'^ best POl'cy /"'^comp^tent to judge as to 
and they are also comp imposed by 

Whether oj,"°^e*„7elary of the Interior, act- 
law upon the Secreiay ^^ guardian for 

ine for the Liniieu^ faithfully executed, 
hi Indians has been fajthfu^y^^^^, 

..po not m'sconsuu reason of the 

'Sessions are promptea ^ ^ ^ho 

fact that the >nterests o territory 

have only transient rigms 1 j [siation 

?^« carefully .eopsidered a 



-lat now paid to them. ^^,^5 ^jy 

..We appreciate ■»*\'\5^„!l,„ating Company I 
il-e 6ua>rd'an....P - y-^ - ^ 'l'-'^ ^\ll the Indlan%errltory. "^^^^^ has,b<-cn 

looK after their in ya^r^ianship if the ^ appreciate sttii m developed | 

'„°b°jection to the saUl g e<j ^ "i" say ^na^ ^y the sublessees who "a ^^^^ 
trust is taithfuliy e members of the country under le^es objecting 

however, that theref^ ^^^ thoroughly o^^^„t companr. and ''v^ Xpment of our 
Osage tnbe of indmn competent to be P^ ^^y ay to their fev^ P„ ^^gtlce and 

ecuipPfd.and^are^e^^^^^.^^^^to^whaOs country, but w^ do ftel^ ^ ^^^^^^ ,,^te ot 

equity we s"""'" . - ,0 us. 

royalty than Is no^ Ppractically fight our 

irjl^an^: Ix^^^pt" uprTh^approval of the 

secretary of the Inter^r. ^^^.^^ „f 

.•It has been our desire an .^^^nee in 

our tribe to have competent ^^^,^^^„^g , 

this and all oth^f^ f^r \we have not been 
tribal rights, but so far we h^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 



Lve only transient r^hts -J-'^^-^^i.tlon rlbarrigli^. but^o far - n^^n^^^;;^: 

re carefully consme ^^^^^^^^^^ by the ^^le to obtain .^^'l^ employ such assistance, 

hich they ask tOL. i„ the shape of ^^nt to allow us to empiu> ^^^^^^ ,^^g 

epartment and l^s^eran^^j^^ appropriation notwithstanding the fact tn ^ ^^^ ^^ 

^^"t oToi which such assistance could 
be paid for. 

Object to the Amendment. 

l„,iment to the Indian appropr;a- 

1 "The ^"'*"'^"!"V. a. renewal of the lease 

"°"«SU"ac^s%f land under the exactly 

:.mr;Tondltions,oftheor.glnallea..a^^^^^ 



are 

de'lJartment and is ^"'j-^^Yan" appropri-ation 
^n amendrnent to the 1^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^. 

bill, m oPJ^f' ut our consent. . 

sires and without ouii.v hearinc 

«'y.Ve were f^'^^Lg'e o nlndian affairs in 
before the ommi^VrovMso Is made on our 
the House, and a P^" j „ the matter of 
;?U (H. B^ "*^8^/S fo the President 

the leasing of °r-„ and that after such in- 
for an investigation ana ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^, 

'■''ll^nT renewing' the original lease for 

the period of |en t>^«rwlll result in an in- 
"If that legislation w person ap- 

vestigaflon to be made f som ^/^^^^^^^ ^ 

pointed ^y the Presi^en i^„ed j^^^ ^y 

fy competent and or u ^ ^^i investiga- 

and who ^ill make an^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 

lion and allow ub y Osage tribe of I ^*'*^'%'' V *up lease and we leei nmv t- 

'^«" ""^ 'X "aWde '^y 'the'result^. newal o^^^' been unfairly and un 

'"•SugU tbe efforts o£ those emploj ed [ O.age 



justly dealt with In the granting of a^new 
l%\Vv^ir ftr^alreltrroValty than we 

""WrS' understood that the Indian 
TerVitory Illuminating C°n.pany was wiU 
,ng to pay to us a f eat«r r°yalty ij ^^^ 
wculd consent to ^^^^'^^ „f ?he Secretary 
>oT\^\e^ Int:?iVrf|r the committee on 

Jo"y%"y e^^ard^hat rone-ttth of the 

^^.^^{;rp?icTemnr"whlch took place in 
thlJ regLd before the Sena ecomi^tte^e. 

ro!i-o^wt^gCert!on:'-^£^^^^^^^^^^ 

retary. representing the Indians, that ti 

amount of royalty is too smalK t e 

«o&1s"^a^f rfght. it°s£rge\nough. and 
''^r4-"a^l'^L'niUnJ^-ncile the Se^re 

°%°rri'g\\^"X^tfo/The%ublished 
article he sanctions the renewal of the 

"«1 ^t'S^t'^ort^he Osa^g^e^fa^tC J^ 
S^fexaiuytht similar lerms of the origl- 

"^•Thrreduction as to acreage amounts to 
absT,My nothing because it gives to the 

oil company everything It wantea. 
Opposed to Renewal. 
••The Indians and our delegation have 
been unalterably opposed to the renewal of 
the lease or of any portion of the lease, 
unless a greater royalty was provided. 

"What^er is done. It is the desire of the 

Indiana that the sublessees who have in- 

1a ♦.,oir monev and developed our coun- 

y^^^tLuld have projection In their Invest- 
try should have pro ^^^^ ^^ 

"^"^ that fuJ^lce and equity will be meted 
^■^f to the Indians It the matter Is placed 
?n the hands of tSe President to Investigate. 
tL «nb1ect is one that should be in- 
vLtistted because without investigation 
Thf rfghts and demands of the Indians will 
„^t roreive fair consideration. 
''"•There fs no haste for legislation, for 
the rellon that It will be nearly fourteen 
Lfh« before the old lease expires, af- 
Z^aIu^ aSple time for a thorough investi- 
^°\f.!l^ a^ while we do not hope to secure 
feaislation or to interest the President in our 
mittere by appearing in the public press 
we feel that It Is due to our delegation that 
* lijr reolv to certain matters which 
have appeaTcd'in the press misrepresenting 
„rand the position we have taken. 
^ 'We sincerely desire that the matter be 
held In abeyance until the President can 
through some competent person cause an 
. oil ai Investigation to be made, for the 
''"'l.n thnT we have Implicit confidence 
[haf fair and just treatment will result 

^^.Tet%"ht/r^siShf;U'°t'^e investigation 

^ or?^ ^ome facts will be brought to 

Iflm wmch' ^J^ll show that we have a>een 

unjustly treated." 



similar '^^^^l'';,\:V.nctione^ by the Sec 
^reuV^Tr In:e..o. and it^^s to Jhat 
amendment that we raise our ob.e^^t ^^- 
""we relied -1^- .^^.^^.^^ ause' Je 'have 

par tment ^^^^^Jf,,',^?^irt he entire adminis- 
been led to oene\e umt ^ ^ ^^^^ re- 

tration was unalterably ppos^^^^ that the 
newal of the lease ^i . . ^^^ ^q. 



Frances E. 

There was 
Templars 
in Soottij 
nue nj 
Jam< 
thCi 






'M- 



i*."?!'"! 



MAINE INDI AN LEGI SLATOBS. 

Kepresent Bemnants of Penobscot and 

Passamaquoddy Tribes. 

Sitting way back in the last row of scats 
m the house of representatives at Augusta, 
Maine, are two Indians. The older is Peter 
M Nelson, aged 49. a member of the Pe- 
nobscot tribe, the remnants of which to the 
number of 365 now occupy an island near 
Old Town. He is a thick-set, muscular man ,. 
.and during the sessions of the legislature |l 
takes long tramps for exercise. He Is | 
skilled in basket making, can paddle a 
canoe with great speed and Is versed In 
woodcraft. He has been largely engaged 
in river work and for nearly a quarter of 
L^entury. with tew interruptions, was em^ 
ployed on the Argyle boom. Although 
firewater Is a favorite beverage among 
w'sTem'indians. Mr. Nelson neimer d^^^^^^ 
nor smokes and has saved enough money 
out of his earnings to Provide a comforta^^^^^ 

home and give his son ^^^^^^^^^ifcan n^^^ 
Mr Nelson is neither a Republican nui 
^Democral as the PoHtics of the paleface 
eo but is identified with the old Party m 
fontradisUnction from the other br^^ch of 
believers in the tribe called the ^^^ paro- 
TbPrp were cand dates for the leglsiaturL 
^romb^h parties, but Mr. Nelson won by 

a majority of 10 votes. , ,^„^_ to the 

T>Ptpr F Neptune, who belongs lo inu 

Ives is "air of face and full of enthusiasm 

^r 'Neptune is occupied f '^^^e jart ^^^ 

iv.« vpnr in the woods and is a regisiereu 

i^dP for the region along the Grand Lake 

^. o J MP renresents 464 Passamaquoddy 
stream, -^e represems^ ^^^^^ ^^^^_ 

nv^i^SnWue'^posmon in tSe legislature. They 
^re permitted no vote or voice in the pre- 
sentation or furtherance of measures. 



StiA. UTAH LAND FRAUDS. \t^^^ 

Secretary Hitchcock Says They Are 
State, Not Government, Lands. 
A statement was made at the Interior 
Department by an official close to the Sec- 
retary that the so-called Utah land frauds 
have been given no consideration by the 
department, for the reason that the lands 
Involved are all state lands, in which the 
general government has no Interest. Cer- 
tain rumors, seething with fraud, have 
gained currency during the past few weeks 
regarding the somnolence of the Interior 
Department toward offenders of the law 
in Utah. A story which Is alleged- to have 
come from Salt Lake City appeared in one 
of the New York papers this morning, in 
which charges were made against Secre- 
tary Hitchcock, ex-Governor Odell of New 
York, John D. Rockefeller, George Gould 
and numerous others, in connection with 
the securing of Utah lands at a figure 
which mulcted the United States treasury 
to the extent of over six millions of dol- 
lars. This story was shown to an official 
of the Interior Department this morning, 
who read it carefully and made the state- 
ment referred to. The only sectiOTi of the 
story with which the national authorities 
are in any way connected is that which 
deals with the Florence Mining Company, 
which is alleged to have obtained special 
privileges in the Uintah Indian reservation 
in Utah for securing valuable mineral land. 
This is the company in which Governor 
Odell is alleged to have been interested. 
It is stated that application was made to 
the department for approval to leases 
gained by this company, and that Secretary 
Hitchcock- turned down the application and 
refused to have anything to do with fur- 
thering the desires of the company. He 
steadfastly refused to approve any and 
everything that would have the effect of 
turning over any of the Indian's land to 
the company. 

Whereupon recourse was had to Congress, 
and in the Indian appropriation bill ap- 
proved March 3 last, provision was nttide 
that the Florence company and the Raven 
Mining Company should be permitted to 
prospect and locate claims on the Uintah 
reservation to the extent of 640 acres each. 
This location must be done within sixty days 
after the passage Of the bill, however. As 
far as can be learned here, the represen- 
tatives of these companies are the only ones 
on the reservation at present. 

It is announced that Secretary Hitchcock 
has no connection with Adolf Busch, the 
St. Louis brewer and politician, or with 
Busch's Gilsonite Company, which has val- 
uable privileges in Utah. The gilsonite, 
which is used in making varnish and insu- 
lating material, and of which the only de- 
posit is in Utah, has been found on the 
state lands only, so far, and the national 
government has therefore nothing to do 
with them. 



MILLIONS DUE THE CHEB0KEE6. 

Cases Decided Against the Government 
by the Court of Claims. 
The cases of the Cherokee nation of In- 
dians and of individual Cherokees agalTist 
the United States have been decided by the 
Court of Claims. They involve a large 
amount of money and are of an unusual 
and extraordinary character. The United 
States bought the Cherokee outlet, agree- 
ing to pay for it $8,300,000, being about $1 
an acre, and also agieeing to reopen a long- 
standing controversy between the govern- 
ment and the Cherokees. In 1835 a treaty 
was made under which the Cherokees were 
to move or be removed from Georgia, Ala- 
bama and Tennessee to the Indian terri- 
tory. The Cherokees contended before they 
were removed tha^t under the provisions of 
the treaty they were not to be made to pay 
the cost of removing from homes which 
they did not wish to leave to a country to 
which they did not wish to go. The gov- 
ernment, however, held to the contrary. 
When the Cherokee outlet was sold they 
stipulated that all of their accounts should 
be reopened and the matter equitably set- 
tled, and for that purpose the United States 
should make out an account and transmit 
it to the Cherokee nation. If the Cherokee 
nation adopted it Congress should imme- 
diately appropriate for whatever balance 
might be found due. The account was 
adopted, but Congress did not appropriate 
the money, and for some time did liothing. 
In the present suit the Court of Claims 
decides that the account transmitted by 
the Secretary of the Interior, followed by 
this inaction of Congress, renders the 
United States liable for the balance of $1,- 
111,284, with interest from June 12, 1838, 
which amounts approximately to $4,500,000. 



I C%JkA^^" 



THE CURTIS INDIAN PICTURES. 



w^:^\i\ior 



f.XHl 



While these lines are being written, there is on exhibi- 
tion at the Waldorf-Astoria, in New York city, a collec- 
tion of photographs of Indians and Indian life which 
is worthy the attention of all our readers. These pic- 
tures have been taken by Mr. Edward S. Curtis, of Seat- 
tle Wash., and cover a number of Western tribes, and 
while there are a thousand of them here on view, these 
constitute only a beginning of the work to which Mr. 
Curtis has devoted his life. 

President Roosevelt saw some of the pictures some 
time ago, and wrote of them : "Not only are Mr. Curtis^ 
photographs genuine works of art, but they deal with 
some of the most picturesque phases of the old-time 
American life that is now passing away. I esteem it a 
matter of great moment that for our good fortune Mr. 
Curtis should have the will and the power to preserve, 
as he has preserved in his pictures, this strange, beautiful 
and now vanishing life." 

These pictures are photographs, and so are necessarily 
true to life; but they are much more than photographs, 
in that the artist who took them has been able to put into 
them the feeling which he himself experienced when 
taking them, and in such a way that one who looks at the 
pictures shares that feeling. Those who have seen them 
including artists, ethnologists and persons familiar with 
wild life, agree that no such pictures of Indians have 
ever been made before. 

It is Mr. Curtis' purpose to carry on his work of illus- 
trating the Indian by photography until he shall have 
covered all the tribes and fragments of tribes still found 
in North America ; and it cannot be doubted that if he 
shall have the means and the health and the strength to 
carry out this proposed task, he will have performed a 
most valuable work for history, for art and for science. 
One who wrote recently of these pictures said : "To-day 
they are of high scientific and artistic value, what will thev 
Ix- a hundred years from now when the Indian has utterly 
vanished from the face of the earth? The pictures will 
show to the man of that day who and what were his pre- 
decessors in the land. They will tell how the Indian 
lived what were his beliefs, how he earned himself m 
the various operations of life, and they will tell it as no 
word picture could ever tell it." 

The opportunity to see these pictures should not be lost 
by one who is interested in outdoor life. The exhibition 
began on Monday, March 27, and will last through the 
week On Friday afternoon and evening and Saturday 
afternoon and evening Mr. Curtis purposes to give an ex- 
hibition of his lantern slides and to talk about certain ot 
the tribes which he has met. 



!5^-{^l%4^4^*4^Mi4^^*4«*^******^ 



Unveiling Chief Joseph's 

^WU l-^il^vS (Copyright, 1905. by Charles N. Crewdson.) 



Potlach 



t 




^?^ 



T'r 



UNDER a heap of clods, a fitting 
stone shaft at his head, lies at last 
_in exile-the body that held the 
spirit of America's greatest Indian 
warrior-chieftain— Joseph, the N-jl 
Perces. His potlach has been held; his 
chattels have become the belongings of his 
redskin friends. Joseph, save In our minds, 

Is no more. 

Who is Joseph? What did he do to make 
lilm great? Sixty years ago he was merely 
a baggy-cheeked papoose slung on the back 
of his squaw mother. But he was the son 
of a long line of chieftains of the greatest 
tribe of Indians west of the Rockies, the 
Nez Perces, who dwelt along the Snake and 
the Columbia. They helped Lewis and 
Clark and their squad. Without the direct 
succor of these Indians the abundant val- 
leys sleeping beneath the snowy crags of 
our beautiful northwest-Mount^ Tacoma, 
Baker, Hood, the Cascades and the Cour 
ri' Aipnes— would not be ours. 

Joseph's grandfather was a Nez Perces 
ohief tain when the two great explorers 
crossed the continent; his father, Joseph 
dwelt in the fertile Wallowa valley. Wlien 
our Joseph's father came to die he called 
X two sons-Ollicut and Joseph-to his 
bedside and told them never "lo leave the 
Waliowa-to fight first. It had been t^ 
home of his fathers for all time. The pale 
faces were coming. 

* * 

In the Wallowa grew wild the bunch 

grass that fed Joseph's ponies, and the 
, camas root, his bread. Over the surround- 
ing hills and mountains roamed the doer 
and the antelope. These mountains shone 
! on the mirror face of a clear lake in which 
swam the now extinct big, juicy fish, its 
; meat red as a cherry, and sweet. The odor 
of the wild rose and balsam from the moun- 
tain cedars filled "with a sweet perfume the 
air of the Wallowa. Josej)h loved his home. 
The palefaces came more and more. They 
stuck their plows into patches of the un- 
pcratched bosom of the valley and built log 
cabins in sight of the smoking tepee. Jo- 
i^opli barkened unto the voice of his father. 
"^'' he great council with the whites in 55 



he asked for the Wallowa. Our govern- 
ment, through its agent. Gov. Stevens, 
gave the valley to Joseph and his people. 
Joseph was happy again. 

In 18^7, though, Joseph took to war. The 
whites had again broken the sod in his val- 
ley. A paleface killed an Indian; redskins 
killed two white men. War. 

Joseph Is accused of cruelty. He pleads 
"not guilty." I believed him. Shortly be- 
fore his death he told a white man friend 
that one night during his war his braves 
brought as captives to his tepee several 
women and children. He put them und^r 
guard, and when his warriors slept sneak- 
ed through the lines his prisoners and sent 
them home. 

Joseph's war was brilliant. Within seven- 
ty-five days from July 27 to October 10, 
1877, Joseph, leading his entire band— many 
hundred warriors, women and children— led 
them 1,100 miles, fighting all the while the 
pursuing enemy— the entire United States 
army of the northwest. Gen. Howard, who 
chased Joseph in this running battle, pays 
him the highest tribute. These two gen- 
erals—the red and the white— sat together 
on the same platform a year ago at the 
commencement exercises of the Car- 
lisle Pa., Indian School— sat as friends, 
each admiring the bravery of the other. 
Gen. Miles captured Jo.seph's band, i ney 
were making way for the Canadian fron- 
tier, but were overcome near th& Bear Paw 
mountains. One reaison for the capture, I 
have been told, is this: Joseph's braves 
I had driven off the white soldiers, seizing 
their camp. In the camp Was firewater; 
the Indians drank this and became helpless. 
When Joseph handed his rifle to Col. Miles 
he swore that "from where the sun now 
stands I fight white man no more." He 
kept his faith. 

But many times has Joseph gone to 
Washington to sue In vain for his home in 
the Wallowa. He has never set foot on his 
native sod since his capture, being held for 
many years a prisoner in the Indian Terri- 
tory and finally placed on the exile reser- 
vation where he died. 

When Jose^ph made his last Journey to his 
home near Nespelem on the ColvlUe reser- 



vation ^*n the state of Washington he re- 
turned ^broken hearted. He had been to 
our nation's capital to make a final p.ea 
for the valley of the bunch grass, the clear 
lake with its big red fish, the deer and an- 
telope, the camas root and tlie wild rose— 
the Wallowa. But his prayer was in vain. 
To the stage driver who hauled him toward 
his tepee he said: "I^ast time Joseph leave 
here for Washington. Next time Joseph go 
away from his tepee he go see his Great 

Father." 

Joseph never smiled after his return. 
Within a month after he came back while 
lying in his tepee one day— last September- 
he told his faithful' squaw to bring him 
quickly his eagle-feather W£tr bonnet* She 
knew what this meant and ran to get for 
him the crown of the great chieftain. Too 
late! When she came back Joseph was 
dead! The cause?— a broken heart. 

♦ 

After Josepli's death the question among 
the Indians was: "Who walk Joseph 

track?'* 

The Indian, however, is slow to move, in 
things both Important and unimportant. It 
takes a brave four hours to put on his 
feather clothes. I remember when Chief 
No-Shirt was once in Chicago. He was 
hurrying to Washington. At 12 o'clock he 
started to dress to have his photogra^Jh 
made. His train left at 4 p.m. At 3 o'clock 
I asked him to hurry. He answered: "Why 
you no begin more soon?' So the first 
news that the tribe was thinking about 
choosing a chief "Who walk Joseph track" 
came to Pendleton, Ore., in January. 
Grizzly Shirt, living on the Umatilla reser- 
vation near there, wrote to Albert Waters, 
who was elected to succeed Joseph, asking: 
him about the pow-wow for the election. 
It is the custom on such occasions for chlefji 
from neighboring tribes to attend, Alb^n 
answered in a letter given verbatim thu«: 
"NESPELEM, Wash., Jan. 10, 1905. 
"Mr. Grizzly Bear: 

"Endearing: 
"At so longest I won't find off 
your letter except last two days ago to 
receipt. And I will go explained to our 
dally In Nespelem are my neighboring all 
of us well that is your letter to liking to 
noted everything but so honestly to opinion 
to say those widows of Chiefs ar6 us well 
daily, but one Is woman seriously sick at 
so longest last fall ago wife of Tlr-co-tsa- 

cow-cow. , ^ 

"And I will informed to you what we 
have finished of feasts next year of the 
month of June. Well next time spring 
weatlier to let if to noted of what day 
commenced feast of Chief, friendly we us 
of all are anxiously feeling of our Chief 
death. I was glad that I receipt your let- 
ter still so lately. This winter we have 
without happy. This is closed to informed 
of our feeling anxiously dally. And our 



winter time is over cold and storm blow, if 
you can reply please, 
"from your friend 

"Albert Waters 

"Nespelem, Wash." 
The next news that came to the white 
world was In a letter written on June 15 
to Maj. Lee Moorhouso. Pendleton, Greg., 
by the Cayuse chief, Ta-wa-tui. The major 
Is a great friend to the I ndians In the north- 
west. He is one white man who has been 
square with them, and he has their confi- 
dence. So Ta-wa-tui wrote him: 

"NBSPELEM, Wash., June 13, 1903. 
"Dear Sir: 
"Mr. Moor House: 

"A view words drop to you this 
afternoon my friend. 1 was life today and 
this here all inhabitant. Indians wall 
(were) today In councel successor Chief Jo- 
seph track. (One to follow in the tracks of 
Joseph). He was finished today who was 
successor today name his Albert Waters 
head chief today. Hah-lo-ket his assistant 
Albert Waters. June 22 days there he was 
in councel the feast, that his all I am 
writing to you. MR. TA-WA-'^UI." 

From this letter the major gleaned that 
the successor to Joseph had been chosen, 
and that on June 22 there would be a feast, 
at which time Joseph't remains would be 
exhumed and reburled, and that the monu- 
ment given by the whites and much talked 
of by the Indians would be unveiled. He 

was right. 

Having reached there by rail on the morn- 
ing of the 21st, I traveled from Wilbur, 
Wash., by stage, in company with the ma- 
jor, to Nespelem. I felt a great desire to 
attend the obsequies of the greatest Indian 
chieftain, and the dusty forty^flve-mlle 
stage trip was no bar. 



On the morning of the ceremony the sun 
arose, to shine upon a cloudless sky. The 
dewy, early morning grass was rich to 
smell, but not so sweet as the perfume from 
the cedar and the wild rose of the Wallowa. 
The Indian again was slow. The unveiling 
was set for 2 o'clock, but at that hour not 
an Indian stuck his heart from out his tepee. 
They were dressing. 

When they did come forth they saw too 
many cameras on the field. They retreated 
and held a council, the result of which was 
that none nave Maj. Moorhouso and one 
other should make a picture. Into their 
cases went a score of cam^^ras and kodaks. 
Many whites were present. This took an 

hour. _ -, . 

The next Interruption was an Indian fu- 
neral of an Indian child. This took another 
hour. The squaws, de-ked in their bright 
blankets, came marching 'ip, b^^ring the 
body. A few speeches, the burial and tiien 
the chanting of the deaVh hymn. The wall- 
ing of these Indian wonun carried me away 
I back in upper Egypt to a village near 
} Luxor, where all nigh' long I listened to 
» the hired mourners po iring out their lam- 



entations over the body of a little boy of 
the Nile. - ) 

* * • 

The sun was dropping out of the blue sky 
into sepulchral clots of clouds which drifted 
near the horizon when the fellow-braves of 
old Joseph lifted the stars and stripes that 
draped— in derision. It seemed to me— the 
monument and fastened the flag to four 
poles so that It would be a canopy for the 
head stone. 

The monument was the gift of Samuel 
Hill, through the Washington Historical 
Society. It stood seven and one-half feet 
high— white marble shaft in a granite 
base. We stepped up and read the inscrip- 
tions: 

On the back: "Erected 20 June. 1005. by 
the Washington University State Historical 
Society." 

On one side: "He led his people in the 
Nez Perces war of 1877. Died 21 Septem- 
ber, 11)04. Age, about GO years." , 

On the other side was the old chief Nez 
Perces' name: "Hln-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt," 
and under that the meaning In English of 
this name, *'Thunder-rolllng-ln-the-moun- 

tains." 

On the front, underneath a medallion, 
stood out the words "Chief Joseph." I read 
the words, looked at the carved face and 
said in my heart as I recalled the inju.stices 
done him: "Justice? Justice? His fathers 
gave food to our footsore and hiipgry ex- 
plorers. Their children turned him from 
the cedar-clad mountains where roamed tlie 
antelope and the deer, from the clear lake 
where swam the big red fish, from the val- 
ley where grew the bunch grass and the 
camas root and where blossomed the wild 
rose." Then I felt grateful to the few pale- 
faces who In honoring the great redskin 
chieftain by making a monument for^ him 
had shown "mercy unto the merciful." 

And afterward was the tenor of the words 
I said In my heart repeated by the speakers 
of the day. As they stood underneath the 
mocking stars and stripes they could look 
over the valley of the Ne.«;polem and to the 
Cascade peaks in the distance. The monu- 
ment stood on a little knoll. To the M)0 In- 
dians and the 100 whites foregathered first, 
after the opening prayer, spoke Albert Wa- 
ters, the newly elected chief. Dressed In 
his eagle-feather costume, he told his tribe 
how greatlv honored he felt to follow "Jo- 
seph track." Then spoke Y'^llow Bull, the 
feathers of his bonnet fluttering from head 
to heels. Yellow Bull was perhaps entitled 
to the chieftainship, and at a second pow- 
wow may yet be elected instead of AHiert, 
as all of the tribesmen w< ic» not prosent 
when Albert got the office. But ho spoke 
no word of this. In his speech he only 
showed great reverence for his dead chief- 
tain Ess-how-ess. who followed Yellow 
Bull had been one of Joseph's warriors In 
'77 Ho told of the bravery of his fallen 



leader Peo-pfio-tolluck spoke also. Prof. 
Edward 8. Meany. profes.sor of hl-story in 
the Washington State University-leading 
spirit of the Washington Lniverslty His- 
torical Society and friend to Joseph-- 
made the clo.sing address. Although the 
professor bears the Indian name of Three 
Knives because of his great keenness, he 
wore the American citizen war bonnet-a 
plug hat— and a full dress suit. 

This occasion was no joke for Prof. 
Meany. He had read, he said, all the print- 
ed history about Joseph and had found out 
al' about him he could. He knew Joseph 
to* be a man of a daring yet generous na- 
ture He recited the history of Joseph, and 
concluded by saying that ho believed him 
to be a much-wronged man. 

After the unveiling ceremonies the as- 
sembled Indians rested a few days awaiting 
the potlach of Joseph. 

Potlach-what is that? When an Indian 
dies his relatives never squabble over the 
chattels he leaves behind. Instead the near- 
est relative takts pride in giving away all 
of his belongings to the friends of the de- 
ceased. His saddles, blankets. bonnet.s. 
clothes and trinkets are put in a heap; his 
honses and cattle are driven up. The bon- 
net is held aloft or a horse led up. The 
nearest relative tolls of the friendly deeds 
some one has dr)ne for Joseph and then 
gives to that person the bonnet or the horse. 
Then the one who receives the gift makes 
a speech telling how It Alls his heart with 
joy to be remembered by the departed. In 
this way evei*y possession of the dead 
pa.sses Into the hands of his friends. In 
the case of Joseph his widow, stripping her- 
self clean of her dower, gave away all the 
chattels of Joseph. , . , 

The Nez Perces and their visiting friends 
from surrounding tribes will remain unt:l 
after the 4th of July for their annual cel- 
ebration-parade, games and races. They 
have pitched one big tepee a hundred feet 
long In which to dance. But their dances 
will be solemn ones this yoar. because their 
gieat chieftain Is no more and they ' have 
without "-PPy;';,^,^j^j,,3 ^, CRKWI.SOX. 



How Some Plants Hide. 

From the rojjular St-U'in'o .Mtnitlly 

C. G. Prlngle. for many ye^ 
plant collector, especially lij 
arid regions of the Iln^ 
of a native grass of n^ 
lenbergla Texnna, 
all grazing anl 
terminated o^ 

Ing under 
usually 
How^ 
the 
I an 



itoy. 




im i[m 



The House Calls for the Foster 
Agreement. 

ACTION m COMMITTEE 

SUBSTITUTE FOR THE STEPHENS 
RESOLUTION ADOPTED. 

Secretary Hitchcock Explains Why He ( 
Pavored Renewal— Osages Want 
Better Rental. 



The renewal of the lease of the Osage oil 

II L?i OM ""^^ '^^ ^^''^'^^^ ^"^^^^^^ ^f t^^ Stand, 
aid Oil Company in the Indian Territory Il- 
luminating Oil Company has developed into 
one of the questions of the day in Con- 
gress and in the Interior Department. Th^ 

hrTh?'<i?'' ""i ^^^ statement of the Indians 
ill 1 he Star Tuesday afternoon precipitated 
a discussion in the House of Representa- 
tives, when Representative Stephens of 
Texas introduced two resolutions calling on 
Secretary Hitchcock to furnish the House 
with copies of the Foster lease and all the 
subleases, and for all correspondence relat- 
ing thereto; also for a statement as to un- 
der wha.t act of Congress the Poster lease 
was made. 

The House Calls for the Poster Lease. 

The House committee on Indian affairs to- 
day drafted a substitute for the Stephens 
resolutions of inquiry directed to the Secre- 
tary of the Interior regarding the Foster 
ease of Osage Indian oil lands, and author- 
ized the reporting of the substitute 

-«InrJf^"^"^^^, "^^ ^^^ substitute is that the 
Secretary of the Interior is hereby reauest 

speed 'a"loVi% "^r^? ^^"^ ^" convenient 
speea a copy of the lease made between 

James BIgheart. principal chief of thP 
?e?^on"fhi"?r?^ Indians, Jnd Edwi'n B.Vos! 

copy of the departmental approval thereof- 
also copies of all forms of su^bleases ^ant 
ed under said lease; also a listTf aif sub 

tT^r. ""J^'^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ submitted to "he 
Interior Department and approved, and a 

mutpi tl^ subleases which have been sub^ 
milted to the department and which have 
not been approved; and also all documemi 
and correspondence pertaining thereto '' 

suggLuo^n^n ?L^^^ ^"^"^''^ ^^« '^a^^ ^n 
suggestion in the committee that the StP- 

Phens' resolution contained inquiries on 

matters which the House had no Hght Z 

fsk of any department Secretary, and also 

w.* !^^ ^"^^.^'^^^ ^°™ ^«^ld mike U sub^ 
ject to a point of order in the House and 
prevent Its adoption. *"^ 

u^i^l House subsequently adopted a reso- 
lution requesting copies of the original Fos- 
ter oil lease in the Osage reservation and 
the approval of the same. 

Mr. Stephens' Inquiry. 
One of the resolutions introduced by Mr 
Stephens for which the substitute was of- 
fered today asks under what act of Con- 
irress the Foster lease was made and 
under what authority of law the subleases 
were approved. The Secretary is asked 

whether thiiw. Almeda company, and 
^Hfi^^ o i V-^J^"^^ ^^^ ^^st sublease so 
ratified, and whether he had not previouslv 
refused to ratify subleases. The ?eso utfon 

Uon' of tZ'^ IT '^^ ^^^^ ^^ the'?almca" 
tion of the Almeda sublease, but also 

""f "1 £^L^ ^'^^ °f the officers, directors and 
stockholders of the Almeda company ^^^h 
information as to whether any of these 
persons are "personally known or In any 
way related to him (the Secretary), and if 

lated- T^l^.^^'^?^ P^"^°^ and how re- 
lated. The resolution also directs the Sec- 

ruar7i''? ?.%^t ^'^^^^r^.h^ ^^<^ not, on Feb- 
ruary Id last, in a letter addressed to the 
chairman of the committee on Indian af! 
fairs, write that the commis«in^ of In- 
dian affairs ''also shows tb_^^BU--/s "/-- 
- -AjossUy- for the proposed i^lEtion ir 
^rder to p rotect the existing ri^li2Slr^of the 
partietj who held uncrSF" the said t^oster 
lease, and it is not deemed advisable, nor, 
•indeed, would It be just, to renew and ex- 
tend the said lease for a period of ten 
years, or any other period without the 
knowledge and consent of the Indians." 

The resolution continues: "And if you did 
write this letter please state to this House 
what information you have since received 
that lias caused you to recommend the 
adoptipn of the Senate amendment to the. 
Indian appropriation bill extending said 
lease for ten years on 680,000 acres of 
said Osage Indian lands without first se- 
curing the consent of said Indians." 

The statement recently given out by Sec- 
retary Hitchcock is cited, in which he 
said "that the original Foster lease was 
an unheard-of monopoly and nothing short 
of a public scandal," and the resolution 
asks the Secretary if he was thus correctly 
quoted, and if so to state why he now 
recommends extension of the lease. 

^cretary Hitchcock's Statement. 

^^c-cretary Hitchcock in referring to the 
Almeda Company concerning which Repre- 
sentative Stephens of Texas introduced a 
resolution in the House, said that he could 
not recall any such company. 

*'I know^ nobody connected with this com- 
pany," said he, *'and the supposition that 
any officer is related to me in any way Is 
absurd. There has been no change of opin- 
ion on my part in regard to the Foster 
lease. The original lease of 1,500,000 acres, 
or the entire Osage reservation, was a 
.monopoly. Under this lease, however, cer- 
tain subleases were granted, and vested 
rights obtained during the administration 
of Mr. Hoke Smith as the Secretary of the 
Interior. It was necessary that the rights 
of the subleases under the original Foster 
lease should be recognized by the depart- 
ment, for these subleases were taken in 
good faith. I have, therefore, recommend- 
ed an extension of the lease for ten years 
on (kSO.OOO acres. This acreage represents 
only the subleases taken in good faith un- 
der the original lease. The Foster lease of 
1,500,000 acres constituted a monopoly, but 
it is only just that the smaller subleases 
should be protected." 

Just exactly what action will be taken by 
the Secretary and what reply he will make 
Nj to the resolution of Congress cannot be 
forecast. It had not been received by him 
up to this afternoon and he declined to dis- 
cuss his probable action. 

Wealth of the Osage Tribe. 

Department officials state that the mat- 
ter of the Osage reservation lease Is one 
of the most complicated and one of the 
hardest to settle the department has had 
for a number of years. The Osages are 
one of the Indian tribes that are known 
as civilized. The tribe is the wealthiest of 
all, the lands being of great value and 
their men of more than ordinary business 
ability. In addition to their tribal property 
interests and their private business the In- 
dians as a tribe have a fund of more than 
$7,000,000 in the treasury, which they 
cannot touch. It is said that the Osages 
are the wealthiest people per capita In the 
world. Their men are conservative citizens 
who compare very favorably with the as- 



y 

T 
V 

y 

V 

y 
y 
y 
y 
y 
y 
y 
y 
y 
y 



5 Tailor - m^ 
Jackets; sizes 31 
satin lined. Redul 
$10 to 

15 Tailor - made^^ 
Kersey Jackets; full 
lined. Reduced 
$12.50 to 

6 Covert Coats, three-l 
full satin lined; sizes ^, 
and 34. Reduced from 
$18.50 to 

6 Dark Oxford All-wool 
Tourist Coats; three-qu:ir- 
ter length. Reduced from 
$rj.50 to 



e stand- 

aid Oil Company in the Indian Territory Il- 
luminating Oil Company has developed into 
one of the questions of the day in Con- 
gress and in the Interior Department. The 
publication of the statement of the Indians 
in The Star Tuesday afternoon precipitated 
a discussion In the House of Representa- 
tives, when Representative Stephens of 
Texas introduced two resolutions calling on 
Secretary Hitchcock to furnish the House 
with copies of the Foster lease and all the 
subleases, and for all correspondence relat- 
ing thereto; also for a statement as to un- 
der what act of Congress the Foster lease 
was made. 

The House Calls for the Foster Lease. 

The House committee on Indian affairs to- 
day drafted a substitute for the Stephens 
resolutions of Inquiry directed to the Secre- 
tary of the Interior regarding the Foster 
lease of Osage Indian oil lands, and author- 
ized the reporting of the substitute. 

The language of the substitute is that the 
"Secretary of the Interior is hereby request- 
ed to furnish the House with all convenient 
speed a copy of the lease made between 
James Bigheart, principal chief of the 
Osage nation of Indians, and Edwin B. Fos- 
ter, on the 16th day of March, 1896, and a 
copy of the departmental approval thereof; 
also copies of all forms of subleases grant- 
ed under said lease; also a list of all sub- 
leases which have been submitted to the 
Interior Department and approved, and a 
list of all subleases which have been sub- 
mitted to the department and which have 
not been approved; and also all documents 
and correspondence pertaining thereto." 

The redraft of the inquiry was made on 
suggestion In the committee that the Ste- 
phens' resolution contained inquiries on 
matters which the House had no right to 
ask of any department Secretary, and also 
that Its original form would make It sub- 
ject to a point of order in the House and 
prevent Its adoption. 

The House subsequently adopted a reso- 
lution requesting copies of the original Fos- 
ter oil lease in the Osage reservation and 
the approval of the same. 

Mr. Stephens* Inquiry. 

One of the resolutions introduced by Mr. 
Stephens for which the substitute was of- 
fered today asks under what act of Con- 
egress the Foster lease was made and 
under what authority of law the subleases 
were approved. The Secretary is asked 
whether he did not ratify the sub- 
lease to the Almeda company, and 
whether this was not the first sublease so 
ratified, and whether he had not previously 
refused to ratify subleases. The resolution 
asks not only for the date of the ratifica- 
tion of the Almeda sublease, but also 
calls for a list of the oflficers, directors and 
stockholders of the Almeda company, with 
information as to whether any of these 
persons are "personally known or in any 
way related to him (the Secretary), and if 
so the name of such person and how re- 
lated." The resolution also directs the Sec- 
retary to say whether he did not, on Feb- 
ruary 1? last, in a letter addressed to the 
chairman of the committee on Indian af- 
fairs, write that the commissit^J of Irt- 
dian affairs "also shows th^^^Mii^is nr- 
f^sisiXy for the proposed i^HTti on in 
-rder to protect the existing rigI^A>-oj: the 
pTirue&'^wno iield urroner ' the said Foster 
lease, and It is not deemed advisable, nor, 
indeed, w^ould It be just, to renew and ex- 
tend the said lease for a period of ten 
years, or any other period without the 
knowledge and consent of the Indians." 

The resolution continues: "And if you did 
write this letter please state to this House 
what information you have since received 
that nas caused you to recommend the 
adoption of the Senate amendment to the 
Indian appropriation bill extending said 
lease for ten years on 680.000 acres of 
said Osage Indian lands without first se- 
curing the consent of said Indians." 

The statement recently given out by Sec- 
retary Hitchcock is cited. In which he 
said "that the original Foster lease was 
an unheard-of monopoly and nothing short 
of a public scandal," and the resolution 
asks the Secretary if he was thus correctly 
quoted, and if so to state why he now 
recommends extension of the lease. 

f^cretary Hitchcock's Statement. 

Secretary Hitchcock in referring to the 
Almeda Company concerning which Repre- 
sentative Stephens of Texas introduced a 
resolution in the House, said that he could 
not recall any such company. 

"I know nobody connected with this com- 
pany," said he, "and the supposition that 
any officer is related to me in any wajr is 
absurd. There has been no change of opin- 
ion on my part in regard to the Foster 
lease. The original lease of 1,500,000 acres, 
or the entire Osage reservation, was a 
.monopoly. Under this lease, however, cer- 
tain subleases were granted, and vested 
rights obtained during the administration 
of Mr. Hoke Smith as the Secretary of the 
Interior. It was necessary that the rights 
of the subleases under the original Foster 
lease should be recognized by the depart- 
ment, for these subleases were taken in 
good faith. I have, therefore, recommend- 
ed an extension of the lease for ten years 
on (180,000 acres. This acreage represents 
only the subleases taken in good faith un- 
der the original lease. The Foster lease of 
1,500,000 acres constituted a monopoly, but 
it is only just that the smaller subleases 
should be protected." 

Just exactly what action will be taken by 
the Secretary and what reply he will make 
to the resolution of Congress cannot be 
forecast. It had not been received by him 
up to this afternoon and he declined to dis- 
cuss his probable action. 

Wealth of the Osage Tribe. 

Department ofl^cials state that the mat- 
ter of the Osage reservation lease is one 
of the most complicated and one of the 
hardest to settle the department ha* had 
for a number of years. The Osages are 
one of the Indian tribes that are known 
as civilized. The tribe is the wealthiest of 
all, the lands being of great value and 
their men of more than ordinary business 
ability. In addition to their tribal property 
interests and their private business the In- 
dians as a tribe have a fund of more than 
$7,000,000 in the treasury, which they 
cannot touch. It is said that the Osages 

are the wealthiest people per capita In the 
world. Their men are conservative citizens 
who compare very favorably with the as- 
tute business men of the east. They are 
not the kind of Indians who are caught 
napping or who are buncoed out of their 
money. On the contrarj% their wealth is 
increasing, and to increase it still more 
they want the oil company which holds 
leases on their territory to pay them more 
money for the same, or the equivalent in 
oil. 

Attitude of the Indians. 

From private inquiry a Star reporter has 
found that several of the sub-lessees under 
the original lease are Indians, and that 
they are working wells in the territory and 
are paying 16 2-3 per cent of their product 
to the oil company for this lease. 

Two of these Indians were in the delega- 
tion which came to Wa.shington recently to 
look after their interests and these two are 
among those who have been protesting 
against the renew \1 of the lease under its 
present terms. No Indians are opposed to 
leasing the land, it is stated most distinctly 
by the members of the delegation here, but 
they do not want the lease to be granted 
under the original terms, as the revenue 
»*efore they believe Is not commensurate 
vthe value of the franchise. Mr. Will 



r 

Y 

♦ 

t 

T 
± 



Leahy, whose statement was pub- 

N^eaday, stated U&at the Xudlaos did 



r 

Y 

Y 
Y 
Y 

y 

Y 

Y 
Y 
Y 

Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 

t 
Y 
Y 



5 Tailor - m^ 
Jackets; sizes 31 
satin lined. ReduT 
$10 to 

15 Tailor - madel 
Kersey Jackets; full 
lined. Reduced 
$12.50 to 

6 Covert Coats, three-1 
full satin lined; sizes 3.^ 
and 34. Reduced from 
$18.50 to 

6 Dark Oxford All-wool 
Tourist Coats; three-quar- 
ter length. Reduced from 
$12.50 to • 

4 Dark Colored Rain ^ >^ 
Coats; cape tops. Reduced ^([j), 
from $10 to 

Second Floor. 



K-> 



A 



not care if the entire territory is leased for 
not cj.It; 11. «.»»'^ f,-ni<a nhtamed a tair 

oil purposes, so the tube ooiam 

""^X^f ic, the case of the Indians and that 
isTha 'they are fighting for. WhUe no 
f^ormal staten^ent has ^^^-n^^m^^^^^^ - 

r/^ofag^^^S^ f^'^r o^mcfof 

Ing fhe Import on the amendment providing 
fo? the renewal of the lease. 

It is stated that they attended these coun- 
cils and that after full and free considera- 
tion of the propositions that had been ad- 
v-^nced and after delaying the Secretary a 
day in making his final report, the delega- 
tion agreed to the report made by the Sec- 
retary favoring the renewal of the lease, 
with a reduction of the acreage of land, the 
terms reported In the statement given to 
the press by the Secretary, on which crit- 
icism .WSU3 £a^ed« 




aAyr^Ly x^isc^crooyicLgPff ypAY^ February 4, 190^ 

^ 1 



.^ ^ 



^*^^^^^ 
^ 







■ ;•>>.•. 



.•.••\>- 



.;%•. >• 



^> 



H. 



■<-.v:- 




v . . . 



.;■•/<■? 



>-iA-;;' 



THE LANGUAGE 

VANISHING CfiU 



or THE 






AN 




it: 



•-;»<■ ■ 



<■; < ^x*; 



.•><*■. 




■*;■•! 




California Scientists, in Experimenting: 
With the Hupas, Discover in Artificial 
^al^tes and Smoked Paper Records a 

to Save the Speech of Any 
From Extinction ' / •* 






'^ 



A / 



t'vC-* 



o5Sv.;.a,iM».VJ • 



Enos Brown. 

THE particular undertaking of the an- 
thropological department of the Uni- 
versity of California linvolves not only 
the preservation of the culture of the numer- 
ous tribes which once inhabited the Cali- 
fornia coastal region, but the saving for the 
use of coming students an accurate knowl- 
edge of aboriginal languages, parts of speech, 
grammar, syntax and pronunciation, as 
spoken in their original purity. Once lost, an 
Indian tongue can never be revived. 

The infinite patience required by the 
Investigator in achieving success can be only 
faintly ^Mnderstood by a casual reader. It 

1b not t^-. m l , % ■■ ■ ■— "m m m ---^*- -WW*^ ^iiW^0A»« 

attain©** ^hat a way has been pointed out 
|yy w^^<^h any languages, cultivated or aborig- 
inal, can be Imperishably recorded as spoken, 
^«nd with such complete accuracy that every 
')blngle feature can be reproduced, centuries 
/after if need be. California has led the way 
In this remarkable branch of ethnological 
discovery. 

While European scientists have accom- 
plished much in this line, it is admitted that 
the work of preserving the tongue of the 
vanishing Hupa Indians is the highest point 
jret achieved in this branch of science. 

It Is estimated by the chief of the United 
States Biological Survey, that In the first 
year of the nineteenth century there were, 
approximately, 250,000 Indians living In the 
territory now included in the State of Call- 



^^»ii^a».oL 



^K^. 






^^ 



t 






By Enos Brown, 



THE particular undertakingr of the an- 
thropological department of the Uni- 
versity of California linvolves not only 
the preservation of the culture of the numer- 
ous tribes which once inhabited the Cali- 
fornia coastal region, but the saving for the 
use of coming students an accurate knowl- 
edge of aboriginal languages, parts of speech, 
grammar, syntax and pronunciation, as 
spoken in their original purity. Once lost, an 
Indian tongue can never be revived. 

The infinite patience required ^by the 
investigator in achieving success can be only 
xaintlyj^^inderstood by a casual reader. It 

attained that a way has been pointed out 
Dy whfch any languages, cultivated or aborlg- 
Inaf, can be Imperishably recorded as spoken, 
jJtnd with such complete accuracy that every 
jingle feature can be reproduced, centuries 
^fter If need be. California has led the way 
Jn this remarkable branch of ethnological 
discovery. 

While European scientists have accom- 
plished much In this line, it is admitted that 
the work of preserving the tongue of the 
vanishing Hupa Indians is the highest point 
yet achieved in this branch of science. 

It is estimated by the chief of the United 
States Biological Survey, that In the first 
year of the nineteenth century there were 
approxlmatel3^ 250,000 Indians living In the 
territory now Included In the State of Cali- 
fornia. A hundred years later, according to 
the general census, the number had been 
reduced to 15,377. Between 1890 and 1900 the 
aboriginal population in California de- 
creased 1247. 

t^ # « * # 

Indians Fast Dying Out. . 

In 1800 there were twenty-two distinct 
native stocks, each speaking a language as 
different from the others as English is from 
Chinese, a linguistic phenomena that is the 
despair of all anthropologists. Of the orig- 
inal stocks, the Esselin is extinct, and several 
others are on the verge. Of the once power- 
ful Shastas, there are at present but fifteen 
survivors, and of the I.utuami, in California, 
not to exceed twenty-five; the Wishosk has 
been reduced to a couple of dozen, and the 
Chimariko to nine; the Yama to eight and 
the Costinoan to eight. Of the Sulinan and 
Chumash there are less than twenty living 
representatives to leach tribe. From these 
particulars the rapid extinction of all native 
stocks at no distant day may be realized. 
Contact with the dominating race accounts 
for this decimation of a people once powerful 
In numbers, but for the most part unaggres- 
sive, credulous, sii^jple-minded and pastoral. 
It Is in recent years only that the impor- 
tance of preserving the culture, traditions 
and language, of these vanishing races has 
been fully understood by that part of the 
community Interested In ethnological sub- 
rf^. Tbp field is .^jcQimc. >a,Dd .^\-^st. No 
^P^Sxe association was endowed with the 
resources demanded or was able to under- 
take a task requiring expert talent wfth years 
of close observation and effort. Properly, the 
work was within the province of the State, 
and so regarded, but the University of Cali- 
fornia, generously as it Is supported, could 
not divert the means necessary for this 
particular object. The rich stores of knowl- 
edge lying dormant in aboriginal lore might 
have been lost forever had not Mrs. Phebe 
A. Hearst, Regent, volunteered ample funds 
for this purpose. The department of an- 
thropology of the University was intrusted 
with the expenditure of the funds and, under 
the eflicient management, soon proved the 
>^»3orjr>iiu/^ latent possibilities of the under- 
taking. 

Already there have been issued by the 
University press several important works 
of the greatest technical value on the lan- 
guage and culture of certain tribes inhabiting 
the State. Among others are the "Languages 
of the Coast of California, South of San 
Francisco Bay," by Dr. A. Li. Kroeber, and 
^Native Languaeces of Calif orni?-," a ;foint 
;.ork of Dr. Kroeber and Roland B. Dixon. 
In addition. Doctor Pliny Earle Goddard has 
incorporated, in two remarkable volumes, the 
result of three years and a half residence 
among the Hupa Indians, who occupy a 
reservation in the northern part of HumMldt 
county, at the junction of the Klamath ana 
Trinity rivers. The first of these voU'mes 
on the "Life and Culture of the Hupa" gives 
the environment, customs, traditions, dress, 
homes, occupations, religion, legends and 
amusements of this interesting tribe, and the 



^^m CAPTAIM c^OHJS. CHlEFOFTt^HO^^RiS^^^^ 



second, "Morpholology of the Hupa Lan- 
guage," 344 pages, embraces the results of 
a thorough and exhaustive study of the 
vocabulary, text and construction, of one of 
the most complex of all the languages spoken 
by the original California stocks. 
***** ^ 

First Experiment on Hupas. 

The reasons for selecting this particular 
tribe for experiment were, first, though num- 
bering at present 450 souls, its extinction 
within measurable limits, was altogether 
provable. In 1866 the tribe numbered 650 
Individuals, but owing to the universal preva- 
lence of scrofulous diseases and the high rate 
of mortality among the younger members, 
the survival of the tribe beyond a few gen- 
erations is problematical. The language and 
culture of the Hupa is rich and copious and 
worthy of preservation on this account. If for 
no other. There are also a niirnber of the 
old members of the tribe, survivors of the 
past, who retain a memory of the ancient 
customs and traditions, unimpaired with later 
corruptions. Moreover the Hupa, as Indians, 
are enterprising and Intelligent, as well as 
thrifty. Schools have been established for 
years, and some speak English with correct- 
ness and fluency. 

Dr. Goddard, by slow degrees, eventually 
acquired the entire confidence of the tribe 
and. In time, was admitted to all the tribal 
sejcrets. 



whi^h t^. T ^'^ ""^ Athabascan stock, of 

branch. They Intermarried freely with the 
neighboring Yurok, and this fad may ac! 
count, to some extent, for certain wide dlf- 
ferences existing between the languages 
spoken by the tribe and the other Athabas! 
cans, though the gradual and imperceptible 
changes which are always taking place in 
the language of isolated peoples may explain 
variations to a certain extent. The differ- 
ences are manifest in the phonetic character 
of the language: many changes having taken 
place m consonants and vowels. Adoption 
of new names, and. morphologically, verb 
forms have been multiplied and extended. 

While Dr. Goddard's last work amounts 
to a nearly complete written vocabulary 'of 
the Hupa language, and with its thousands 
of texts form a dictionary of words and sen- 
tences in general use, it fails to preserve the 
sounds, intonations or expressions of the 
language as spoken. As far as written char- 
acters convey a knowledge of a strange lan- 
guage, the "morphology" leaves nothing to 
be desired. In ordinary practice writing is 
a device to bring to mind sounds which are 
well known. Unless the sounds are Vvcll 
known, or can be made known by other 
means, the written characters fall both to 
convey them to those who study them or In 
preserving them after the language of which 
they are a part has vanished. The written 



^^TWO WAXRElCOKDcS^^ 



^< '.^t<« 






IM ELDIN 
IVVITHOUT) 



Characters which represent the ancient lan- 
guages are easily translated by the scholar, 
but the sounds are lost. W^re the old ora- 
tors to come to life again" the language in 
which they would declaim would, in ail prob- 
ability, be unintelligible. 

Nowhere has the inadequacy of written 
characters made itself felt more than in the 
field of American languages. To remedy this 
the ear must be aided by some artificial 
device. 

The lip movement, in producing certain 
sounds, may be directly observed by the eye. 
Where a comparison between sounds made. 
In part, by the lips in the same or different 
languages Is desired, the camera may be 
employed. The subject to be photographed. 
Ir this instance an intelligent Hupa half- 
^'eed, was placed In a strong sunlight and 
It'^very rapid lens and shutter employed. Th*© 
photographs taken were arranged, measured 
and compared. By this method the relative 
degree of lip opening for each vowel and 
the amount of lip activity characterizing the 
language as a whole is readily shown. 

***** 

Records on Artificial Palate* 

To a certain extent tongue movements* 
were also observed, but greater difficulty was 
experienced In obtaining records than with 
the lip sounds. To determine and fix the 
movements of the tongue, certain mechan- 
ical aids are employed. The simplest of these 
Is the artificial palate, which was first used 
in correcting oral deformities and Is, in 
Europe, employed for linguistic purposes. 
The illustrations adequately represent the 
form used by Doctor Goddard in his Hupa 
experiments. The metal palate is made thin 
as possible, and adjusted to fit the roof of 
the mouth perfectly. There is difllculty in 
extending the artificial palate beyond the 
junction of the hard and soft palate, as the 
movement of the soft member is liable to 
dislodge It and pressure upon the soft palate 
is liable to produce gagging. To apply the 
metal palate it must be perfectly dry. It is 
then dusted with powdered chalk and put In 
place. 

Only single syllables can be uttered, care 
being taken that a complication of Impres- 
sions should not be brought about. Where 
the naturally moist tongue touches the sur- 
face of the palate, the chalk is removed and 
the dark surface exposed. The palate Is 
quickly removed from the mouth and pho- 
tographed. By this method the exact p>i)si- 



tion of the tongue in making a certain sound 
Is fixed provided the contact is upon the 
hard palate or the teeth. The subject using 
the palat-e in this instaiice, speaks English 
fairly well, and the Hupa language profi- 
ciently. 

^ * * * * ■ 

Records on Smoked Paper, 

To register the exact time of the begin- 
ning, culmination and ending, of the tongue 
movement, the Rousselot apparatus was em- 
ployed. This device consists of a horizontal 
cylinder driven at a uniform rate of speed 
by delicate mechanism. A sheet of paper is 
given a thin, even coating of smoke and 
wrapped around the cylinder. Against it the 
fine, elastic tracing point of the Marey tam- 
bour rests, and registers the varying force 
of the column of air which issues from the 
nose or mouth or any compression of a 
closed chamber that may be connected with 
it. For registering the movement^ of the 
^ tongue, a rubber bulb is placed between the 
tongue and roof of the mouth. The bulb Is 
connected with the tambour by means of a 
rubber tube passing out through the side of 
the mouth into which the words are spoken. 
Two tambours may be used, one connect- 
ing with the bulb and one with the mouth- 
piece, arranged so that their tracing points 
will make but a single line when the car- 
riage with the tambours is pushed along 
while the cylinder is at rest. When the word 
or phrase is spoken two synchronous trac- 
ings are made. The upper one is from the 
mouthpiece, and shows the varying force of 
the air colunm from the oral passage; the 
lower one is from a bulb placed on the point 
of the tongue, the elevations in the tracing 
indicating the time of the raising of the 
tongue and its pressure on the bulb. 

Mechanical aids for observing the move- 
ments of the back portion of the tongue and 
its contact with the soft palate are not eas- 
ily employed, a regrettable fact, for many 
American languages have whole series of 
sounds formed well back in the mouth. The 
movements of the velum may be observed 
by causing the subject to open wide the 
mouth while facing a strong light, but the 
movements of the walls of the mouth and 
the condition of the tongue as to shape and 
rigidity are difficult to determine or record. 
The action of the glottis, as to the degree 
and time of resonancy, may be shown by 
Rousselot tracings, or a thin membrane of 
rubber may be applied to the walls of the 




UN KIYE: 



larynx and the vibrations conveyed to the 
tambour by means of compressed air. In 
this manner it is possible to settle the puz- 
zling questions in American languages con- 
cerning the degree and constancy of sonancy 
in certain consonants. The NphysiolOglcal 
causes of the sounds are consld^-ed the most 
Important. If the sound is understood the 
desired result can be produced. There Is, 
however, another side to phonetics, the 
physical. In the realm of physics, exact 
measurements are possible and well known 
laws, jai-evail. V For making tracings, of .Ihfl 
consonants of the Hupa language a mouth- 
piece was employed connected with a Marey 
tambour. The vowel sounds, which are the 
most troublesome to deal with owing to the 
difficulty of ascertaining or recording the 
shape and rigidity of the mouth and throat 
chambers in which the words resound were, 
theoretically, easily disposed of from the 
physical side. 

* *, * * * ♦ 

Photographs Are Employed, 

The system employed by Dr. Goddard wa« 
to make Rousselot tracings directly from 
the voice and to enlarge them by micro- 
photography. Scientists have made tracings 
from the wax cylinders of the phonograph. 
One transferred them to smoked paper and 
enlarged them by a system of levers. An- 
other employed a mirror and a beam of light 
for the same purpose. The conclusions in 
reference to the employment of phonographs 
for recording are thus stated. 

There is a difficulty in breaking up the 
sounds of a strange language so recorded 
into words and in connecting these words 
with their proper meanings. This may be In 
part overcome by carefully prepared texts 
with interlinear translations to accompany 
each cylinder. It is to be greatly regretted 
that phonograph cylinders are not moro 
durable and permanent. Phonograph cylin- 
ders can never be sufficient in themselves, 
because they utterly fall to show the physi- 
ological processes by which the sounds upon 
them are reproduced, and, after all, the man- 
ner of making the sounds Is more Impor- 
tant, in the study of language, than the 
sound itself. 




^cK-^o d^rtx^ 



± 



LOiGifiTH GETS 
BUFFALO COAT 



Ponca Chiefs Make Him Ex- 
, quwite Present. 



SQUAWS WORKED HARD ON IT 



Horse Chief Eagle Tells Presideot^ 
and RDosevelt Says Nicholas "^1 



Will Like It,^ 



-t*'*****' 



Nicholas Longworth, bridegroom, will 
have one unique present. It is a Ponca 
Indian buffalo hide waistcoat, which was 
brought to Washington especially for 
presentation to the future son-in-law of 
the Great "White Father by a delegation 
of nine chiefs from the Ponca reserva- 
1 tion. 
' Of Exquisite Workmanship. 

The waistcoat is a beauty. The buf- 
falo calf, which contributed th^ hide to 
Its making, cost the Indians .$500, and in 
the manufacture all the skill of the 

tribe has been exhausted. Tlie lining 
is a piece of blanket, of Indian weave, as 
soft, almost, as down. Evidently the 
SQuaws squandered time and thought on 
the development of this piece of wedding 
finery. 

Horse Chief Eagle Makes Speech. 

The Indians called yesterday after- 
noon at the White House, where they 
were presented to the President and in- \ 

formed him of the purpose of their mis- 
sion to Washington. Horse Chief Eagle, 
the principal dignitary of the party, 
made a speech in Ponca, and the Pres- 
ident responded in English. Mr. Roose- 
velt expressed his confidence that Mr. 
Longworth w^ould like the waistcoat 
mightily and treasure it highly. 

Those who called on the President 
were Horse Chief Eagle, l^ittle Soldier, 
Sam Hinman. also known as White 
Chief; Big Goose» Yellow Horse, White 
Tail, John Bull, and Lem Cerrie, all 
Poncas; George Premiaux and Mike 
Ray, interpreters, and Mr. Miller. 






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Ielk tooth robe valued at 
$4,000 stolen from girl. 

I bAWTON, OKLA., Feb. 15.— Lizzie 
Pendleton, (laughter of David Pendle- 
ton a full-blood Cheyenne Indian, 
I was robbed of a robe which was orna- 
mented with 1,000 elk teeth and val- 
ued at $4,000. 

I The father offers reward for the 
I capture and conviction of the rob- 
1 hers. 



i^^oQ 







iJUCOty^ 



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/:J7^. Vj9f/^0^ZMJS^l^SI/ 



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CffJiSr jjMJ^J^JCAfrffoMSJS^ 



INDIAN CHIEF WHO WENT 
ACROSS WITH A AVILD WEST 
SHOW CAPTURES A RICH 
DUTCH WOMAN AND BRINGS 
HER BACK TO HIS VILLAGE. 
A SWIFT COURTSHIP AND WED- 



DING. 



When it comes to hymen we Ameri- 
cans are pretty swift. There's Ameri- 
can Horse, the Iroquois Indian chief, who 
has just returned from the old country 
with as pretty a little Dutch bride as any 
man would want. And she was a widow, 
a cute, bright-eyed, plump little widow 
from over The Hague way. 

American Horse, with all his feathers, 
moccasins, tomahawks (made in Pitts- 
burg) and defer skin pants, went across 
the water last year as part of a show. 
There was an Indian village with scalp 
dances, war dances and other scenes 
popularly believed in Engand and the 
continent to be common in Buffalo and 
other frontier American states. 

The show was at The Hague a week. 
Among the first day visitors was Mrs. 
Johanna Elizabeth Von Domellon, the 
pretty widow, whose husband had left 
her single and with much good coin of 
the realm of Wllhelmina. 



rlUican Horse snowed her arouna 

^UertoorArrcan hLc around 
ThI Hague In a carriage. The fifth day 

I^erican Horse took P°«««f' °" "^^^e^ 
, hanna Elizabeth's heart and they were 

* American Horse Is a big buck, good 
1 looking for an Indian, and P««y ^mooth 
1 even W he can't read or "^l^^; J**^ 
! widow' s relatives were given a look m 
i on the arrangement and there was no ob 

jection. 



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OX^ 



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(f%M^' 



W 



ch 



ER SKILL A8 COOK 
IN IBIBE'8 HEARI 



I Otoe Indians Adopted White Man and 
Wife Who Wandered Into* 



Their Camp. 



C>^ ^^J 



aUTHRIE, Okla., Aug. 21.— When the 

lotoe Indians the past week were being 

Ipaid by Agent Newman at the Otoe 

(agency, in Northern Oklahoma, the 

] "Barnes Outfit," now composed of many 

members, was with them. Each Indian 

received a few cents more than $888, 

while each one of the "outfit" received 

1 about $1,800. 

As a whole the "Barnes" received 
I nearly $25,000, and being full Indian cit- 
izens they received also as such when 
the Otoe lands were recently allotted 
240 acres each of land. 

The "Barnes Outfit" is the name by 
which a family of adventurers has been 
known in Northern Oklahoma tor tlie 
T^ast thirty years. All are now adopted 
members of the Otoe tribe, with which 
many of them have intermarried. 

It all happened because "Mother 
Barnes was a good cook. Barnes with 
his wife, drifted among the Otoe In- 
dians abiut thirty years ago. when they 
were penniless. When the Otoes were 
collecting their annuity payment from 
the Government they took the "Barnes 
Outfit" with them The Indians then 
held a big feast and dance. Mrs. Barnes 
was installed as chief cook and to this 
day the red men who partook of that 
feast maintain that never before had 
they eaten such excellent barbecued 

"^From that date ^henceforward Mrs. 
Barnes cooked her way into the tnbe 
1 Whatever feast was held, she had to be 
the chef. V/llhin a few years Mr. and 
Mrs. Barnes had become so popular 
that the Otoee by a unanimous vote 
I adopted them into |he tribe ^s tuU Ip- 



1 ^j#j(i##i'<*>^^ 



I in making 
requires and 
I any other kind 
)lesomc, stimu- 

; ckdming to 

quality that 

lilar tobaccos. 







>roducing the best 
under the same 

siness a life study, 
factories in the 
world's greatest 

the lime to get 
[ulating, satisfying 
Do not accept 










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7 



i/yv\X^^J^ oLi 



' ln^\ Cui/ro^, 











' SALEM INDIAN SCHOOL 

The Salem Indian School, at Chemawa, Ore- 
/ ffon, is one of the oldest institutions of the 
kind in the country. It was originally estab- 
lished at Forest Grove in 1880, and moved to 
Chemawa, five miles north of Salem, m 1885. 
The citizens of Salem, and Marion county 
donated 177.32 acres of land to secure its 
location at Chemawa, which was increased the 
next year by the purchase of 84.92 acres by 
the pupils of the school from their earnmgs 
in the hop fields and on farms adjoining the 
school, and later 82.83 acres were purchased 
by the Government, giving the school, at the 
present time, a farm of 345.07 acres of land. 

From the first, the 
school has had a steady 
growth until now it has 
a capacity of six hun- 
dred pupils, requiring 
a force of employes 
and instructors num- 
bering forty-one. 

Chemawa has always 
stood in the front rank 
as an industrial school, 
and the northwest has 
many farmers and 
graduates from its de- 
partments. The South- 
ern Pacific Railroad 
passes directly through 
the beautiful grounds, 
which are kept up by labor of the Indian 
pupils. Trains, on the main Ime between 
Portland and San Francisco, stop at the 
main entrance to the school. 

The faculty includes many able instructors, 
.nd the school has had the benefit of their 
"^.Zi^^^^ years The superin^^^^^^^^^ 
Fdwin L. Chalcraft, entered the service m, 
1883 serving at Chehalis, Puyallup, Salem, 
Ed R?ver! Wyoming, then Supervisor of 
TndTin Schools, a'ld then back to Salem. His 
Sslant, W. P. Campbell )W11 celeb^^^^^^^ 
Qilvpr weddine: anniversary in the employ ui 
uncle Sam c^. the f.rst of next Septe-h^e'- 
He was disciplinarian at Carlisle for tlurtecn 
vearT and superintendent at Sisseton, Soutl, 
nTkota Wind River, Wyoming, Warm 
?nrinS then to Salem. He has always taken 
bereft interest in athletic work and m the 
Llal side of the life at Government school. 
He has seen Chemawa grow from three nun 
died to eight hundred pnpils. 



I 




Cionise, photo 

E. I.. CHAI.CRAFT 



The corp of employes comprises physician, 
nurse, classroom teachers, instructors ^ farm- 
ing, gardening, dairying, mechanical trades 
matron, and includes nine Indians "lostly 
graduate of the school. One, the <^^sciplin- 
arian, David E. Brewer, has been with the 
institution since it was opened at l^oresl 
Grove-first as a pupil and later as an em- 
ploye. For fifteen years he has had personal 
control of the boys, numbering sometimes 
more than one-half of the enrollment. 

The instruction covers all branches taught 
in the grammar schools of the country, and^^ 

industrial training to boys is g^^^"^^^^^^ 
incr e-ardeninff, carpentering, wagon-making, 
ng, garaemiib* v harness-making, 

blacksmithing, snoe ^^^J" v^nkinp- steam 

tailoring, printing, Pl\^^^^^"|' ^^^ fir t ^^ ' 
cnrl Plertrical engineering. The giris, nr^L ui 
nn nre taueht to be good housekeepers and 

stmction of the pupils and in performing the 
strucuoi. i;„(,i_ The correlation of lit- 

Trary an^ industrial features are properly 
idiusted to produce a well-rounded educa- 
tion and stimulate the best qualities of the 
indhidual The distinct individuality of the 
, "^d ian pllMl, which is vaned as in any other 
rice is recognized and cultivated. While m 
crnrV instruction does not go beyond the 
rominon school grades, the industrial instruc- 
tro^Ts continued until the pupils are equipped 
- o earn their Uving with their hands and pos- 
sess oonftdcnce to^ meet their white brethren 
nn eauTl footing in the industrial world. Ihe 
nuSus youni Indian -- wlio have ef 
.school and are now leading "^etul iiveb 
through the northwest as farmers, black- 
Tthf millmen tailors, engineers, electncian 

ilSion"^ hTcriw^SritroT 0^on 
'a-nrSe northwest -ntry, n^^-"-^,,';- 
trr-L^nnd le^i^g^thl into the chan- 

nels of good citizenship. 

^ Edward L. Chalcraft. 



.VHRBT' 



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O iZi "^ 



/d.^ '^"-L- 










4VU 





^ /-^ 8 6;^^ 



SALEM INDIAN SCHOOL 



f 



The Salem Indian School, at Chemawa, Ore- 
ffon, is one of the oldest institutions of the 
kind in the country. It was originally estab- 
lished at Forest Grove in 1880, and moved to 
Chemawa, five miles north of Salem, m I8H0. 
The citizens of Salem, and Marion county 
donated 177.3^ acres of land to secure its 
location at Chemawa, which was increased the 
next year l>v the purchase of 84.92 acres by • 
the pupils of the school from their earnings 
in the hop fields and on farms adjoinmg the 
school, and later 8;.^83 acres were purchased! 
by the Government, giving the school, at the U 
1) resent time, a farm of 345.0T acres of land. 
^ From the first, the 

school has had a steady j 
growth until now it has 
a capacity of six hun- 
dred pupils, requiring 
a force of employes 
and instructors num- 
bering forty-one. 

Chemawa' has always j 
stood in the front rank | 
as an industrial school, | 
and the northwest has 
many farmers and 
graduates from its de- 
l)artments. The South- 
ern Pacific Railroad 
passes directly through 
the beautiful grounds, 
whicli are kept up by labor of the Indian 
pupils. Trains, on the main line between 
Portland and San Francisco, stop at the 
main entrance to the school. 

The faculty includes many able instructors, 
•Hul the schcfol has had the benefit of their 
e vi2 for everal years. The supcrintenden 
'^^? • T rbiler-ift entered the service m 

WhKl livert Wyoming, the" Superv-sor of 

{„ iLn Schools, nn.l then ]!-^.^ ^;,^\^ 
n«istant \V. P. CanipboU, will cckbr.ite nis 
siTvcr wedding annive'rsary in the employ of 

tie sTm <'. the first of next Septen. he 
He was disciplinarian at Carlisle for tlniKui 

ear^ and s, perinten.lent at Sisseton, South 
nkota Wind Uivcr, Wyoming, Warn. 
Snrimrs then to Salem. He has always taken 
^^Ct' interest in athletic work and .n the 
;:„.^aVsid" 0% the life at Governn.en sehoo s. 
He has seen Chemawa grow from tlnec nun 
dred to eight hundred pui)ils. 




Cioiiise, photo 

E. I.. CIIAI.CIIAIT 



The corn of employes comprises physician, 
nurse, classroom teachers, instructors •» f^^rm- 
ing, gardening, dairying, mechanical trades 
matron, and includes nine Indians mostly 
graduate of the school. One, the disciplin- 
arian, David E. Hrewer, has been wi h the 
institution since it was opened at l<or(st 
Grove-first as a j.upil and later as an em- 
ploye. For fifteen years he has had personal 
control of the iiovs, numbering sometimes 
more than one-half of the enrollment. 

The instruction covers all brandies tauglit 
in the grammar schools of the country, and; 

industrial training to boys is given in farm- 
nJ Srdcning, c^irpentering, wagon-making, 
ing, gariaiii't,, j harness-making, 

hlacksmithing, ^^oe ^n^ j^j^ing, steam 
tailoring, printing, P'V""'"^',,; 'iris first of 
cnrl electrical eng neering. Ihe gins, nrsi u. 
^\ are taught to be good housekeepers and 

sir! 'rr.ur.r't!,.r;" - ■ 

siiu^Liuii ^. ,; '1 'pi.e correlation ot Ut- , 

r ; tc '' nd.5rl-al futures are properly 
adufstcd to produce a well-rounded educa- 

,V;En' mpil, '^.ich is vaned as in any other 

-rry' iiXSm dlt^" f "bef^^ Ke 
coZon school grades, the industrial instruc- 
tmTs continued until the pupils are cquippexl 
to earn their living with their hands and pos- \ 
sess conf <^nce t.rmeet their white brethren 
on e. ual footing in the industrial world Ihc 

1 the northwest -"'^ ;; "\:r '^'rtheir 
tr L^and le;^ting't Jn, into the chan- 

nels of tj;ood citizenship. 

^ Edward L. Cuat-craft. 



< 







"flj^^ 



/ 







J. 







Princess-Heiress Weds an Indian 



FRANK lyall, grrandson of Chief 
lyall, of the one-time powerful 
Yakima ti;-ibe in eastern Wash- 
ington, has won for his bride 
Miss Ida Smith, a , half-breed, called 
"the Venus of the Yakima Reservation." 
They were married by Magistrate Tag- 
gard at North Yakima. 

Ida Smith was declared a princess of 
the Yakimas on her fourteenth birth- 
day, four years ago. Her bridal pres- 
ents include a double rope of elks' 
teeth, 328 in all, in themselves a small 
fortune. 

The Indian princess is the only daugh- 
ter of Abner Smith, who "came to Wash- 
ington as a pioneer from New York. 
For some "service to a warrior of the 
Yakimas he was given the privilege of 
choosing ' an Indian wife. His only 
daughter lived with the Indians until 
ten years of age and talked only in their 
tongue. When the first school district 
was established in Yakima county the 
Indian girl was among the pupils. Af- 
terward she attended the agency high 
school and then the high school at 

North Yakima, where she was gradu- 
ated with honors a >'oar :\?::o. 

Mrs. lyall Is an accomplisbed pianiste 
and has a .contralto voice of consider- 
able range. She rides cayuses bare- 
back like a full-blood and can drive an 



\ 



/^ 



automobile, while as a rifle shot she ha« 
a reputation as a veritable Diana on 
the chase for big game. Her father's 
house Is carpeted with ^bearskins, elk 
and moose hid(\s, and she has other 
trophies of the hunt. 

lyall is a well-to-do rancher and a 
typical man of his tribe. He is thirty 
years old and a widower of five years. 
He won tlie half-breed princess after 
long wooint; and after she had rejected 
several white men. 

"Frank lyall is an Indian," she said 
to one of Her girl friends a few days 
before the wedding, "but he once silved 
my life and I feel 1 belong to him body 
and soul. His people are my people 
on my mother's side. I'll marry him 
or die what you call 'an old maid.' " 

P'riends tried to persuade her to 
marry a man nearer to her own attaln- 
moiits, but slie tin-ned a deaf ear to 
their pleadings. "My mother, a full- 
l)loodrd Yakima, was good enough for 
my father," she declared, "and I am 
none too good for Frank lyall, through 
whose vems flow the blood of a noble 
race." 

The princess had her picture taken in 
a gown fitting her rank in the Yakima 
tribe and her husljand in the raiment 
of a chieftain, an inheritance from the 
grandfather. They live, however, in a 
modern house, on a well-kept farm of v 
C4{) acres, just like white folks. 

Abner Sm.ith. father of the bride, 
says his daughter will inherit his prop- 
erty, whicli is estimated to be wortl* 
more than $1,000,000. 

Page Eleven 






A 



./ 







'fo/yn^j*-^^ 



.■'V.iS;v< 








Pi IN HI BILLS 



Odd Scheme by Which 

Canada Distributes Money 

Due for Lands. 



«OVER $200,000 DISTRIBUTED 



"But the Paymaster Has Stunt Whereby 

He Really Handles Only 

$30,000. 



SBATTI-.E. Wash., Oct. 31.— Several 
years ago, the Canadian government 
took fronri the tribes of Indians about 
^Athabasca lake and river a large tract 
. ot land and in payment for the same 
it gives each year $5 to each Indian and 
$25 to the chiefs in $1 bills. 

The reason tor ^ this is that the In- 
dians dwelling in the district do not 
• know the value of money. A paper 
dollar looks to him about the same as 
a blank piece of paper to a baby. 
I Should the payment be made in silver, 
the simple minded child of the wilder- 
ness would punch a hole In it and wear 
it about his neck and thus a great deal 
[of money would be taken from circula- 
' tion. Should payment b^ made in one 
bill, the Indian is liable to lose it. 

How Payments Are Made. 

Once each year, a representative of 
the Canadian government makes a trip 
through the country and pays the In- 
dians. On this trip he takes $30,000 in 
$1 bills and will probably pay out more 
than $200,000. The natural question from 

civilization is, how does he do it. 

As the Indian knows nothing about 
the value of money his method of finan- 
cial trade is on the value of skins. 
JiJverything he buys is reckoned by 
skins, and when one talk dollars to 
him, hia face has the expression of a 
blank cartridge. Fortunately for the 
government, the Hudson Bay Company 
has secured the entire confidence of the 
Indians during the century of dealing 
with them, and the money paid to the 
Indians finds its way into the trading 
posts of the company. ' 

Here is how the government pay- 
— wftstw:* do«8 hicf phenomenal stunt of 
paying $1K)0,000 or more with only $30,000 
in his pocket. He goes direct to a dis- 
trict inhabited by perhaps 2,000 or 3,000 
Indians; here he will pay from $10,000 to 
$20,000 in "treaty money." Each Indian 
and his family is given the Ave $1 bills 
in payment for his surrender of thfe 
]and, and each chief his $25. 

Makes Their Credit Good. 

After making this payment, the pay- 
master takes a rest for a short time at 
the Hudson Bay post nearest the pay 
station. Within a few days the Indians 
have made a line to the post, and there 
purchased whatever looks good to them. 

They whack the money down onto the 
tradlnj? post counter, order something 
worth perhaps 50 cents and leave. The 
company agent charges the red man 
with wliat he has purchased and credits 
liim with the balance of the $5; so that 
In the future he can trade out the re- 
mainder of the amount. 

Within R week froim the date of paying 
the treaty money every dollar of the 
amount has been paid into the trading 
post. The paymaster gives the post 
agent a check for the amount and 
starts for the next Indian settlement. 

7hus he goes from one tribe to an- 
other, paying the Indians, waiting for 
the money on his rounds. When the 
agent returns to Edmonton or back to 
civilization, he has about all the money 
he had upon beginning the Journey, and 
has paid out more than $200,000. 



schools 



• ^0-t 



e to 



[^reading in thi 



MAY TAX INDIAN LANDS. 

[supreme Court Holds State Has Right 

Without Specific Authority. 

That State authorities may tax the 
land of an Indian held in severalty, even 
In the absence of explicit legislation giving 
such authority, was decided yesterday by 
the United States Supreme Court in the 
case of James Gowdy against the county 
assessor of Pierce County, Wash. 

Gowdy Is a Puyallup Indian, and holds 
land granted to him in severalty. A pro- 
vision in hi!? patent from the government 
exempted the property from "sale, levy, 
or forfeiture" while Washington should 
remain a Territory, and afterward, unless 
the State legislature should provide 
otherwise. After the admission of the 
State a law authorizmg in^general terms 
the "alienation" of Indi&n-hcld lands was 
pai^sed, but the Indians asserted that the 
anti-levy feature of the patents had not 
been removed by the enactment, and the 
Gowdy suit was instituted. The State 
courts held against him, and their find- 
ing was Indorsed by yesterday's decision. 
The opinion was delivered by Justice 
Brewer, who said the fact that Gowdy 
had become a citizen of the United 
States, as he had done by accepting land 
In severalty, had made him amenable to 



the tax laws. 



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i 



Of 



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^y^^o 



t^ < 



a 





At Yuma I abandoned my boat and spent some days with a band of roving Apaches 



At Yuma, a few days later, I abandoned 
my boat, having rowed four hundred miles^ 
went on a hunt for a band of roving 
Apaches and spent a few happy days with 
them in the wilds of Arizona, before re- 
turning to civilization. 




(3V. 




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^ 



CX-'^^C-I^^:^ 






At Yuma I abandoned my boat and spent some days with a band of roving Apaches 



At Yuma^ a few days later^ I abandoned 
my boat, having rowed four hundred mileS;, 
went on a hunt for a band of roving 
Apaches and spent a few happy days with 
them in the wilds of Arizona, before re- 
turning to civilization. 



^^^^^^K^ 



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lOD TEETH. 

Eat No S^'eets, and Consequently 
Have No Need of Dentists. 

From the Kansas City Journal. 

"Nobody ever saw an Indian with bad 
teeth," remarked j. S. Miller, of the One 
Hundred and One Ranch. 

"Do you know why?" he continued. 
"Just this: because they eat no sweets of 
any kind; they restrict themselves to sim- 
ple food, and they live out of doors. When 
we first started out with these Wild West 
shows every fall, I thought, inasmuch as 
the trip was intended as a sort of an out- 
ing, to give my Indians a touch of high 
life by putting them up at hotels. They 
v/ere thorcughly unhappy, and nearly 
starved on the small portions of various 
dishes. They could not touch the sweets, 
nor eat anything^ fried. So now we let 
them do their own cooking, which is very 
simple. They boil great quantities of 
meat, and a big helping of this, with bread 
and coffee, is all that an Indian wants. 
They take no cream or sugar in their cof- 
fee, and, in fact, never use sugar In any 
article of food. 

"There are Indians on the One Hun- 
dred and One Ranch so old that nobody 
can tell their age. They may show every 
mark of extreme age, but every one of 
them has all of his teeth, and they aw 
sound and firm." 



ANMRY^IS, l%r, s/ 




SJio4»»»n«.'<*f < 



1. I ( 



Indian Leader Slain 

Leaving War Council 

^ - - 

Head of the Shoshones Clubbed to Death 
and His Body Then Cut to Pieces— Out- 

come of Family Feud. 



LANDER, Wyo., Jan. 12.-Oeorge 
Terry, head of the Shoshone Indian 
council, was murdered Thursday night 
as he came out of the council lodge on 
the Indian reservation. 

He was first knocked down with a war 
club, and his body was then cut to 
pieces with knives. The murder is sup- 
posed to be the outcome of a family 
feud. No arrests have been made, but 
suspicion points strongly to several 
prominent Indians. 

Terry was a half-breed son of the for- 
mer famous Mormon Bishop Terry, of 
Utah. He had lived on the Shoshone 
reservation for more than twenty-five 
years. 

There are several factions among: the 
Indians, and as Terry's barn and horses 



were recently mysteriously burned, 
arson being suspected, it is believed 
that the crime was committed by some 
of the factions. 

The proposed abandonment of Fort 
Washakie will, it is believed by leading 
citizens, result in serious disturbances 
among the Indians, who have been held 
In restraint by awe of the soldiers. The 
Shoshones and Arapahoes are sworn 
enemies, and there are factions in both 
trib«B ready to fight at any time. 

The Rev. John Robert, for thirty years 

a missionary among the Shoshones, 

fears for the worst when the troops are 
removed and the post abandoned. The 
Shoshones greatly outnumber the Arap- 
ahoes. from whom they differ greatly 
In origin, religrlon, and customs, and 
whom they regard as usurpers. 









^i?^ 



CHIEF GMONIMO IS INSAHEI 

Great Apache '^Tarribr Demented Be- 
cause of His Confinement. 



Refa.«l to Grant Him PermI«to« to 

\l»lt Artisona Causes Htm to 

Become Morose. 



f 



T f^r, Okla May iS.-ChielTfeeronlmo. 1 
theCat Apache -rrior. who is said to | 
lav 'scalped more whi^e P-Pl- t^^an anV 
other living Indian, and who f"' twenty 
years has been a vns^merot ^■^'J\l 

to be guaraeu government service. 

n-et\r3:"ln^n::n\e wande^d awav 
rrom home and was not seen "ntll nearly 
nightfall, being discovered about dark 

wLdering carelessly "^'^^^f^^^^i^f "^ 
watching the highways and murmuring 

' A trriage approached and ^e gallo'.e'l 
toward it with a ferocious grm Jhat 
frlEhtened the occupants. He was taKen 
in ol'arge by two scouts, who came up 
and rrevented him following the party. 
" Geronimo is believed to have ^--" ^«; 
mented because of the refusal of the VV ar 
Department and the Pres.dent ^oj'.ut 

^^'- 'TIL Tce^ror.^rm"n/rasti 

^ns Of v'uagos and slaughtering of 
""sinTe his last appeal to' the President 
,e'ha: been -0-- ^ threTgMh' of "s 



LOST INDi leiOE 
IS 




Has Its Home in the Yellow- 
head Pass in the Ca- 
nadian Rockies. 



DISCOVERED BY HEAD 

OF SURVEYING PARTY. 



Passes Time in the Chase of 
Big Game and Is Also 



Raising Horses. 



^^j> 



r " (Special to The V\''orld.) ^ 

(SPOKANE, Wash., June l.^James 
M. Cornish, head of a sur\^eying party 
workln.g in the wulderness of the Yel- 
lowhead Pass in the Canadian Rockies 
— -which the Grand Trunk Pacific Rail- 
road Company seeks to penetrate with 
jts transcontinen-tlal line— brings to 
Spokane a stcry of the discovery of 
more than 300 families of Indians hid- 
d'sn. miles from ci\^ilization lin tbe 
northern wilds. They appear to be 
prosperous and contented, passing most 
of their time in the chase of big game 
and breeding horses. 

"Their story of settling in Yellovvhead 
Pass is romantic," Mr. Cornish said, 
"reading mtore like a chapter recorded 
by Fenlmiore Cooper than an histor- 
ical fact. The Indians claim to be de 
Bcondants from the once powerful 
Iroquois nation, whioh wrought so much 
havoic in the eighteenth century. Cen- 
eratio'ns ago, they say, they lived in 
Illinois, 'but in the Blackhawk uprising 
they were driven frcm the States and 
for safety vvere farced to liee to the 
iNorthwest. , v 

"They travelled many months througa 
fitrango lands and territories ruled by 
ravage Indian tribes. Tliey sougnt 
Bhelter with the Bloo.l, Blackteet, Cree 
and Beaver Indians, but were treated 
like outcasts, and llnaliv driven further 
•westward. ^ , 

"I'^rom camp to camp they journeyea 
until thev struck the Nez Perce coun- 
try, in Northern Idaho, going thence 
to Siokane and Yakima settlements, 
but they were not allowed to remain. 
From the Yakima Valley they went into 
the Colville dif^tric-t, where half their 
number were kill*^:d in combat w:th the 
ColviUes and Cceur d'Alenes. 

Finally, one of their C'i:iefs« told me, 
they settled in tl^.e Rocky Mountains, at 
the" mouth of YoUowhead Pass, and,^ as 
no one appeared to mole'st them, they 
remained. For a tinio thoy tro led with 
the Hudson Bay people, but for more 
than one hundred years they have not 
been in communication with either fac- 
tors or traders. Whether Vhis is be- 
cause of somoyroal or fancied wrong I 
was not ai'Dle t\ learn, but I did note 
peculiar turn of the Up when the chief 
talked about His forebears. deaUn^b 
with the cT.'-nn-^ny," hnr^ps 

Mr. Cornish ^ay.s many cf the horsey 
found in the pass are hign-bred ;and 
fleet of foot. The mon devote mucn ot 
"heir time to tribal sports, such as 
^amc-i botwocn boys, foot racing and 
T^nii niavinr the last named pastime 
ho ng a cr"";; hetvvoen lacrosse ,^nd base- 
i^a 11 the bat being similar to that used 
•hv cricketers, with a ^^t^" .t^,^,,^'V;, 
The Indians appeared to be {^^^^''\\l l"" 
Mr. Cornish and his party an I enter- 
tained them at a potlatch durm 
stay. ^ 



g their 



CONCERNING LEFT-HANDED ABORIGINES 

A RECENT article in Science requested 
people in charge of Indians to find the pro- 
portion of left-handed aborigines to the right- 
handed ones. Acting upon that request, the 
writer has been investigating the subject 
among the Hoh and Quileute Indians, and, 
out of a population of 231, five left-handed 
people were found: How-withlup (male), Wa- 
lo-thlu (male), Hick-sh (male), Thle-ba-tolch 
(male), Hi-yic-to-utl (female). 

Albert B. Beagan 
La Push, Wash. 




NEW YORK, SATUR DAY, JUNE 1 5, 1907. 



MYTHS OF THE M QDNTAINS 

PRETTY INDIAN LEGENDS TOLD IN 
THE ADIRONDACKS. 



Memory of a Tragedy that Haunts 
the Shores of Ampersand Pond — 
Story of the Cardinal Flower and 
the Origin of the White Pond Lily. 



«<w Born State— l^ne geocgg> 




There is deep feeling for many in the 
quietude which broods over the Adirondack 
wilderness. In the imagination of the early 
woodsman, the forests were peopled with 
fairy folk. It is easily understood how 
a sojourner by twilight or in darkness and 
alone would people the shadowy places with 
shadowy, moving forms. Even in calm wea- 
ther, the wood is always full of slight 
noises. There are sounds like stealthy foot- 
steps and the swish of garments when the 
fitful breezes stir the bits of loosened bark 
which cling to the trunks of birches; and 
farther in, among the trees, there is the fall 
of the nut or pine cone, the rush of a 
squirrel, the rise of a grouse, the flight of 
the deer over dead leaves. As the wind 
rises the forest speaks with many voices. 

Modern Adirondack folklore contains 
many legends of the forest. In the vi- 
cinity of the Upper Saranac Lake, the In- 
dians used to say there once lived an In- 
dian spirit, a Jumbo of his kind. He waft 
much given to leaping, and one-half mile 
was just an every-day sort of 
jump for him. When he first 

learned that the white man had arrived 
on the lake, it so enraged him that he made 
a jump of a mile and a half, from the Corey 
place on the Upper Saranac. to Round